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1.
Indoor Air ; 32(10): e13142, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088236

ABSTRACT

Implications for the academic and interpersonal development of children and adolescents underpin a global political consensus to maintain in-classroom teaching during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In support of this aim, the WHO and UNICEF have called for schools around the globe to be made safer from the risk of COVID-19 transmission. Detailed guidance is needed on how this goal can be successfully implemented in a wide variety of educational settings in order to effectively mitigate impacts on the health of students, staff, their families, and society. This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of current scientific evidence and emerging standards in relation to the use of layered prevention strategies (involving masks, distancing, and ventilation), setting out the basis for their implementation in the school environment. In the presence of increasingly infectious SARS-Cov-2 variants, in-classroom teaching can only be safely maintained through a layered strategy combining multiple protective measures. The precise measures that are needed at any point in time depend upon a number of dynamic factors, including the specific threat-level posed by the circulating variant, the level of community infection, and the political acceptability of the resultant risk. By consistently implementing appropriate prophylaxis measures, evidence shows that the risk of infection from in-classroom teaching can be dramatically reduced. Current studies indicate that wearing high-quality masks and regular testing are amongst the most important measures in preventing infection transmission; whilst effective natural and mechanical ventilation systems have been shown to reduce infection risks in classrooms by over 80%.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Schools
2.
Curr Psychol ; 41(11): 8112-8122, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075664

ABSTRACT

COVID appropriate behavioral measures need to be followed once school reopens. School teachers being in the forefront could substantiate the feasibility of suggested safety measures. This study aimed to assess teachers' perceptions towards COVID appropriate behaviors for children with school reopening and compare their mean scores between public versus private schools and across school boards. We conducted an observational school-based study of teachers over two months. Perceptions were scored using a five-point Likert symmetric agree to disagree scale. Results were expressed as proportions and analyzed using an independent sample t-test. Of the 547 teachers surveyed, most (> 90%) agreed to the suggested social distancing and hygiene measures. There was a significant difference in perception scores between private versus public schools and across boards regarding i) reducing the academic syllabus, ii) adopting a cloud-based system to integrate online-offline learning, and iii) conducting meetings online. In addition, measures such as i) teaching classes on alternate days with a limited number of children, ii) arranging benches/desks to maintain six feet distance between students, iii) dealing with psychological stress by counselors, and iv) arrangement with local hospitals for medical services were significant statistically across school boards. To conclude, most schoolteachers agreed with the need for social distancing and hygiene measures for children. There was a significant difference in perceptions between public versus private schools and across boards regarding academic syllabus, integration of online-offline student learning, number of children per class, the timing of classes, student seating arrangement, and medical/psychological guidance availability.

3.
Ieee Access ; 10:104169-104177, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070272

ABSTRACT

Specific 5G Release 17 work items are dealing with critical medical applications. Moreover, the adoption of mobile health (m-health) and e-health has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper first examines the requirements of critical medical applications that 5G is expected to support. Then it illustrates possible data protection, management, and privacy issues. Finally, it shows a first implementation of an m-health framework supporting physical distance management. Experimental results show that, by exploiting 5G connectivity and the computing capacity provided by an accelerated edge cloud, the proposed framework can detect physical distance violations faster than a user equipment (UE)-based implementation, while saving UE energy.

4.
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070116

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to quantify the effects of production disruptions (PDs) and physical distancing constraints due to the pandemic in a parallel-machine production environment. The machines are non-identical and are utilized for producing a finite set of jobs (parts) in a plastic injection moulding production. The production process is subjected to random production downtime disruptions. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is developed for optimizing the joint production plan and schedule, which maximizes the production's total benefit. The model is utilized to plan and schedule a set of 17 machines in a Canadian manufacturing company. To explore the effects of physical distancing and PDs on the production's total net profit, four different scenarios for normal operation and production during the pandemic, with and without production downtimes, are considered. A genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the model. The results show that considering machines' random breakdowns and physical distancing individually reduces the total profit of the production by 71.58 and 57.98%, respectively;while their joint effect results in a 88.54% reduction in the annual net profit.

5.
Vigil. sanit. debate ; 10(3): 87-95, agosto 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2072400

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Universidades são ambientes propícios à disseminação de infecções respiratórias agudas de elevada transmissibilidade, como a COVID-19. Objetivo: Avaliar a aplicação das medidas de prevenção e controle da COVID-19 entre estudantes de uma comunidade universitária do Ceará, Brasil. Método: Trata-se de estudo transversal desenvolvido junto aos estudantes da graduação de uma universidade pública do estado do Ceará, regularmente matriculados no semestre 2020.1, em atividades remotas (não presenciais). Para o cálculo da amostra, considerou-se uma população de 30.152 universitários, uma confiança de 95%, 3% de erro amostral e 50% de frequência esperada de uso das medidas de proteção e controle contra a COVID-19 (n = 1.031). Das 2.097 respostas recebidas, ocorreram 360 perdas e foram analisadas 1.737. A coleta de dados foi realizada em  dezembro de 2020, por meio de questionário eletrônico, disponibilizado online, para esta finalidade. Realizou-se uma análise descritiva dos aspectos pesquisados. Resultados: Apesar de 91,2% dos universitários referirem que sempre usavam máscara ao sair de casa, somente 1,4% cumpriram com todas as recomendações para seu manuseio correto; 43,3% referiram lavar as mãos conforme as recomendações das autoridades sanitárias, mas outras medidas de higiene pessoal foram insuficientes; 65,4% referiram que costumavam sair para participar de atividades que não eram de extrema necessidade; e 70,0% eram usuários de transportes públicos. Conclusões: As evidências encontradas predispõem os universitários a riscos frente a COVID-19.


Introduction: Universities are favorable environments for the spread of highly transmissible acute respiratory  infections, such as COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the application of COVID-19 prevention and control measures among students from a public university in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Method: This is a cross-sectional study developed with undergraduate students, regularly enrolled in semester 2020.1, in remote (non-face-to-face) activities. To calculate the sample, a population of 30,152 students was considered, a confidence of 95%, 3% sampling error and 50% expected frequency of use of protection and control measures against COVID-19 (n = 1,031). Of the 2,097 responses received, 360 were lost and 1,737 were analyzed. Data collection was carried out in December 2020, through an electronic questionnaire, available online, for this purpose. A descriptive analysis of the researched aspects was carried out. Results: Although 91.2% of students reported that they always wore a mask when leaving the house, only 1.4% complied with all the  recommendations for its correct handling. 43.3% reported washing their hands according to the recommendations of the health authorities, but others' personal hygiene measures were insufficient; 65.4% reported that they used to go out to participate in activities that were not of extreme necessity; and 70.0% were public transport users. Conclusions: The evidence found predisposes university students to risks in the face of this pandemic.

6.
Personality and Individual Differences ; 201:111928, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069541

ABSTRACT

Feelings of disgust, a disease avoidance emotion, vary among individuals. The present study investigated if individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity predict the level of disgust evoked by crowded places. Interested in the universality of this relationship, we studied it across countries (Study 1), and examined temporal differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity (Studies 2 and 3). Participants completed a pathogen disgust scale and rated the level of disgust evoked by two crowded situations. Data were collected in 2018 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), in 2020 (at the height of the pandemic) and in 2022 (later in the pandemic). Across studies and countries, individuals' pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted the disgust evoked by the situations. Moreover, the data revealed a significant increase in pathogen disgust from 2018 to 2020, most likely because of higher pathogen presence during the pandemic, before significantly decreasing in 2022 after the pandemic had progressed. This study captures a rare opportunity, investigating how these crises relate to pathogen disgust sensitivity and the perception of crowded spaces. Further, our longitudinal study is among the first showing changes in pathogen disgust sensitivity over time and monitoring the effect of the pandemic.

7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 344, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, countries adopted non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as lockdowns to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Social contact studies help measure the effectiveness of NPIs and estimate parameters for modelling SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, few contact studies have been conducted in Africa. METHODS: We analysed nationally representative cross-sectional survey data from 19 African Union Member States, collected by the Partnership for Evidence-based Responses to COVID-19 (PERC) via telephone interviews at two time points (August 2020 and February 2021). Adult respondents reported contacts made in the previous day by age group, demographic characteristics, and their attitudes towards COVID-19. We described mean and median contacts across these characteristics and related contacts to Google Mobility reports and the Oxford Government Response Stringency Index for each country at the two time points. RESULTS: Mean reported contacts varied across countries with the lowest reported in Ethiopia (9, SD=16, median = 4, IQR = 8) in August 2020 and the highest in Sudan (50, SD=53, median = 33, IQR = 40) in February 2021. Contacts of people aged 18-55 represented 50% of total contacts, with most contacts in household and work or study settings for both surveys. Mean contacts increased for Ethiopia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sudan, and Uganda and decreased for Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Tunisia between the two time points. Men had more contacts than women and contacts were consistent across urban or rural settings (except in Cameroon and Kenya, where urban respondents had more contacts than rural ones, and in Senegal and Zambia, where the opposite was the case). There were no strong and consistent variations in the number of mean or median contacts by education level, self-reported health, perceived self-reported risk of infection, vaccine acceptance, mask ownership, and perceived risk of COVID-19 to health. Mean contacts were correlated with Google mobility (coefficient 0.57, p=0.051 and coefficient 0.28, p=0.291 in August 2020 and February 2021, respectively) and Stringency Index (coefficient -0.12, p = 0.304 and coefficient -0.33, p=0.005 in August 2020 and February 2021, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These are the first COVID-19 social contact data collected for 16 of the 19 countries surveyed. We find a high reported number of daily contacts in all countries and substantial variations in mean contacts across countries and by gender. Increased stringency and decreased mobility were associated with a reduction in the number of contacts. These data may be useful to understand transmission patterns, model infection transmission, and for pandemic planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Psychiatry Investig ; 19(9): 712-721, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examined the reliability and validity of Korean version of Social Distancing Phobia scale, and whether intolerance of uncertainty mediates the association of the general population's social distancing phobia with viral anxiety and depression. METHODS: Through this anonymous online survey, we collected responses from 400 individuals in the general Korean population. Participants' demographic information and rating scales scores, including the Social Distancing Phobia scale, Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Intolerance of Uncertainty-12 items. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good model fit, and the Korean version of Social Distancing Phobia scale showed good internal consistency. Social distancing phobia was significantly correlated with age (r=0.213, p<0.001), viral anxiety (r=0.390, p<0.001), depression (r=0.244, p<0.001), and intolerance of uncertainty (r=0.323, p<0.001). A linear regression analysis showed that age (ß=0.235, p<0.001), viral anxiety (ß=0.281, p<0.001), depression (ß=0.121, p=0.009), and intolerance of uncertainty (ß=0.200, p<0.001; adjusted R2=0.246, F=33.6, p<0.001) predicted social distancing phobia. Mediation analysis revealed that viral anxiety directly influenced social distancing phobia (z=6.48, p<0.001), and intolerance of uncertainty partially mediated this association (z=2.92, p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Social distancing phobia may cause psychological stress but may also increase adherence to physical distancing measures and prevent the spread of viruses.

9.
6th IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Computational Intelligence, CyberneticsCom 2022 ; : 117-120, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2051960

ABSTRACT

During COVID19 pandemic, people are encouraged to practice physical distancing at least 1 meter when interacting with other people to prevent the spread of the COVID19. This study aims to develop a system that can monitor the physical distancing and track physical contact in a room using internet of things (IoT) and artificial intelligent technology. The system consists of a small single-board computer (Raspberry Pi), webcam, and web application displaying physical contact information. The system uses YOLO algorithms to detect the human object and euclidean distance formula to determine the distance between human objects. We evaluated the performance of YOLOv3 and YOLOv3-tiny running on Raspberry Pi. The evaluation result shows that YOLOv3 consumes more CPU resources than YOLOv3-tiny but has better accuracy in detecting human objects. YOLOv3-tiny can process images and detect objects faster than YOLOv3. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Psychology of Popular Media ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2050286

ABSTRACT

We examined the possibility that social media use during a time of social isolation, the COVID-19 pandemic, might have a more positive impact on the self than we observed prior to the pandemic. We compared the impact of social media use in the spring of 2020 with data obtained from a similar sample in the spring of 2018;contrary to our predictions, using social media was associated with similarly negative outcomes in both samples. In the pandemic sample, using social media for the purpose of connecting with others did, however, attenuate the negative effect of social media use on well-being;in addition, social media use that increased feelings of social connectedness was associated with less negative effects on well-being. Thus, social media continues to exert a negative impact on the self during a time of social isolation but may be less damaging to well-being when used to connect with others. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) Impact Statement This study examined potential benefits and limitations of social media use in combating social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results indicate that although spending 10 min on social media was associated with a negative impact on the self, both before and during the pandemic, the negative impact of social media was attenuated for individuals using social media to directly interact with others. Furthermore, social media use was associated with greater feelings of social connection, reducing its negative impact on overall well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Psychology of Leaders and Leadership ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2050282

ABSTRACT

In response to the increasing prevalence of remote work during and after the pandemic, industrial-organizational psychologists postulated a diverse set of recommendations on key actions based on what we already know about remote work complexities that are well captured in the literature. However, as most recent recommendations were made under light of past studies, which elaborated remote work as a voluntary perk rather than a reactive response under the crisis situation, most of the actual challenges that people experienced while working from home remained untouched. Therefore, with this piece, our aim is to present counterarguments to already published recommendations entailing the core difficulties linked to the forced nature of remote work during the pandemic. We believe that the unique pandemic conditions pose particular complexities that go beyond previously identified ones. Thus, there is a need to underline these unidentified obstacles to better equip leaders and employees working remotely during and after the pandemic conditions. We conclude our article by recommending leaders to evaluate the contextual differences in their organizational settings and take appropriate actions by taking a critical lens in evaluating the latest research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how conspiracy beliefs and health responses are interrelated over time during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. This longitudinal study tested two contrasting, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses through cross-lagged modeling. First, based on the consequential nature of conspiracy beliefs, we hypothesize that conspiracy beliefs predict an increase in detrimental health responses over time. Second, as people may rationalize their behavior through conspiracy beliefs, we hypothesize that detrimental health responses predict increased conspiracy beliefs over time. METHODS: We measured conspiracy beliefs and several health-related responses (i.e. physical distancing, support for lockdown policy, and the perception of the coronavirus as dangerous) at three phases of the pandemic in the Netherlands (N = 4913): During the first lockdown (Wave 1: April 2020), after the first lockdown (Wave 2: June 2020), and during the second lockdown (Wave 3: December 2020). RESULTS: For physical distancing and perceived danger, the overall cross-lagged effects supported both hypotheses, although the standardized effects were larger for the effects of conspiracy beliefs on these health responses than vice versa. The within-person change results only supported an effect of conspiracy beliefs on these health responses, depending on the phase of the pandemic. Furthermore, an overall cross-lagged effect of conspiracy beliefs on reduced support for lockdown policy emerged from Wave 2 to 3. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide stronger support for the hypothesis that conspiracy beliefs predict health responses over time than for the hypothesis that health responses predict conspiracy beliefs over time.

13.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 82: 103335, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049279

ABSTRACT

Background: The association between social capital and preventive behaviors against COVID-19 remains controversial. We examined the association between social capital and preventive behaviors against COVID-19 at country level. Methods: The data on country-level social capital (i.e., social trust, group affiliations, civic responsibility, and confidence in state institutions) was obtained from a previous literature based on World Value Survey. Preventive behaviors were calculated as the percentage of people in a country who took COVID-19 preventive behaviors (i.e., physical distancing, hand hygiene, and the use of face mask) from an international survey of Facebook users, from July to October 2020 (207 data points for 9 waves of 23 countries). The scores on social capital were standardized. The association was investigated with multilevel linear regression analysis. Results: High civic responsibility (per 1 standard deviation, SD) was associated with low percentage points of physical distancing (ß = -4.66, 95% confidence interval, CI: 7.23, -2.09), hand hygiene (ß = -2.88, 95% CI: 3.98, -1.78) and the use of face mask (ß = -3.95, 95% CI: 5.29, -2.62). Group affiliations were associated with high percentage points of physical distancing (ß = 2.96, 95% CI: 0.35, 5.58) and the use of face mask (ß = 1.80, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.16). Social trust had significant positive association with performing hand hygiene (ß = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.09, 2.35). Conclusions: These results suggested that in countries with higher levels of civic responsibility, preventive behaviors should be more intensified during a pandemic.

14.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(11-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2045384

ABSTRACT

Background: Social distancing has been an effective preventive measure to help reduce the spread of COVID-19, but usage is inconsistent. Behavioral science informs our understanding about preventive behaviors. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is commonly used in public health emergencies to examine the factors of engagement in preventive behaviors. Aim: The first study objectives were to utilize the TPB to evaluate the psychosocial determinants associated with intention to social distance to reduce COVID-19 transmission among undergraduate students. The second study objective was to use meta-analytic procedures to evaluate the predictive utility of the TPB's main constructs in predicting intention to social distance as a preventive behavior to reduce transmission of COVID-19 and the extent that intention predict social distancing behavior. Study 1 Methods: The study used a cross-sectional design using secondary data of 1,076 students. TPB questionnaire measured intention, past behavior, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted. Study 2 Methods: Research databases were used to find literature using relevant keywords. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures were performed on the correlations between the different TPB constructs and intention and behavior. A moderator analysis was also conducted. Study 1 Results: In Model 1, all the TPB constructs were associated with intention to social distance. The inclusion of past behavior in Model 2 indicated that past behavior, subjective norm, and attitude were associated with intention to social distance. The models did well in explaining the variances in intention. Study 2 Results: There were 8 articles included in the analysis. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were statistically significant predictors of social distance behavior. Subjective norm had the strongest association. Several moderator variables were associated with TPB constructs and intention and behavior. Conclusion: The findings support the predictive utility of the TPB to predict social distance intentions and behavior to reduce transmission of COVID-19. The findings are pertinent to at-risk environments like universities where COVID clusters can occur. Public health experts can utilize the TPB to highlight the salient factors in order to promote and sustain social distance behavior throughout the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
Journal of Family Business Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2042699

ABSTRACT

Purpose The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of consumers' brand trust in family businesses and the impact of crisis management practices on customer purchase intention during the period of Covid-19. Design/methodology/approach This is a primary quantitative research on a sample of 817 consumers who bought products from 20 food and beverage family companies. Simple random sampling was used to collect the primary data. Data collection was made with the use of questionnaires. The questionnaires were developed based on previous studies and were tested in terms of reliability and validity. Findings The research findings indicate, among others, that there is a positive significant relationship between brand trust and purchase intention. As a result, the higher the trust of the consumers in a family business brand name, the higher their intention to make purchases. Additionally, it was found that the higher the performance of family businesses on crisis management practices, the more the consumers intent to make purchases. Research limitations/implications Nonetheless, there are some limitations in the current research. First, the research sample consists of companies and consumers from a specific location, which can create issues regarding the generalization of the findings. Thus, to ensure improved research implications, a future research should include sample units from different locations and countries in order to reinforce the research findings and enable comparisons and more easily generalized outcomes. Moreover, a future research could assess additional factors that potentially affect purchase intention within a family business environment. Factors such as human resources and the relationship between customers and companies as well as communication and promotional efforts will allow the creation of a more stable and holistic framework and the prediction of consumer behavior. This potential follow-up research will further contribute to the theoretical argumentation of the findings and highlight the connection among purchase intention, trust and crisis managements practices within the family business environment. Practical implications Regarding the managerial and practical implications, the research outcomes can lead to specific strategies related to brand trust and crisis management practices. Specifically, family companies should invest on their brand name and their relationship with the consumers by reinforcing any action which can potentially affect the trust of the consumers. This could be realized by providing a safe purchase environment according to health and safety standards and through their response strategy and adaptability to the current pandemic conditions through the use of crisis management practices. Finally, a practical response to social and physical distancing measures would increase brand trust, and the performance on crisis management practices could also lead to sufficient financial outcomes since all these factors positively affect consumers' purchase intention. Originality/value The outbreak of the pandemic directly affected the profitability but also the viability of companies, regardless of industry. In particular, the impact that the pandemic had on family businesses, financially, organizationally and operationally, was massive and in many cases, catastrophic. Several studies have focused on family businesses, analyzing their structure, advantages and disadvantages. However, in these studies, there is little focus on the brand's influence on consumer behavior and market intention, especially compared to nonfamily businesses and under unique circumstances such as those of a pandemic.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032976

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a considerable expansion in the way work settings are structured, with a continuum emerging between working fully in-person and from home. The pandemic has also exacerbated many risk factors for poor mental health in the workplace, especially in public-facing jobs. Therefore, we sought to test the potential relationship between work setting and self-rated mental health. To do so, we modeled the association of work setting (only working from home, only in-person, hybrid) on self-rated mental health (Excellent/Very Good/Good vs. Fair/Poor) in an online survey of Canadian workers during the third wave of COVID-19. The mediating effects of vaccination, masking, and distancing were explored due to the potential effect of COVID-19-related stress on mental health among those working in-person. Among 1576 workers, most reported hybrid work (77.2%). Most also reported good self-rated mental health (80.7%). Exclusive work from home (aOR: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.90, 4.07) and exclusive in-person work (aOR: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.83, 4.26) were associated with poorer self-rated mental health than hybrid work. Vaccine status mediated only a small proportion of this relationship (7%), while masking and physical distancing were not mediators. We conclude that hybrid work arrangements were associated with positive self-rated mental health. Compliance with vaccination, masking, and distancing recommendations did not meaningfully mediate this relationship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Public Health ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031641

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate whether the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) modified the association between pre-existing state paid sick leave (PSL) and weekday workplace mobility between February 15 and July 7, 2020. Study Design Longitudinal, observational study. Methods The 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. were divided into exposure groups based on the presence or absence of pre-existing state PSL policies. Derived from Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports, the outcome was measured as the daily percent change in weekday workplace mobility. Mixed-effects, interrupted time series regression was performed to evaluate weekday workplace mobility after the implementation of the FFCRA on April 1st, 2020. Results States with pre-existing PSL policies exhibited a greater drop in mobility following the passage of the FFCRA (β=-8.86,95%CI:-11.6,-6.10,P< 001). This remained significant after adjusting for state-level health, economic, and sociodemographic indicators (β=-3.13,95%CI:-5.92,-0.34,P=.039). Conclusions Pre-existing PSL policies were associated with a significant decline in weekday workplace mobility after the FFCRA, which may have influenced local health outcomes. The presence of pre-existing state policies may differentially influence the impact of federal legislation enacted during emergencies.

18.
Operations Management Research ; 15(1-2):503-527, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2027683

ABSTRACT

This paper, for the first time, presents a production scheduling model for a production line considering physical distancing between the machines' workforces. The production environment is an unrelated parallel-machine, in which for producing each part, different machines with different production rates and the required number of workers are available. We propose a three-objective mixed-integer linear programming mathematical model that aims to maximize the manufacturer's total benefit, parts' safety stock (SS) index, and the workforce's physical distance over a finite horizon (one year) by determining the optimal scheduling of the parts on the machines. Since a large production scheduling problem belongs to the Np-Hard category of problems, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, and a non-dominated ranked GA algorithm are developed to solve the presented model in two stages using the empirical data from a Canadian plastic injection mold company. In the first stage, the LP-metrics approach is utilized for validating the meta-heuristics on a reduced-size problem. In the second stage, the validated meta-heuristics are utilized to optimize the company's yearly production schedule. The results indicate both metaheuristics are performing well in determining the optimal solution. Moreover, implementing physical distancing in the company reduces the company's monthly net benefit by around 9.56% compared to the normal operational conditions (without considering physical distancing).

19.
Revista De Epidemiologia E Controle De Infeccao ; 12(2):1-17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025833

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Evidence suggests that the failure of epidemiological control impedes the resumption of socioeconomic activities. Therefore, this study aimed to describe epidemiological aspects and the pattern of mobility on each continent and to verify the association between the COVID-19 infection rate and time spent at home. Methods: We analyzed reports from Global Positioning System of 97 countries and their epidemiological indicators until May 27, 2020. Results: Cases of COVID-19 ranged from 22 to 1,745,803, and deaths ranged from 0 to 102,107. The highest rates per 100,000 population were observed in Europe and America. Approximately 54% of COVID-19 cases occurred in America and 51% of deaths in Europe. Countries reduced mobility in retail and recreation (-43.45%+/- 20.42%), grocery and pharmacy (-17.95%+/- 20.82%), parks (-18.77%+/- 37.34%), transit stations (-43.09%+/- 20.31%), workplaces (21.74%+/- 19.92%), and increased time spent at home (13.00%+/- 8.80%). Linear regression showed that European inhabitants stayed at home less when compared those on the American continent (beta=-4.933, SE=0.976, p<.001). In addition, every unit increase in the infection rate per 100,000 population increased 0.005 points in the mean time spent at home (beta=0.005, SE=0.001, p<.001). Conclusions: We provide evidence that increased infection rate of COVID-19 is associated with increased length of stay at home. As a main lesson, COVID-19 showed that in the absence of pharmacological resources, government authorities need to act quickly to contain the spread of infectious diseases.

20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 375-382, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022603

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic heightened inequalities of universal accessibility in the built environment. The visually impaired have been affected by the lack of mobility that resulted from social distancing and physical distancing. Numerous circulation networks, from small retail shops to large-scale public spaces, have been reorganized to limit the spread of COVID-19. By assigning an orientation to each lane, unidirectional circulation networks allow for physical distancing by limiting face-to-face interactions among most pedestrians. These unidirectional networks are communicated visually, by placing flat arrows on the floor, but not through the other senses and are thus inaccessible to the visually impaired. This demonstrates a lack of universally accessible design for unidirectional circulation. We propose two designs (asymmetrical blocks and cobblestone blocks) for a novel unidirectional tactile paving which allows the visually impaired to navigate through unidirectional circulation networks by feeling tiles with their feet and/or canes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Visually Impaired Persons , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Touch
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