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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 341: 43-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thrombosis is a major driver of adverse outcome and mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hypercoagulability may be related to the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, which is mainly driven by interleukin (IL)-6. Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels increase following IL-6 upregulation and Lp(a) has anti-fibrinolytic properties. This study investigated whether Lp(a) elevation may contribute to the pro-thrombotic state hallmarking COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Lp(a), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in 219 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and analyzed with linear mixed effects model. The baseline biomarkers and increases during admission were related to venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence and clinical outcomes in a Kaplan-Meier and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Lp(a) levels increased significantly by a mean of 16.9 mg/dl in patients with COVID-19 during the first 21 days after admission. Serial Lp(a) measurements were available in 146 patients. In the top tertile of Lp(a) increase, 56.2% of COVID-19 patients experienced a VTE event compared to 18.4% in the lowest tertile (RR 3.06, 95% CI 1.61-5.81; p < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, IL-6 and CRP increase and number of measurements. Increases in IL-6 and CRP were not associated with VTE. Increase in Lp(a) was strongly correlated with increase in IL-6 (r = 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in Lp(a) levels during the acute phase of COVID-19 were strongly associated with VTE incidence. The acute increase in anti-fibrinolytic Lp(a) may tilt the balance to VTE in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Lipoprotein(a) , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(4): 854-858, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625873

ABSTRACT

Recently, we reported the phase II portion of the adaptive phase II/III PANAMO trial exploring potential benefit and safety of selectively blocking C5a with the monoclonal antibody vilobelimab (IFX-1) in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The potent anaphylatoxin C5a attracts neutrophils and monocytes to the infection site, causes tissue damage by oxidative radical formation and enzyme releases, and leads to activation of the coagulation system. Results demonstrated that C5a inhibition with vilobelimab was safe and secondary outcomes appeared in favor of vilobelimab. We now report the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis of the phase II study. Between March 31 and April 24, 2020, 30 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive vilobelimab plus best supportive care or best supportive care only. Samples for measurement of vilobelimab, C3a and C5a blood concentrations were taken. Vilobelimab predose (trough) drug concentrations in plasma ranged from 84,846 to 248,592 ng/ml (571 to 1674 nM) with a geometric mean of 151,702 ng/ml (1022 nM) on day 2 and from 80,060 to 200,746 ng/ml (539 to 1352 nM) with a geometric mean of 139,503 ng/ml (939 nM) on day 8. After the first vilobelimab infusion, C5a concentrations were suppressed in the vilobelimab group (median 39.70 ng/ml 4.8 nM, IQR 33.20-45.55) as compared to the control group (median 158.53 ng/ml 19.1 nM, IQR 60.03-200.89, p = 0.0006). The suppression was maintained on day 8 (p = 0.001). The current PK/PD analysis shows that vilobelimab efficiently inhibits C5a in patients with severe COVID-19.

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 796, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The advised standard treatment for bacterial brain abscess following surgery is 6 to 8 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatment, but an early switch to oral antibiotic treatment has been suggested to be equally effective. METHODS: This investigator-initiated, international, multi-center, parallel group, open-label, randomized (1:1 allocation) controlled trial will examine if oral treatment after 2 weeks of IV antibiotic therapy is non-inferior to standard 6-8 weeks of IV antibiotics for bacterial brain abscess in adults (≥ 18 years of age). The study will be conducted at hospitals across Denmark, the Netherlands, France, Australia, and Sweden. Exclusion criteria are severe immunocompromise or impaired gastro-intestinal absorption, pregnancy, device-related brain abscesses, and brain abscess caused by nocardia, tuberculosis, or Pseudomonas spp. The primary objective is a composite endpoint at 6 months after randomization consisting of all-cause mortality, intraventricular rupture of brain abscess, unplanned re-aspiration or excision of brain abscess, relapse, or recurrence. The primary endpoint will be adjudicated by an independent blinded endpoint committee. Secondary outcomes include extended Glasgow Outcome Scale scores and all-cause mortality at end of treatment as well as 3, 6, and 12 months since randomization, completion of assigned treatment, IV catheter associated complications, durations of admission and antibiotic treatment, severe adverse events, quality of life scores, and cognitive evaluations. The planned sample size is 450 patients for a one-sided alpha of 0.025 and a power of 90% to exclude a difference in favor of standard treatment of more than 10%. Date of initiation of first study center was November 3, 2020, with active recruitment for 3 years and follow-up for 1 year of all patients. DISCUSSION: The results of this study may guide future recommendations for treatment of bacterial brain abscess. If early transition to oral antibiotics proves non-inferior to standard IV treatment, this will provide considerable health and costs benefits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04140903, first registered 28.10.2019. EudraCT number: 2019-002845-39, first registered 03.07.2019.


Subject(s)
Brain Abscess , COVID-19 , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Brain Abscess/diagnosis , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27072, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443147

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), men are more severely affected than women. Multiple studies suggest that androgens might play a role in this difference in disease severity. Our objective was to assess the association between sex hormone levels and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19.We selected patients from the Amsterdam University Medical Centers COVID-19 Biobank, in which patients admitted to hospital in March and April 2020, with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction proven severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection, were prospectively included. Specifically, we included postmenopausal women (>55 years) and age-matched men, with a mortality of 50% in each group. Residual plasma samples were used to measure testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin. We investigated the association of the levels of these hormones with mortality in men and women.We included 16 women and 24 men in March and April 2020 of whom 7 (44%) and 13 (54%), respectively, died. Median age was 69 years (interquartile range [IQR] 64-75). In men, both total and free testosterone was significantly lower in deceased patients (median testosterone 0.8 nmol/L [IQR 0.4-1.9] in deceased patients vs 3.2 nmol/L [IQR 2.1-7.5] in survivors; P < .001, and median free testosterone 33.2 pmol/L [IQR 15.3-52.2] in deceased patients vs 90.3 pmol/L [IQR 49.1-209.7] in survivors; P = .002). SHBG levels were significantly lower in both men and women who died (18.5 nmol/L [IQR 11.3-24.3] in deceased patients vs 34.0 nmol/L [IQR 25.0-48.0] in survivors; P < .001). No difference in estradiol levels was found between deceased and surviving patients.Low SHBG levels were associated with mortality rate in patients with COVID-19, and low total and free testosterone levels were associated with mortality in men. The role of testosterone and SHBG and potential of hormone replacement therapy needs further exploration in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/analysis , Aged , Albumins/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Estradiol/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis , Testosterone/blood
5.
EBioMedicine ; 67: 103378, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality rates are high among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially in those intubated on the ICU. Insight in pathways associated with unfavourable outcome may lead to new treatment strategies. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to general ward or ICU who underwent serial blood sampling. To provide insight in the pathways involved in disease progression, associations were estimated between outcome risk and serial measurements of 64 biomarkers in potential important pathways of COVID-19 infection (inflammation, tissue damage, complement system, coagulation and fibrinolysis) using joint models combining Cox regression and linear mixed-effects models. For patients admitted to the general ward, the primary outcome was admission to the ICU or mortality (unfavourable outcome). For patients admitted to the ICU, the primary outcome was 12-week mortality. FINDINGS: A total of 219 patients were included: 136 (62%) on the ward and 119 patients (54%) on the ICU; 36 patients (26%) were included in both cohorts because they were transferred from general ward to ICU. On the general ward, 54 of 136 patients (40%) had an unfavourable outcome and 31 (23%) patients died. On the ICU, 54 out of 119 patients (45%) died. Unfavourable outcome on the general ward was associated with changes in concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and Pentraxin-3. Death on the ICU was associated with changes in IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sRAGE, VCAM-1, Pentraxin-3, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, IL-1-receptor antagonist, CD14, procalcitonin, tumor necrosis factor alfa, tissue factor, complement component 5a, Growth arrest-specific 6, angiopoietin 2, and lactoferrin. Pathway analysis showed that unfavourable outcome on the ward was mainly driven by chemotaxis and interleukin production, whereas death on ICU was associated with a variety of pathways including chemotaxis, cell-cell adhesion, innate host response mechanisms, including the complement system, viral life cycle regulation, angiogenesis, wound healing and response to corticosteroids. INTERPRETATION: Clinical deterioration in patients with severe COVID-19 involves multiple pathways, including chemotaxis and interleukin production, but also endothelial dysfunction, the complement system, and immunothrombosis. Prognostic markers showed considerable overlap between general ward and ICU patients, but we identified distinct differences between groups that should be considered in the development and timing of interventional therapies in COVID-19. FUNDING: Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam UMC Corona Fund, and Dr. C.J. Vaillant Fonds.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Chemotaxis , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(596)2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225692

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) become critically ill primarily around the time of activation of the adaptive immune response. Here, we provide evidence that antibodies play a role in the worsening of disease at the time of seroconversion. We show that early-phase severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum of critically ill COVID-19 patients induces excessive inflammatory responses by human alveolar macrophages. We identified that this excessive inflammatory response is dependent on two antibody features that are specific for patients with severe COVID-19. First, inflammation is driven by high titers of anti-spike IgG, a hallmark of severe disease. Second, we found that anti-spike IgG from patients with severe COVID-19 is intrinsically more proinflammatory because of different glycosylation, particularly low fucosylation, of the antibody Fc tail. Low fucosylation of anti-spike IgG was normalized in a few weeks after initial infection with SARS-CoV-2, indicating that the increased antibody-dependent inflammation mainly occurs at the time of seroconversion. We identified Fcγ receptor (FcγR) IIa and FcγRIII as the two primary IgG receptors that are responsible for the induction of key COVID-19-associated cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. In addition, we show that anti-spike IgG-activated human macrophages can subsequently break pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity and induce microvascular thrombosis in vitro. Last, we demonstrate that the inflammatory response induced by anti-spike IgG can be specifically counteracted by fostamatinib, an FDA- and EMA-approved therapeutic small-molecule inhibitor of Syk kinase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Glycosylation , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069793

ABSTRACT

Systemic infection is an important risk factor for the development cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in older people. Animal experiments show that systemic challenges with live bacteria cause a neuro-inflammatory response, but the effect of age on this response in these models is unknown. Young (2 months) and middle-aged mice (13-14 months) were intraperitoneally challenged with live Escherichia coli (E. coli) or saline. The mice were sacrificed at 2, 3 and 7 days after inoculation; for all time points, the mice were treated with ceftriaxone (an antimicrobial drug) at 12 and 24 h after inoculation. Microglial response was monitored by immunohistochemical staining with an ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) antibody and flow cytometry, and inflammatory response by mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. We observed an increased microglial cell number and moderate morphologically activated microglial cells in middle-aged mice, as compared to young mice, after intraperitoneal challenge with live E. coli. Flow cytometry of microglial cells showed higher CD45 and CD11b expressions in middle-aged infected mice compared to young infected mice. The brain expression levels of pro-inflammatory genes were higher in middle-aged than in young infected mice, while middle-aged infected mice had similar expression levels of these genes in the systemic compartment. We conclude that systemic challenge with live bacteria causes an age-dependent neuro-inflammatory and microglial response. Our data show signs of an age-dependent disconnection of the inflammatory transcriptional signature between the brain and the systemic compartment.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Aging , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Mice
10.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(12): e764-e773, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 is characterised by inflammation and coagulation in the presence of complement system activation. We aimed to explore the potential benefit and safety of selectively blocking the anaphylatoxin and complement protein C5a with the monoclonal antibody IFX-1 (vilobelimab), in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: We did an exploratory, open-label, randomised phase 2 trial (part of the adaptive phase 2/3 PANAMO trial) of intravenous IFX-1 in adults with severe COVID-19 at three academic hospitals in the Netherlands. Eligibility criteria were age 18 years or older; severe pneumonia with pulmonary infiltrates consistent with pneumonia, a clinical history of severe shortness of breath within the past 14 days, or a need for non-invasive or invasive ventilation; severe disease defined as a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air (PaO2/FiO2) between 100 mm Hg and 250 mm Hg in the supine position; and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive IFX-1 (up to seven doses of 800 mg intravenously) plus best supportive care (IFX-1 group) or best supportive care only (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage change in PaO2/FiO2 in the supine position between baseline and day 5. Mortality at 28 days and treatment-emergent and serious adverse events were key secondary outcomes. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and safety analyses were done in all patients according to treatment received. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04333420). FINDINGS: Between March 31 and April 24, 2020, 30 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the IFX-1 group (n=15) or the control group (n=15). During the study it became clear that several patients could not be assessed regularly in the supine position because of severe hypoxaemia. It was therefore decided to focus on all PaO2/FiO2 assessments (irrespective of position). At day 5 after randomisation, the mean PaO2/FiO2 (irrespective of position) was 158 mm Hg (SD 63; range 84-265) in the IFX-1 group and 189 mm Hg (89; 71-329) in the control group. Analyses of the least squares mean relative change in PaO2/FiO2 at day 5 showed no differences between treatment groups (17% change in the IFX-1 group vs 41% in the control group; difference -24% [95% CI -58 to 9], p=0·15. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality by 28 days were 13% (95% CI 0-31) for the IFX-1 group and 27% (4-49) for the control group (adjusted hazard ratio for death 0·65 [95% CI 0·10-4·14]). The frequency of serious adverse events were similar between groups (nine [60%] in the IFX-1 group vs seven [47%] in the control group) and no deaths were considered related to treatment assignment. However, a smaller proportion of patients had pulmonary embolisms classed as serious in the IFX-1 group (two [13%]) than in the control group (six [40%]). Infections classed as serious were reported in three (20%) patients in the IFX-1 group versus five (33%) patients in the control group. INTERPRETATION: In this small exploratory phase 2 part of the PANAMO trial, C5a inhibition with IFX-1 appears to be safe in patients with severe COVID-19. The secondary outcome results in favour of IFX-1 are preliminary because the study was not powered on these endpoints, but they support the investigation of C5a inhibition with IFX-1 in a phase 3 trial using 28-day mortality as the primary endpoint. FUNDING: InflaRx.

11.
12.
Science ; 370(6515)2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889832

ABSTRACT

Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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