Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 143
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Inquiry ; 58:469580211049065, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1467797

ABSTRACT

To investigate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms that impair executive function (EF), emotional state, learning motivation, and the family and parenting environment of children and adolescents with ADHD, both with and without severe difficulties. This will be explored within an online learning environment during the period of COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 183 ADHD children diagnosed using DSM-V criteria were selected and divided into 2 groups high difficulties during online learning (HDOL) and low difficulties during online learning (LDOL) according to the answer of Home Quarantine Investigation of the Pandemic (HQIP). The participants filled out a set of questionnaires to assess their emotional state and learning motivation, and their parents also filled out the questionnaires about ADHD core symptoms, EF, and family and parenting environment. Compared with ADHD children in the LDOL group, the children in the HDOL group had significant symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional defiant, behavioral and emotional problems according to the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP). They also had more severely impaired EF according to the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), more difficulties and disturbances in the family by the Chinese version of Family Environment Scale (FES-CV), and lower parenting efficacy and satisfaction by Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC). With regard to the self-rating questionnaires of children and adolescents, the HDOL group reported lower learning motivation according to the Students Learning Motivation Scale (SLMS). By Screening for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRSC), those in HDOL presented more negative emotions. The HDOL group spent significantly more time on both video games and social software per day and significantly less time on multiple activities per week, when compared to those in the LDOL group. This study demonstrated that ADHD children and adolescents with HDOL had more inattention-related behaviors, more severe emotional problems and EF impairment, weaker learning motivation, and poorer family and parenting environment. Meanwhile, digital media use should be supervised and appropriate extracurricular activities should be encouraged by parents and schools.

2.
J Virol ; : Jvi0169521, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1467667

ABSTRACT

The replication of coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of infected cells. The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by ER stress (ERS), is a typical outcome in coronavirus-infected cells and is closely associated with the characteristics of coronaviruses. However, the interaction between virus-induced ERS and coronavirus replication is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that infection with the betacoronavirus porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) induced ERS and triggered all three branches of the UPR signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ERS suppressed PHEV replication in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells primarily by activating the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) axis of the UPR. Moreover, another eIF2α phosphorylation kinase, IFN-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), was also activated and acted cooperatively with PERK to decrease PHEV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the PERK/PKR-eIF2α pathways negatively regulated PHEV replication by attenuating global protein translation. Phosphorylated eIF2α also promoted the formation of stress granule (SG), which in turn repressed PHEV replication. In summary, our study presents a vital aspect of the host innate response to invading pathogens and reveals attractive host targets (e.g., PERK, PKR and eIF2α) for antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus diseases are caused by different coronaviruses of importance in humans and animals, and specific treatments are extremely limited. ERS, which can activate the UPR to modulate viral replication and the host innate response, is a frequent occurrence in coronavirus-infected cells. PHEV, a neurotropic β-coronavirus, causes nerve cell damage, which accounts for the high mortality rates in suckling piglets. However, it remains incompletely understood whether the highly developed ER in nerve cells plays an antiviral role in ERS and how ERS regulates viral proliferation. In this study, we found that PHEV infection induced ERS and activated the UPR both in vitro and in vivo and that the activated PERK/PKR-eIF2α axis inhibited PHEV replication through attenuating global protein translation and promoting SG formation. A better understanding of coronavirus-induced ERS and UPR activation may reveal the pathogenic mechanism of coronavirus and facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for these diseases.

3.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1467097

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing pandemic that poses a great threat to human health worldwide. As the humoral immune response plays essential roles in disease occurrence and development, understanding the dynamics and characteristics of virus-specific humoral immunity in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients is of great importance for controlling this disease. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and further emphasize the potential applications and therapeutic prospects of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity and the critical role of this immunity in vaccine development. Notably, serological antibody testing based on the humoral immune response can guide public health measures and control strategies;however, it is not recommended for population surveys in areas with very low prevalence. Existing evidence suggests that asymptomatic individuals have a weaker immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas SARS-CoV-2-infected children have a more effective humoral immune response than adults. The correlations between antibody (especially neutralizing antibody) titers and protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection should be further examined. In addition, the emergence of cross-reactions among different coronavirus antigens in the development of screening technology and the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination should be given further attention.

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1):368, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1467093

ABSTRACT

The long-term immunity and functional recovery after SARS-CoV-2 infection have implications in preventive measures and patient quality of life. Here we analyzed a prospective cohort of 121 recovered COVID-19 patients from Xiangyang, China at 1-year after diagnosis. Among them, chemiluminescence immunoassay-based screening showed 99% (95% CI, 98-100%) seroprevalence 10-12 months after infection, comparing to 0.8% (95% CI, 0.7-0.9%) in the general population. Total anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies remained stable since discharge, while anti-RBD IgG and neutralization levels decreased over time. A predictive model estimates 17% (95% CI, 11-24%) and 87% (95% CI, 80-92%) participants were still 50% protected against detectable and severe re-infection of WT SARS-CoV-2, respectively, while neutralization levels against B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants were significantly reduced. All non-severe patients showed normal chest CT and 21% reported COVID-19-related symptoms. In contrast, 53% severe patients had abnormal chest CT, decreased pulmonary function or cardiac involvement and 79% were still symptomatic. Our findings suggest long-lasting immune protection after SARS-CoV-2 infection, while also highlight the risk of immune evasive variants and long-term consequences for COVID-19 survivors.

5.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(10):876-884, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1463354

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) discovered in December 2019, the disease has emerged as a global pandemic (Shi et al., 2020;World Health Organization, 2020). Several studies have shown a higher incidence of COVID-19, as well as related poor outcomes in patients with malignancies as compared with those without them (Liang et al., 2020;Tian et al., 2020). The impact of cancer on COVID-19 may be attri‑buted to the use of antitumor treatments that may disturb the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection (Wang et al., 2020), while the current studies on this topic have drawn controversial conclusions. Some implied that anticancer treatments might elevate the risk of death (García-Suárez et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2020). On the contrary, others pointed out that this association is not significant (Brar et al., 2020;Lee et al., 2020a). Although previous systematic reviews have investigated this important issue (Wang and Huang, 2020), the heterogeneity of findings is obvious and the general conclusion has remained unclear. Considering this ambiguity, it is difficult for clinicians to make therapeutic decisions when facing patients with both cancer and COVID-19;therefore, a high-quality and accurate evaluation of the impact of anticancer treatments on COVID-19 patients is necessary. Accordingly, we conducted a pooled analysis with the original data of each patient for the first time to provide a comprehensive perspective into the association between anticancer regimens and the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19.

6.
Nucleic Acids Research ; 11:11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462429

ABSTRACT

The genomic variations of SARS-CoV-2 continue to emerge and spread worldwide. Some mutant strains show increased transmissibility and virulence, which may cause reduced protection provided by vaccines. Thus, it is necessary to continuously monitor and analyze the genomic variations of SARS-COV-2 genomes. We established an evaluation and prewarning system, SARS-CoV-2 variations evaluation and prewarning system (VarEPS), including known and virtual mutations of SARS-CoV-2 genomes to achieve rapid evaluation of the risks posed by mutant strains. From the perspective of genomics and structural biology, the database comprehensively analyzes the effects of known variations and virtual variations on physicochemical properties, translation efficiency, secondary structure, and binding capacity of ACE2 and neutralizing antibodies. An AI-based algorithm was used to verify the effectiveness of these genomics and structural biology characteristic quantities for risk prediction. This classifier could be further used to group viral strains by their transmissibility and affinity to neutralizing antibodies. This unique resource makes it possible to quickly evaluate the variation risks of key sites, and guide the research and development of vaccines and drugs. The database is freely accessible at www.nmdc.cn/ncovn.

7.
Supportive Care in Cancer ; 12:12, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460335

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is limited literature available regards the frequency and characteristics of COVID-19 + ve status among advanced cancer patients referred to an inpatient supportive care consultation(PC) at a tertiary cancer center. Our study aimed to determine the frequency and characteristics of COVID-19 + ve cancer patients seen by PC. METHODS: Advanced cancer patients seen as a consult by PC between June 15 and September 25, 2020, at MD Anderson Cancer Center were eligible for the study. We evaluated the patient demographics, clinical characteristics including symptoms(ESAS), delirium(MDAS), COVID + status prior to, and after PC referral(converters), and type of PC delivery(in person or virtual care). RESULTS: Sixty-six out of 1380 (4.8%) PC consults were COVID-19 + ve: 42 prior to PC (79%), and 14 (21%) were COVID-19 + ve after the PC (converters). COVID-19 + PC patients had lower depression (P = .035), spiritual distress (P = .003), and were more seen frequently virtually (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between COVID-19-ve patients and converters. Converters had higher symptom distress (P = 0.007), lower delirium (P = 0.014), and were referred earlier (P = .011) compared to COVID + PC patients diagnosed prior to PC consult. Overall, patients seen virtually compared in-person by PC were younger (P = 0.02) and had lower delirium (P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The burden of COVID-19 + status among patients referred to PC was low. COVID-19 + ve patients had more frequent virtual visits, lower depression, and spiritual distress scores. Patient seen virtually were significantly younger and had lower delirium. During a new pandemic, universal virtual care might be emphasized especially at initial encounters after admission and further research is needed on the potential efficacy of this intervention.

8.
CMES - Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences ; 129(1), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1456684

ABSTRACT

Since Corona Virus Disease 2019 outbreak, many expert groups worldwide have studied the problem and proposed many diagnostic methods. This paper focuses on the research of Corona Virus Disease 2019 diagnosis. First, the procedure of the diagnosis based on machine learning is introduced in detail, which includes medical data collection, image preprocessing, feature extraction, and image classification. Then, we review seven methods in detail: transfer learning, ensemble learning, unsupervised learning and semi-supervised learning, convolutional neural networks, graph neural networks, explainable deep neural networks, and so on. What’s more, the advantages and limitations of different diagnosis methods are compared. Although the great achievements in medical images classification in recent years, Corona Virus Disease 2019 images classification based on machine learning still encountered many problems. For example, the highly unbalanced dataset, the difficulty of collecting labeled data, and the poor quality of the data. Aiming at these problems, we propose some solutions and provide a comprehensive presentation for future research. © 2021 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

9.
Frontiers in Medicine ; 8:696976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450816

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research suggested that Chinese Medicine (CM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten the disease course in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This research aimed to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in well-managed patients with mild COVID-19.

10.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 21(7):851-857, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1449169

ABSTRACT

Under the background of the global COVID-19 pandemic, electronic informed consent (eConsent) utilizes technology to provide a new method and idea for clinical trials. It has the advantages of convenience and efficiency, which greatly improves the efficiency of clinical trials. At present, this concept has not been put forward in China while it has been clarified clearly abroad, and some countries have launched a variety of trials and formulated various regulations to further standardize the eConsent. Based on the current situation of eConsent in China, this study analyzed the design and implementation of eConsent, summarized relevant domestic and foreign laws and regulations, and proposed opportunities and challenges for electronic informed consent as well as the relevant preparations for the implementation of this technology in China. © 2021 West China University of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

11.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 12:679538, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448802

ABSTRACT

Background: Home quarantine is an important strategy to contain the mass spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are a dearth of studies on the prevalence and risk factors of home quarantine strategy implementation among residents. This study aims to assess the state of home quarantine strategy implementation among Chinese residents, which could provide a reference for quarantine policymakers around the world during the pandemic. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3,398 residents in China by adopting a convenience sampling strategy. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of home quarantine strategy implementation with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). A multivariable model was used to determine the factors associated with home quarantine strategy implementation.

13.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 12:743306, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444066

ABSTRACT

In a DID model, this study examines the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the investor sentiment in the financial market of China using monthly panel data on newly listed Chinese companies between October 2019 and June 2020. The outbreak of the pandemic is shown to exert a significant negative impact on investor sentiment. A future industry heterogeneity analysis shows that the pandemic has driven up investor sentiment in the pharmaceutical sector while having a significantly negative impact on non-pharmaceutical sectors. The pandemic is shown to have a negative impact on the private sector and foreign-invested sector in China while a significantly positive impact on the state-owned sector. This study contributes to the existing literature on the investigation of how significant the impact of public health emergencies on investor sentiment is.

14.
Frontiers in Medicine ; 8:709006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441116

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised many questions about the role of underlying chronic diseases on disease outcomes. However, there is limited information about the effects of COVID-19 on chronic airway diseases. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ascertain risk factors for acute exacerbations (AEs). Methods: This single-center observational study was conducted at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, involving asthma or COPD patients who had been treated with inhaled combination corticosteroids (ICSs), such as budesonide, and one long-acting beta-2-agonist (LABA), such as formoterol, for at least a year before the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted telephone interviews to collect demographic information and clinical data between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020, focusing on respiratory and systemic symptoms, as well as times of exacerbations. Data for asthma and COPD were then compared, and the risk factors for AEs were identified using logistic regression analysis.

15.
Cell Discov ; 7(1):89, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1440469

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been declared by World Health Organization as a worldwide pandemic. However, there are many unknowns about the antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we present both single-cell TCR-seq and RNA-seq to analyze the dynamics of TCR repertoire and immune metabolic functions of blood T cells collected from recently discharged COVID-19 patients. We found that while the diversity of TCR repertoire was increased in discharged patients, it returned to basal level ~1 week after becoming virus-free. The dynamics of T cell repertoire correlated with a profound shift of gene signatures from antiviral response to metabolism adaptation. We also demonstrated that the top expanded T cell clones (~10% of total T cells) display the key anti-viral features in CD8(+) T cells, confirming a critical role of antigen-specific T cells in fighting against SARS-CoV-2. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of adaptive immunity in COVID-19 patients, and also has implications in developing a T-cell-based vaccine for SARS-CoV-2.

16.
International Journal of Intelligent Systems ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1437050

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pneumonia started in December 2019 and caused large casualties and huge economic losses. In this study, we intended to develop a computer-aided diagnosis system based on artificial intelligence to automatically identify the COVID-19 in chest computed tomography images. We utilized transfer learning to obtain the image-level representation (ILR) based on the backbone deep convolutional neural network. Then, a novel neighboring aware representation (NAR) was proposed to exploit the neighboring relationships between the ILR vectors. To obtain the neighboring information in the feature space of the ILRs, an ILR graph was generated based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm, in which the ILRs were linked with their k-nearest neighboring ILRs. Afterward, the NARs were computed by the fusion of the ILRs and the graph. On the basis of this representation, a novel end-to-end COVID-19 classification architecture called neighboring aware graph neural network (NAGNN) was proposed. The private and public data sets were used for evaluation in the experiments. Results revealed that our NAGNN outperformed all the 10 state-of-the-art methods in terms of generalization ability. Therefore, the proposed NAGNN is effective in detecting COVID-19, which can be used in clinical diagnosis. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC

17.
World Journal of Clinical Cases ; 9(24):6969-6978, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431163

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, poses a significant threat to public health worldwide, and diabetes is considered a risk factor for the rapid progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19. Limited immune function is a clinical feature of COVID-19 patients, and diabetes patients have defects in innate and adaptive immune functions, which may be an important reason for the rapid progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. We review the possible multiple effects of immune impairment in diabetic patients on the immune responses to COVID-19 to provide guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic patients with COVID-19.

18.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 12:683296, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430716

ABSTRACT

Background: In addition to supportive therapy, antiviral therapy is an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of favipiravir and umifenovir (Arbidol) to treat COVID-19 patients.

19.
Antibiotics ; 10(8), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408375

ABSTRACT

The SARS CoV-2 pandemic has affected millions of people around the globe. Despite many efforts to find some effective medicines against SARS CoV-2, no established therapeutics are available yet. The use of phytochemicals as antiviral agents provides hope against the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2. Several natural compounds were analyzed by virtual screening against six SARS CoV-2 protein targets using molecular docking simulations in the present study. More than a hundred plant-derived secondary metabolites have been docked, including alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, and steroids. SARS CoV-2 protein targets include Main protease (MPro), Papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), Spike glycoprotein (S), Helicase (Nsp13), and E-Channel protein. Phytochemicals were evaluated by molecular docking, and MD simulations were performed using the YASARA structure using a modified genetic algorithm and AMBER03 force field. Binding energies and dissociation constants allowed the identification of potentially active compounds. Ligand-protein interactions provide an insight into the mechanism and potential of identified compounds. Glycyrrhizin and its metabolite 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid have shown a strong binding affinity for MPro, helicase, RdRp, spike, and E-channel proteins, while a flavonoid Baicalin also strongly binds against PLpro and RdRp. The use of identified phytochemicals may help to speed up the drug development and provide natural protection against SARS-CoV-2.

20.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 95:311-315, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409680

ABSTRACT

Objectives: As a global pandemic is inevitable, real-time monitoring of transmission is vital for containing the spread of COVID-19. The main objective of this study was to report the real-time effective reproduction numbers (R(t)) and case fatality rates (CFR) in Europe.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...