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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective long-term protection against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in these patients, but little is known about the decay of the immune response after primary vaccination. We studied the immune responses 6 months after two mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines in 473 IEI patients and subsequently the response to a third mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in 50 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, 473 IEI patients (including X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) (N = 18), combined immunodeficiency (CID) (N = 22), CVID (N = 203), isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies (N = 204), and phagocyte defects (N = 16)), and 179 controls were included and followed up to 6 months after two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, samples were collected from 50 CVID patients who received a third vaccine 6 months after primary vaccination through the national vaccination program. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG titers, neutralizing antibodies, and T cell responses were assessed. RESULTS: At 6 months after vaccination, the geometric mean antibody titers (GMT) declined in both IEI patients and healthy controls, when compared to GMT 28 days after vaccination. The trajectory of this decline did not differ between controls and most IEI cohorts; however, antibody titers in CID, CVID, and isolated antibody deficiency patients more often dropped to below the responder cut-off compared to controls. Specific T cell responses were still detectable in 77% of controls and 68% of IEI patients at 6 months post vaccination. A third mRNA vaccine resulted in an antibody response in only two out of 30 CVID patients that did not seroconvert after two mRNA vaccines. CONCLUSION: A similar decline in IgG titers and T cell responses was observed in patients with IEI when compared to healthy controls 6 months after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination. The limited beneficial benefit of a third mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in previous non-responder CVID patients implicates that other protective strategies are needed for these vulnerable patients.

2.
JAMA ; 329(14): 1183-1196, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298507

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non-critically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n = 257), ARB (n = 248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n = 10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n = 264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was organ support-free days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS: On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support-free days among critically ill patients was 10 (-1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n = 231), 8 (-1 to 17) in the ARB group (n = 217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n = 231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support-free days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Hospitalization , COVID-19 Drug Treatment/methods , Critical Illness , Receptors, Chemokine/antagonists & inhibitors
3.
Clin Obes ; : e12568, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256595

ABSTRACT

Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for adverse outcome in COVID-19, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by secreting multiple pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, known as adipocytokines, which could be involved in COVID-19 severity. We explored the role of adipocytokines in COVID-19 and its association with BMI, clinical outcome, and inflammation. This is an observational study in 195 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Serial plasma concentrations of the adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and various inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Adipocytokines were compared between patients with normal weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 ), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ), between patients admitted to the ICU and to non-ICU clinical wards, and between survivors and non-survivors. Patients with overweight and obesity displayed higher leptin concentrations and lower adiponectin concentrations throughout hospital admission (p < .001), whereas resistin concentrations were not different from patients with normal weight (p = .12). Resistin concentrations correlated with inflammatory markers and were persistently higher in ICU patients and non-survivors compared to non-ICU patients and survivors, respectively (both p < .001), whereas no such relationships were found for the other adipocytokines. In conclusion, leptin and adiponectin are associated with BMI, but not with clinical outcomes and inflammation in COVID-19 patients. In contrast, resistin is not associated with BMI, but high concentrations are associated with worse clinical outcomes and more pronounced inflammation. Therefore, it is unlikely that BMI-related adipocytokines or differences in the inflammatory response underlie obesity as a risk factor for severe COVID-19.

4.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(11): e712, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A major contributor to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progression and severity is a dysregulated innate and adaptive immune response. Interleukin-38 (IL-38) is an IL-1 family member with broad anti-inflammatory properties, but thus far little is known about its role in viral infections. Recent studies have shown inconsistent results, as one study finding an increase in circulating IL-38 in COVID-19 patients in comparison to healthy controls, whereas two other studies report no differences in IL-38 concentrations. METHODS: Here, we present an exploratory, retrospective cohort study of circulating IL-38 concentrations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients admitted to two Dutch hospitals (discovery n = 148 and validation n = 184) and age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Plasma IL-38 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, disease-related proteins by proximity extension assay, and clinical data were retrieved from hospital records. RESULTS: IL-38 concentrations were stable during hospitalization and similar to those of healthy control subjects. IL-38 was not associated with rates of intensive care unit admission or mortality. Only in men in the discovery cohort, IL-38 concentrations were positively correlated with hospitalization duration. A positive correlation between IL-38 and the inflammatory biomarker d-dimer was observed in men of the validation cohort. In women of the validation cohort, IL-38 concentrations correlated negatively with thrombocyte numbers. Furthermore, plasma IL-38 concentrations in the validation cohort correlated positively with TNF, TNFRSF9, IL-10Ra, neurotrophil 3, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, CHL1, CD244, superoxide dismutase 2, and fatty acid binding protein 2, and negatively with SERPINA12 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that IL-38 is not associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, moderate correlations between IL-38 concentrations and biomarkers of disease were identified in one of two cohorts. While we demonstrate that IL-38 concentrations are not indicative of COVID-19 severity, its anti-inflammatory effects may reduce COVID-19 severity and should be experimentally investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serpins , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Biomarkers , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Interleukins
5.
J Crit Care ; 76: 154272, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245979

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in ICU patients. We investigated the incidence of, risk factors for and potential benefit of a pre-emptive screening strategy for CAPA in ICUs in the Netherlands/Belgium during immunosuppressive COVID-19 treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, observational, multicentre study was performed from September 2020-April 2021 including patients admitted to the ICU who had undergone diagnostics for CAPA. Patients were classified based on 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. RESULTS: CAPA was diagnosed in 295/1977 (14.9%) patients. Corticosteroids were administered to 97.1% of patients and interleukin-6 inhibitors (anti-IL-6) to 23.5%. EORTC/MSGERC host factors or treatment with anti-IL-6 with or without corticosteroids were not risk factors for CAPA. Ninety-day mortality was 65.3% (145/222) in patients with CAPA compared to 53.7% (176/328) without CAPA (p = 0.008). Median time from ICU admission to CAPA diagnosis was 12 days. Pre-emptive screening for CAPA was not associated with earlier diagnosis or reduced mortality compared to a reactive diagnostic strategy. CONCLUSIONS: CAPA is an indicator of a protracted course of a COVID-19 infection. No benefit of pre-emptive screening was observed, but prospective studies comparing pre-defined strategies would be required to confirm this observation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Incidence , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(12): 1147-1159, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) and COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) affect about 15% of critically ill patients with influenza or COVID-19, respectively. These viral-fungal coinfections are difficult to diagnose and are associated with increased mortality, but data on their pathophysiology are scarce. We aimed to explore the role of lung epithelial and myeloid innate immunity in patients with IAPA or CAPA. METHODS: In this observational study, we retrospectively recruited patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium, requiring non-invasive or invasive ventilation because of severe influenza or COVID-19, with or without aspergillosis, between Jan 1, 2011, and March 31, 2021, whose bronchoalveolar lavage samples were available at the hospital biobank. Additionally, biobanked in vivo tracheobronchial biopsy samples from patients with IAPA or CAPA and invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis admitted to ICUs requiring invasive ventilation between the same dates were collected from University Hospitals Leuven, Hospital Network Antwerp (Belgium), and Amiens-Picardie University Hospital (France). We did nCounter gene expression analysis of 755 genes linked to myeloid innate immunity and protein analysis of 47 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors on the bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Gene expression data were used to infer cell fractions by use of CIBERSORTx, to perform hypergeometric enrichment pathway analysis and gene set enrichment analysis, and to calculate pathway module scores for the IL-1ß, TNF-α, type I IFN, and type II IFN (IFNγ) pathways. We did RNAScope targeting influenza virus or SARS-CoV-2 RNA and GeoMx spatial transcriptomics on the tracheobronchial biopsy samples. FINDINGS: Biobanked bronchoalveolar lavage samples were retrieved from 166 eligible patients, of whom 40 had IAPA, 52 had influenza without aspergillosis, 33 had CAPA, and 41 had COVID-19 without aspergillosis. We did nCounter gene expression analysis on bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 134 patients, protein analysis on samples from 162 patients, and both types of analysis on samples from 130 patients. We performed RNAScope and spatial transcriptomics on the tracheobronchial biopsy samples from two patients with IAPA plus invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and two patients with CAPA plus invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis. We observed a downregulation of genes associated with antifungal effector functions in patients with IAPA and, to a lesser extent, in patients with CAPA. We found a downregulated expression of several genes encoding proteins with functions in the opsonisation, recognition, and killing of conidia in patients with IAPA versus influenza only and in patients with CAPA versus COVID-19 only. Several genes related to LC3-associated phagocytosis, autophagy, or both were differentially expressed. Patients with CAPA had significantly lower neutrophil cell fractions than did patients with COVID-19 only. Patients with IAPA or CAPA had downregulated IFNγ signalling compared with patients with influenza only or COVID-19 only, respectively. The concentrations of several fibrosis-related growth factors were significantly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with IAPA versus influenza only and from patients with CAPA versus COVID-19 only. In one patient with CAPA, we visualised an active or very recent SARS-CoV-2 infection disrupting the epithelial barrier, facilitating tissue-invasive aspergillosis. INTERPRETATION: Our results reveal a three-level breach in antifungal immunity in IAPA and CAPA, affecting the integrity of the epithelial barrier, the capacity to phagocytise and kill Aspergillus spores, and the ability to destroy Aspergillus hyphae, which is mainly mediated by neutrophils. The potential of adjuvant IFNγ in the treatment of IAPA and CAPA should be investigated. FUNDING: Research Foundation Flanders, Coronafonds, the Max Planck Society, the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, the European Regional Development Fund, "la Caixa" Foundation, and Horizon 2020.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Lung/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1027122, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142033

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the highly infectious Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is an urgent need for biomarkers that will help in better stratification of patients and contribute to personalized treatments. We performed targeted proteomics using the Olink platform and systematically investigated protein concentrations in 350 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 186 post-COVID-19 individuals, and 61 healthy individuals from 3 independent cohorts. Results revealed a signature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is represented by inflammatory biomarkers, chemokines and complement-related factors. Furthermore, the circulating proteome is still significantly affected in post-COVID-19 samples several weeks after infection. Post-COVID-19 individuals are characterized by upregulation of mediators of the tumor necrosis (TNF)-α signaling pathways and proteins related to transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß. In addition, the circulating proteome is able to differentiate between patients with different COVID-19 disease severities, and is associated with the time after infection. These results provide important insights into changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection at the proteomic level by integrating several cohorts to obtain a large disease spectrum, including variation in disease severity and time after infection. These findings could guide the development of host-directed therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Humans , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e938-e946, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older age is associated with increased severity and death from respiratory infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The tuberculosis BCG vaccine may provide heterologous protection against nontuberculous infections and has been proposed as a potential preventive strategy against COVID-19. METHODS: In this multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned older adults (aged ≥60 years; n = 2014) to intracutaneous vaccination with BCG vaccine (n = 1008) or placebo (n = 1006). The primary end point was the cumulative incidence of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) that required medical intervention, during 12 months of follow-up. Secondary end points included the incidence of COVID-19, and the effect of BCG vaccination on the cellular and humoral immune responses. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of RTIs requiring medical intervention was 0.029 in the BCG-vaccinated group and 0.024 in the control group (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.26 [98.2% confidence interval, .65-2.44]). In the BCG vaccine and placebo groups, 51 and 48 individuals, respectively tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with polymerase chain reaction (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.053 [95% confidence interval, .71-1.56]). No difference was observed in the frequency of adverse events. BCG vaccination was associated with enhanced cytokine responses after influenza, and also partially associated after SARS-CoV-2 stimulation. In patients diagnosed with COVID-19, antibody responses after infection were significantly stronger if the volunteers had previously received BCG vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccination had no effect on the incidence of RTIs, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, in older adult volunteers. However, it improved cytokine responses stimulated by influenza and SARS-CoV-2 and induced stronger antibody titers after COVID-19 infection. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: EU Clinical Trials Register 2020-001591-15 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04417335.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Aged , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 22(10): 639-649, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984398

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) is a life-threatening complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms driving this condition are unclear. Evidence supports the concept that CAC involves complex interactions between the innate immune response, the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, and the vascular endothelium, resulting in a procoagulant condition. Understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition at the genomic, molecular and cellular levels is needed in order to mitigate thrombosis formation in at-risk patients. In this Perspective, we categorize our current understanding of CAC into three main pathological mechanisms: first, vascular endothelial cell dysfunction; second, a hyper-inflammatory immune response; and last, hypercoagulability. Furthermore, we pose key questions and identify research gaps that need to be addressed to better understand CAC, facilitate improved diagnostics and aid in therapeutic development. Finally, we consider the suitability of different animal models to study CAC.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8991, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947470

ABSTRACT

Knowledge about contagiousness is key to accurate management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Epidemiological studies suggest that in addition to transmission through droplets, aerogenic SARS-CoV-2 transmission contributes to the spread of infection. However, the presence of virus in exhaled air has not yet been sufficiently demonstrated. In pandemic situations low tech disposable and user-friendly bedside devices are required, while commercially available samplers are unsuitable for application in patients with respiratory distress. We included 49 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and used a disposable modular breath sampler to measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in exhaled air samples and compared these to SARS-CoV-2 RNA load of combined nasopharyngeal throat swabs and saliva. Exhaled air sampling using the modular breath sampler has proven feasible in a clinical COVID-19 setting and demonstrated viral detection in 25% of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nasopharynx , Pharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 859387, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924095

ABSTRACT

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of COVID-19 patients of European ancestry have identified genetic loci significantly associated with disease severity. Here, we employed the detailed clinical, immunological and multi-omics dataset of the Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP) to explore the physiological significance of the host genetic variants that influence susceptibility to severe COVID-19. A genomics investigation intersected with functional characterization of individuals with high genetic risk for severe COVID-19 susceptibility identified several major patterns: i. a large impact of genetically determined innate immune responses in COVID-19, with ii. increased susceptibility for severe disease in individuals with defective cytokine production; iii. genetic susceptibility related to ABO blood groups is probably mediated through the von Willebrand factor (VWF) and endothelial dysfunction. We further validated these identified associations at transcript and protein levels by using independent disease cohorts. These insights allow a physiological understanding of genetic susceptibility to severe COVID-19, and indicate pathways that could be targeted for prevention and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome-Wide Association Study , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Immunity , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838132, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809394

ABSTRACT

The majority of COVID-19 patients experience mild to moderate disease course and recover within a few weeks. An increasing number of studies characterized the long-term changes in the specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, but how COVID-19 shapes the innate and heterologous adaptive immune system after recovery is less well known. To comprehensively investigate the post-SARS-CoV-2 infection sequelae on the immune system, we performed a multi-omics study by integrating single-cell RNA-sequencing, single-cell ATAC-sequencing, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, and functional validation experiments in 14 convalescent COVID-19 and 15 healthy individuals. We showed that immune responses generally recover without major sequelae after COVID-19. However, subtle differences persist at the transcriptomic level in monocytes, with downregulation of the interferon pathway, while DNA methylation also displays minor changes in convalescent COVID-19 individuals. However, these differences did not affect the cytokine production capacity of PBMCs upon different bacterial, viral, and fungal stimuli, although baseline release of IL-1Ra and IFN-γ was higher in convalescent individuals. In conclusion, we propose that despite minor differences in epigenetic and transcriptional programs, the immune system of convalescent COVID-19 patients largely recovers to the homeostatic level of healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Convalescence , Disease Progression , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Stroke J ; 7(2): 180-187, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785138

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is often complicated by thrombo-embolic events including ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanisms of COVID-19-associated ischemic stroke, the incidence and risk factors of silent cerebral ischemia, and the long-term functional outcome in these patients are currently unknown. Patients and methods: CORONavirus and Ischemic Stroke (CORONIS) is a multicentre prospective cohort study investigating the prevalence, risk factors and long-term incidence of (silent) cerebral ischemia, and the long-term functional outcome among patients with COVID-19. We aim to include 200 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 without symptomatic ischemic stroke to investigate the prevalence of silent cerebral ischemia compared with 60 (matched) controls with MRI. In addition, we will identify potential risk factors and/or causes of cerebral ischemia in COVID-19 patients with (n = 70) or without symptomatic stroke (n = 200) by means of blood sampling, cardiac workup and brain MRI. We will measure functional outcome and cognitive function after 3 and 12 months with standardized questionnaires in all patients with COVID-19. Finally, the long-term incidence of (new) silent cerebral ischemia in patients with COVID-19 will be assessed with follow up MRI (n = 120). Summary: The CORONIS study is designed to add further insight into the prevalence, long-term incidence and risk factors of cerebral ischemia, and the long-term functional outcome in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 127-128, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751528
17.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 39-50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641982

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation is an important component of the pathophysiology of COVID-19. A large body of literature has reported the effect of immune-based therapies in patients with COVID-19, with some remarkable successes such as the use of steroids or anti-cytokine therapies. However, challenges in clinical decision-making arise from the complexity of the disease phenotypes and patient heterogeneity, as well as the variable quality of evidence from immunotherapy studies. This Review aims to support clinical decision-making by providing an overview of the evidence generated by major clinical trials of host-directed therapy. We discuss patient stratification and propose an algorithm to guide the use of immunotherapy strategies in the clinic. This will not only help guide treatment decisions, but may also help to design future trials that investigate immunotherapy in other severe infections.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Serotherapy
18.
Trends Immunol ; 43(2): 106-116, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560364

ABSTRACT

Not all individuals exposed to a pathogen develop illness: some are naturally resistant whereas others develop an asymptomatic infection. Epidemiological studies suggest that there is similar variability in susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. We propose that natural resistance is part of the disease history in some individuals exposed to this new coronavirus. Epidemiological arguments for natural resistance to SARS-CoV-2 are the lower seropositivity of children compared to adults, studies on closed environments of ships with outbreaks, and prevalence studies in some developing countries. Potential mechanisms of natural resistance include host genetic variants, viral interference, cross-protective natural antibodies, T cell immunity, and highly effective innate immune responses. Better understanding of natural resistance can help to advance preventive and therapeutic measures against infections for improved preparedness against potential future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551452

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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