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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study compared admission incidence risk across waves, and the risk of mortality in the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 wave, to the Omicron BA.1/BA.2 and Delta waves. METHODS: Data from South Africa's national hospital surveillance system, SARS-CoV-2 case linelist and Electronic Vaccine Data System were linked and analysed. Wave periods were defined when the country passed a weekly incidence of 30 cases/100,000 people. In-hospital case fatality ratios (CFR) in the Delta, Omicron BA.1/BA.2 and Omicron BA.4/BA.5 wave periods were compared by post-imputation random effect multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: The CFR was 25.9% (N = 37,538/144,778), 10.9% (N = 6,123/56,384) and 8.2% (N = 1,212/14,879) in the Delta, Omicron BA.1/BA.2, and Omicron BA.4/BA.5 waves respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidities, health sector and province, compared to the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 wave, patients had higher risk of mortality in the Omicron BA.1/BA.2 wave (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.4) and Delta (aOR 3.0; 95% CI 2.8-3.2) wave. Being partially vaccinated (aOR 0.9, CI 0.9-0.9), fully vaccinated (aOR 0.6, CI 0.6-0.7) and boosted (aOR 0.4, CI 0.4-0.5); and prior laboratory-confirmed infection (aOR 0.4, CI 0.3-0.4) were associated with reduced risks of mortality. CONCLUSION: Overall, admission incidence risk and in-hospital mortality, which had increased progressively in South Africa's first three waves, decreased in the fourth Omicron BA.1/BA.2 wave and declined even further in the fifth Omicron BA.4/BA.5 wave. Mortality risk was lower in those with natural infection and vaccination, declining further as the number of vaccine doses increased.

2.
Stem Cell Reports ; 18(3): 636-653, 2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263746

ABSTRACT

Ancestral SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and variants of concern (VOC) caused a global pandemic with a spectrum of disease severity. The mechanistic explaining variations related to airway epithelium are relatively understudied. Here, we biobanked airway organoids (AO) by preserving stem cell function. We optimized viral infection with H1N1/PR8 and comprehensively characterized epithelial responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in phenotypically stable AO from 20 different subjects. We discovered Tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) as a facilitator of SARS-CoV-2 infection. TSPAN8 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 infection rates independently of ACE2-Spike interaction. In head-to-head comparisons with Ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron VOC displayed lower overall infection rates of AO but triggered changes in epithelial response. All variants shared highest tropism for ciliated and goblet cells. TSPAN8-blocking antibodies diminish SARS-CoV-2 infection and may spur novel avenues for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Organoids , Tetraspanins/genetics
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, 19% of the adult population are living with HIV (LWH). Few data on the influence of HIV on SARS-CoV-2 household transmission are available. METHODS: We performed a case-ascertained, prospective household transmission study of symptomatic index SARS-CoV-2 cases LWH and HIV-uninfected adults and their contacts in South Africa, October 2020 to September 2021. Households were followed up thrice weekly for 6 weeks to collect nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 testing. We estimated household cumulative infection risk (HCIR) and duration of SARS-CoV-2 positivity (at cycle threshold value <30 as proxy for high viral load). RESULTS: We recruited 131 index cases and 457 household contacts. HCIR was 59% (220/373); not differing by index HIV status (60% [51/85] in cases LWH vs 58% [163/279] in HIV-uninfected cases, OR 1.0, 95%CI 0.4-2.3). HCIR increased with index case age (35-59 years: aOR 3.4 95%CI 1.5-7.8 and ≥60 years: aOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.0-10.1) compared to 18-34 years, and contacts' age, 13-17 years (aOR 7.1, 95%CI 1.5-33.9) and 18-34 years (aOR 4.4, 95%CI 1.0-18.4) compared to <5 years. Mean positivity duration at high viral load was 7 days (range 2-17), with longer positivity in cases LWH (aHR 0.4, 95%CI 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Index HIV status was not associated with higher HCIR, but cases LWH had longer positivity duration at high viral load. Adults aged >35 years were more likely to transmit, individuals aged 13-34 to acquire SARS-CoV-2 in the household. As HIV infection may increase transmission, health services must maintain HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy initiation.

4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(12): ofac578, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190075

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospitalization and mortality in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence settings are limited. Methods: Using existing syndromic surveillance programs for influenza-like-illness and severe respiratory illness at sentinel sites in South Africa, we identified factors associated with COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality. Results: From April 2020 through March 2022, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was detected in 24.0% (660 of 2746) of outpatient and 32.5% (2282 of 7025) of inpatient cases. Factors associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalization included the following: older age (25-44 [adjusted odds ratio {aOR}= 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.9], 45-64 [aOR = 6.8, 95% CI = 4.2-11.0] and ≥65 years [aOR = 26.6, 95% CI = 14.4-49.1] vs 15-24 years); black race (aOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.2-5.0); obesity (aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9); asthma (aOR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.4-8.9); diabetes mellitus (aOR, 5.3; 95% CI, 3.1-9.3); HIV with CD4 ≥200/mm3 (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2) and CD4 <200/mm3 (aOR, 10.5; 95% CI, 5.1-21.6) or tuberculosis (aOR, 12.8; 95% CI, 2.8-58.5). Infection with Beta (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, .3-.7) vs Delta variant and being fully vaccinated (aOR, 0.1; 95% CI, .1-.3) were less associated with COVID-19 hospitalization. In-hospital mortality was increased in older age (45-64 years [aOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.2] and ≥65 years [aOR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.8-5.8] vs 25-44 years) and male sex (aOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6) and was lower in Omicron-infected (aOR, 0.3; 95% CI, .2-.6) vs Delta-infected individuals. Conclusions: Active syndromic surveillance encompassing clinical, laboratory, and genomic data identified setting-specific risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity that will inform prioritization of COVID-19 vaccine distribution. Elderly people with tuberculosis or people with HIV, especially severely immunosuppressed, should be prioritized for vaccination.

5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(3): 128-134, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: South Africa experienced four waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection, dominated by Wuhan-Hu, Beta, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1/BA.2). We describe the trends in SARS-CoV-2 testing, cases, admissions, and deaths among children and adolescents in South Africa over successive waves. METHODS: We analyzed national SARS-CoV-2 testing, case, and admissions data from March 2020 to February 2022 and estimated cumulative rates by age group for each endpoint. The severity in the third versus the fourth wave was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Individuals ≤18 years comprised 35% (21,008,060/60,142,978) of the population but only 12% (424,394/3,593,644) of cases and 6% (26,176/451,753) of admissions. Among individuals ≤18 years, infants had the highest admission (505/100,000) rates. Testing, case, and admission rates generally increased successively in the second (Beta) and third (Delta) waves among all age groups. In the fourth (Omicron BA.1/BA.2) wave, the case rate dropped among individuals ≥1 year but increased among those <1 year. Weekly admission rates for children <1 year (169/100,000) exceeded rates in adults (124/100,000) in the fourth wave. The odds of severe COVID-19 in all admitted cases were lower in the fourth wave versus the third wave in each age group, but they were twice as high in admitted cases with at least one comorbidity than those without. CONCLUSIONS: The admission rate for children <5 years was higher in the fourth wave than in previous waves, but the overall outcomes were less severe. However, children with at least one comorbidity had increased odds of severe disease, warranting consideration of prioritizing this group for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Infant , Humans , Adolescent , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , South Africa/epidemiology , Hospitalization
6.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 246, 2023 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185834

ABSTRACT

South Africa was among the first countries to detect the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. However, the size of its Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 subvariants (BA.1/2) wave remains poorly understood. We analyzed sequential serum samples collected through a prospective cohort study before, during, and after the Omicron BA.1/2 wave to infer infection rates and monitor changes in the immune histories of participants over time. We found that the Omicron BA.1/2 wave infected more than half of the cohort population, with reinfections and vaccine breakthroughs accounting for > 60% of all infections in both rural and urban sites. After the Omicron BA.1/2 wave, we found few (< 6%) remained naïve to SARS-CoV-2 and the population immunologic landscape is fragmented with diverse infection/immunization histories. Prior infection with the ancestral strain, Beta, and Delta variants provided 13%, 34%, and 51% protection against Omicron BA.1/2 infection, respectively. Hybrid immunity and repeated prior infections reduced the risks of Omicron BA.1/2 infection by 60% and 85% respectively. Our study sheds light on a rapidly shifting landscape of population immunity in the Omicron era and provides context for anticipating the long-term circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in populations no longer naïve to the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 125: 241-249, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095476

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: After South Africa's second wave of COVID-19, this study estimated the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, 500 pregnant women who were non-COVID-19-vaccinated (aged ≥12 years) were enrolled, and demographic and clinical data were collected. Serum samples were tested using the Wantai SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Roche Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody assays. Seropositivity was defined as SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on either (primary) or both (secondary) assays. Univariate Poisson regression assessed risk factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: The median age was 27.4 years, and HIV prevalence was 26.7%. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 64.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.6-68.2%) on the primary and 54% (95% CI: 49.5-58.4%) on the secondary measure. Most (96.6%) women who were SARS-CoV-2-seropositive reported no symptoms. On the Roche assay, we detected lower seroprevalence among women living with HIV than women without HIV (48.9% vs 61.7%, P-value = 0.018), and especially low levels among women living with HIV with a clusters of differentiation 4 <350 cells/ml compared with women without immune suppression (22.2% vs 56.4%, prevalence rate ratio = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9; P-value = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Pregnant women attending routine antenatal care had a high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence after the second wave in South Africa, and most had asymptomatic infections. Seroprevalence surveys in pregnant women present a feasible method of monitoring the course of the pandemic over time.

8.
Glob Health Epidemiol Genom ; 2022: 7405349, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079092

ABSTRACT

Host genetic factors are known to modify the susceptibility, severity, and outcomes of COVID-19 and vary across populations. However, continental Africans are yet to be adequately represented in such studies despite the importance of genetic factors in understanding Africa's response to the pandemic. We describe the development of a research resource for coronavirus host genomics studies in South Africa known as COVIGen-SA-a multicollaborator strategic partnership designed to provide harmonised demographic, clinical, and genetic information specific to Black South Africans with COVID-19. Over 2,000 participants have been recruited to date. Preliminary results on 1,354 SARS-CoV-2 positive participants from four participating studies showed that 64.7% were female, 333 had severe disease, and 329 were people living with HIV. Through this resource, we aim to provide insights into host genetic factors relevant to African-ancestry populations, using both genome-wide association testing and targeted sequencing of important genomic loci. This project will promote and enhance partnerships, build skills, and develop resources needed to address the COVID-19 burden and associated risk factors in South African communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genomics
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5860, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050384

ABSTRACT

Omicron lineages BA.4 and BA.5 drove a fifth wave of COVID-19 cases in South Africa. Here, we use the presence/absence of the S-gene target as a proxy for SARS-CoV-2 variant/lineage for infections diagnosed using the TaqPath PCR assay between 1 October 2021 and 26 April 2022. We link national COVID-19 individual-level data including case, laboratory test and hospitalisation data. We assess severity using multivariable logistic regression comparing the risk of hospitalisation and risk of severe disease, once hospitalised, for Delta, BA.1, BA.2 and BA.4/BA.5 infections. After controlling for factors associated with hospitalisation and severe outcome respectively, BA.4/BA.5-infected individuals had a similar odds of hospitalisation (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 0.98-1.55) and severe outcome (aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.41-1.26) compared to BA.1-infected individuals. Newly emerged Omicron lineages BA.4/BA.5 showed similar severity to the BA.1 lineage and continued to show reduced clinical severity compared to the Delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South Africa/epidemiology
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e57-e68, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence studies are important for quantifying the burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in resource-constrained countries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional household survey spanning the second pandemic wave (November 2020 to April 2021) in 3 communities. Blood was collected for SARS-CoV-2 antibody (2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays targeting spike and nucleocapsid) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. An individual was considered seropositive if testing positive on ≥1 assay. Factors associated with infection, and the age-standardized infection case detection rate, infection hospitalization rate, and infection fatality rate were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 7959 participants were enrolled, with a median age of 34 years and an HIV prevalence of 22.7%. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 45.2% (95% confidence interval 43.7%-46.7%) and increased from 26.9% among individuals enrolled in December 2020 to 47.1% among those enrolled in April 2021. On multivariable analysis, seropositivity was associated with age, sex, race, being overweight/obese, having respiratory symptoms, and low socioeconomic status. Persons living with HIV with high viral load were less likely to be seropositive than HIV-uninfected individuals. The site-specific infection case detection rate, infection hospitalization rate, and infection fatality rate ranged across sites from 4.4% to 8.2%, 1.2% to 2.5%, and 0.3% to 0.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: South Africa has experienced a large burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with <10% of infections diagnosed. Lower seroprevalence among persons living with HIV who are not virally suppressed, likely as a result of inadequate antibody production, highlights the need to prioritize this group for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4686, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984389

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) BA.4 and BA.5 sub-lineages, first detected in South Africa, have changes relative to Omicron BA.1 including substitutions in the spike receptor binding domain. Here we isolated live BA.4 and BA.5 viruses and measured BA.4/BA.5 neutralization elicited by BA.1 infection either in the absence or presence of previous vaccination as well as from vaccination without BA.1 infection. In BA.1-infected unvaccinated individuals, neutralization relative to BA.1 declines 7.6-fold for BA.4 and 7.5-fold for BA.5. In vaccinated individuals with subsequent BA.1 infection, neutralization relative to BA.1 decreases 3.2-fold for BA.4 and 2.6-fold for BA.5. The fold-drop versus ancestral virus neutralization in this group is 4.0-fold for BA.1, 12.9-fold for BA.4, and 10.3-fold for BA.5. In contrast, BA.4/BA.5 escape is similar to BA.1 in the absence of BA.1 elicited immunity: fold-drop relative to ancestral virus neutralization is 19.8-fold for BA.1, 19.6-fold for BA.4, and 20.9-fold for BA.5. These results show considerable escape of BA.4/BA.5 from BA.1 elicited immunity which is moderated with vaccination and may indicate that BA.4/BA.5 may have the strongest selective advantage in evading neutralization relative to BA.1 in unvaccinated, BA.1 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(659): eabo7081, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874494

ABSTRACT

Understanding the build-up of immunity with successive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the epidemiological conditions that favor rapidly expanding epidemics will help facilitate future pandemic control. We analyzed high-resolution infection and serology data from two longitudinal household cohorts in South Africa to reveal high cumulative infection rates and durable cross-protective immunity conferred by prior infection in the pre-Omicron era. Building on the history of past exposures to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccination in the cohort most representative of South Africa's high urbanization rate, we used mathematical models to explore the fitness advantage of the Omicron variant and its epidemic trajectory. Modeling suggests that the Omicron wave likely infected a large fraction (44 to 81%) of the population, leaving a complex landscape of population immunity primed and boosted with antigenically distinct variants. We project that future SARS-CoV-2 resurgences are likely under a range of scenarios of viral characteristics, population contacts, and residual cross-protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , South Africa/epidemiology
16.
Lancet ; 399(10340): 2047-2064, 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection in young children. We previously estimated that in 2015, 33·1 million episodes of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection occurred in children aged 0-60 months, resulting in a total of 118 200 deaths worldwide. Since then, several community surveillance studies have been done to obtain a more precise estimation of RSV associated community deaths. We aimed to update RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection morbidity and mortality at global, regional, and national levels in children aged 0-60 months for 2019, with focus on overall mortality and narrower infant age groups that are targeted by RSV prophylactics in development. METHODS: In this systematic analysis, we expanded our global RSV disease burden dataset by obtaining new data from an updated search for papers published between Jan 1, 2017, and Dec 31, 2020, from MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, OpenGrey, CNKI, Wanfang, and ChongqingVIP. We also included unpublished data from RSV GEN collaborators. Eligible studies reported data for children aged 0-60 months with RSV as primary infection with acute lower respiratory infection in community settings, or acute lower respiratory infection necessitating hospital admission; reported data for at least 12 consecutive months, except for in-hospital case fatality ratio (CFR) or for where RSV seasonality is well-defined; and reported incidence rate, hospital admission rate, RSV positive proportion in acute lower respiratory infection hospital admission, or in-hospital CFR. Studies were excluded if case definition was not clearly defined or not consistently applied, RSV infection was not laboratory confirmed or based on serology alone, or if the report included fewer than 50 cases of acute lower respiratory infection. We applied a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) to estimate RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence, hospital admission, and in-hospital mortality both globally and regionally (by country development status and by World Bank Income Classification) in 2019. We estimated country-level RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence through a risk-factor based model. We developed new models (through GLMM) that incorporated the latest RSV community mortality data for estimating overall RSV mortality. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021252400). FINDINGS: In addition to 317 studies included in our previous review, we identified and included 113 new eligible studies and unpublished data from 51 studies, for a total of 481 studies. We estimated that globally in 2019, there were 33·0 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 25·4-44·6 million), 3·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (2·9-4·6 million), 26 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (15 100-49 100), and 101 400 RSV-attributable overall deaths (84 500-125 200) in children aged 0-60 months. In infants aged 0-6 months, we estimated that there were 6·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (4·6-9·7 million), 1·4 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (1·0-2·0 million), 13 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (6800-28 100), and 45 700 RSV-attributable overall deaths (38 400-55 900). 2·0% of deaths in children aged 0-60 months (UR 1·6-2·4) and 3·6% of deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months (3·0-4·4) were attributable to RSV. More than 95% of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes and more than 97% of RSV-attributable deaths across all age bands were in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). INTERPRETATION: RSV contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality burden globally in children aged 0-60 months, especially during the first 6 months of life and in LMICs. We highlight the striking overall mortality burden of RSV disease worldwide, with one in every 50 deaths in children aged 0-60 months and one in every 28 deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months attributable to RSV. For every RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital death, we estimate approximately three more deaths attributable to RSV in the community. RSV passive immunisation programmes targeting protection during the first 6 months of life could have a substantial effect on reducing RSV disease burden, although more data are needed to understand the implications of the potential age-shifts in peak RSV burden to older age when these are implemented. FUNDING: EU Innovative Medicines Initiative Respiratory Syncytial Virus Consortium in Europe (RESCEU).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost of Illness , Global Health , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(7): e961-e969, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to the end of January, 2022, South Africa has had four recognisable COVID-19 pandemic waves, each predominantly dominated by one variant of concern: the ancestral strain with an Asp614Gly mutation during the first wave, the beta variant (B.1.351) during the second wave, the delta variant (B.1.617.2) during the third wave, and lastly, the omicron variant (B.1.1.529) during the fourth wave. We aimed to assess the clinical disease severity of patients admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the omicron wave and compare the findings with those of the preceding three pandemic waves in South Africa. METHODS: We defined the start and end of each pandemic wave as the crossing of the threshold of weekly incidence of 30 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases per 100 000 population. Hospital admission data were collected through an active national COVID-19-specific surveillance programme. We compared disease severity across waves by post-imputation random effect multivariable logistic regression models. Severe disease was defined as one or more of the following: acute respiratory distress, receipt of supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation, admission to intensive care, or death. FINDINGS: We analysed 335 219 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 hospital admissions with a known outcome, constituting 10·4% of 3 216 179 cases recorded during the four waves. During the omicron wave, 52 038 (8·3%) of 629 617 cases were admitted to hospital, compared with 71 411 (12·9%) of 553 530 in the Asp614Gly wave, 91 843 (12·6%) of 726 772 in the beta wave, and 131 083 (10·0%) of 1 306 260 in the delta wave (p<0·0001). During the omicron wave, 15 421 (33·6%) of 45 927 patients admitted to hospital had severe disease, compared with 36 837 (52·3%) of 70 424 in the Asp614Gly wave, 57 247 (63·4%) of 90 310 in the beta wave, and 81 040 (63·0%) of 128 558 in the delta wave (p<0·0001). The in-hospital case-fatality ratio during the omicron wave was 10·7%, compared with 21·5% during the Asp614Gly wave, 28·8% during the beta wave, and 26·4% during the delta wave (p<0·0001). Compared with those admitted to hospital during the omicron wave, patients admitted during the other three waves had more severe clinical presentations (adjusted odds ratio 2·07 [95% CI 2·01-2·13] in the Asp614Gly wave, 3·59 [3·49-3·70] in the beta wave, and 3·47 [3·38-3·57] in the delta wave). INTERPRETATION: The trend of increasing cases and admissions across South Africa's first three waves shifted in the omicron wave, with a higher and quicker peak but fewer patients admitted to hospital, less clinically severe illness, and a lower case-fatality ratio compared with the preceding three waves. Omicron marked a change in the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic curve, clinical profile, and deaths in South Africa. Extrapolations to other populations should factor in differing vaccination and previous infection levels. FUNDING: National Institute for Communicable Diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
18.
Nature ; 607(7918): 356-359, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830078

ABSTRACT

The extent to which Omicron infection1-9, with or without previous vaccination, elicits protection against the previously dominant Delta (B.1.617.2) variant is unclear. Here we measured the neutralization capacity against variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in 39 individuals in South Africa infected with the Omicron sublineage BA.1 starting at a median of 6 (interquartile range 3-9) days post symptom onset and continuing until last follow-up sample available, a median of 23 (interquartile range 19-27) days post symptoms to allow BA.1-elicited neutralizing immunity time to develop. Fifteen participants were vaccinated with Pfizer's BNT162b2 or Johnson & Johnson's Ad26.CoV2.S and had BA.1 breakthrough infections, and 24 were unvaccinated. BA.1 neutralization increased from a geometric mean 50% focus reduction neutralization test titre of 42 at enrolment to 575 at the last follow-up time point (13.6-fold) in vaccinated participants and from 46 to 272 (6.0-fold) in unvaccinated participants. Delta virus neutralization also increased, from 192 to 1,091 (5.7-fold) in vaccinated participants and from 28 to 91 (3.0-fold) in unvaccinated participants. At the last time point, unvaccinated individuals infected with BA.1 had low absolute levels of neutralization for the non-BA.1 viruses and 2.2-fold lower BA.1 neutralization, 12.0-fold lower Delta neutralization, 9.6-fold lower Beta variant neutralization, 17.9-fold lower ancestral virus neutralization and 4.8-fold lower Omicron sublineage BA.2 neutralization relative to vaccinated individuals infected with BA.1. These results indicate that hybrid immunity formed by vaccination and Omicron BA.1 infection should be protective against Delta and other variants. By contrast, infection with Omicron BA.1 alone offers limited cross-protection despite moderate enhancement.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Ad26COVS1/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e144-e156, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA shedding duration and magnitude among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, PLHIV). METHODS: From May through December 2020, we conducted a prospective cohort study at 20 hospitals in South Africa. Adults hospitalized with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were enrolled and followed every 2 days with nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs until documentation of cessation of SARS-CoV-2 shedding (2 consecutive negative NP/OP swabs). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed, and cycle-threshold (Ct) values < 30 were considered a proxy for high SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Factors associated with prolonged shedding were assessed using accelerated time-failure Weibull regression models. RESULTS: Of 2175 COVID-19 patients screened, 300 were enrolled, and 257 individuals (155 HIV-uninfected and 102 PLHIV) had > 1 swabbing visit (median 5 visits [range 2-21]). Median time to cessation of shedding was 13 days (interquartile range [IQR] 6-25) and did not differ significantly by HIV infection. Among a subset of 94 patients (41 PLHIV and 53 HIV-uninfected) with initial respiratory sample Ct-value < 30, median time of shedding at high SARS-CoV-2 viral load was 8 days (IQR 4-17). This was significantly longer in PLHIV with CD4 count < 200 cells/µL, compared to HIV-uninfected persons (median 27 days [IQR 8-43] vs 7 days [IQR 4-13]; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] .07-.28, P < .001), as well as in unsuppressed-HIV versus HIV-uninfected persons. CONCLUSIONS: Although SARS-CoV-2 shedding duration did not differ significantly by HIV infection, among a subset with high initial SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, immunocompromised PLHIV shed SARS-CoV-2 at high viral loads for longer than HIV-uninfected persons. Better HIV control may potentially decrease transmission time of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1976, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783980

ABSTRACT

Global genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has identified variants associated with increased transmissibility, neutralization resistance and disease severity. Here we report the emergence of the PANGO lineage C.1.2, detected at low prevalence in South Africa and eleven other countries. The initial C.1.2 detection is associated with a high substitution rate, and includes changes within the spike protein that have been associated with increased transmissibility or reduced neutralization sensitivity in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern or variants of interest. Like Beta and Delta, C.1.2 shows significantly reduced neutralization sensitivity to plasma from vaccinees and individuals infected with the ancestral D614G virus. In contrast, convalescent donors infected with either Beta or Delta show high plasma neutralization against C.1.2. These functional data suggest that vaccine efficacy against C.1.2 will be equivalent to Beta and Delta, and that prior infection with either Beta or Delta will likely offer protection against C.1.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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