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1.
Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther ; 31(3): 179-190, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090617

ABSTRACT

Objectives: BioNTech (Pfizer) and CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccines are two of the most administered coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines worldwide. Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 has caused a diagnostic challenge in oncological 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of the two most commonly administered vaccines worldwide. Methods: Patients over 18 years old who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for oncological purposes in our institution between January 13, 2021 and January 31, 2022, who received a single or second dose of the BioNTech or CoronaVac vaccines in the last two months, were included in the study. Descriptive analyses were presented as mean, standard deviation, frequency and ratio. Additionally, chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables. Results: Ipsilateral deltoid muscle hypermetabolism was observed in 6.9% (n=15) and 14.3% (n=22) patients who received CoronaVac and BioNTech vaccines, respectively. Ipsilateral axillary lymph node hypermetabolism was observed in 11% (n=24) and 41.6% (n=64) patients who received CoronaVac and BioNTech vaccines, respectively. Synchronous deltoid muscle and axillary lymph node hypermetabolism was observed in 4.14% (n=9) and 12.33% (n=19) patients who received CoronaVac and BioNTech vaccines, respectively. Significant differences were detected between CoronaVac and BioNTech vaccines in terms of ipsilateral deltoid muscle hypermetabolism, ipsilateral axillary lymph node hypermetabolism and synchronous deltoid muscle and axillary lymph node hypermetabolism (p<0.05). Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccination may result in ipsilateral axillary lymph node hypermetabolism, ipsilateral deltoid muscle hypermetabolism, or synchronous deltoid muscle and axillary lymph node hypermetabolism with different frequencies depending on the type of vaccination. Although synchronous deltoid muscle and axillary lymph node hypermetabolism can reduce misinterpretation of 18F-FDG PET/CT, to avoid misinterpretation, it is important to question the vaccination history during ongoing COVID-19 vaccination process.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009982

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The appearance of enlarged lymph nodes on imaging adds another layer of complexity to the differential diagnosis of disease progression versus immune response to COVID-19 vaccines. Our aim was to find an optimal timing between the vaccination and the PET-CT scan. (2) Methods: 25 cancer patients with 18F-FDG PET-CT evaluations and a history of COVID-19 vaccination between September 2021 and December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed to characterize the lymph nodes related to the time interval from COVID vaccination. (3) Results: All patients presented one or more adenopathies localized in the ipsilateral axilla (96%), ipsilateral cervical area (20%), ipsilateral retropectoral (20%) and pulmonary hilum (8%). The median value of SUVmax was 3.5 ± 0.5. There was a significant indirect correlation between SUVmax and the time passed between the vaccination and the PET CT (Pearson Correlation r = -0.54, p = 0.005). There was no significant difference (p = 0.19) in the SUVmax value in patients receiving Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine vs. BNT162b2 mRNA Pfizer vaccine. (4) Conclusions: Lymph node enlargement is commonly seen in patients post-vaccination for COVID-19 and must be differentiated from disease progression. The data from our study strongly suggests that the minimum interval of time between an mRNA vaccine and a PET-CT should be more than six weeks.

3.
Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther ; 31(2): 169-171, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969628

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old female patient underwent (18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) following modified radical mastectomy for cancer of the left breast. Ten days before the PET/CT, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine was injected intramuscularly into the right deltoid muscle. Increased (18F-FDG uptake of maximum standardized uptake value (11.0) was observed in the lymph nodes of the right axilla, which had not been observed in the previous PET/CT. The size of the oval-shaped lymph nodes was up to approximately 11×9 mm; however, it was larger than that observed on the previous PET/CT. We contemplate that the increased (18F-FDG uptake was a reactive change in the lymph nodes associated with the COVID-19 vaccine.

4.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 49(10): 3419-3429, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the cause of lymphopenia in patients with newly diagnosed COVID-19, we measured [18F]FDG uptake in several tissues, including the ileum, right colon, and caecum at diagnosis and after recovery and correlated these measurements with haematological parameters. METHODS: We studied, by [18F]FDG PET/CT, 18 newly diagnosed patients with COVID-19. Regions of interest were drawn over major organs and in the terminal ileum, caecum, and right colon, where the bowel wall was evaluable. Five patients were re-examined after recovery, and three of them also performed a white blood cell scan with 99mTc-HMPAO-WBC on both occasions. Complete blood count was performed on both occasions, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were measured at diagnosis. Data were analysed by a statistician. RESULTS: Patients had moderate severity COVID-19 syndrome. Basal [18F]FDG PET/CT showed focal lung uptake corresponding to hyperdense areas at CT. We also found high spleen, ileal, caecal, and colonic activity as compared to 18 control subjects. At recovery, hypermetabolic tissues tended to normalize, but activity in the caecum remained higher than in controls. Regression analyses showed an inverse correlation between CD4 + lymphocytes and [18F]FDG uptake in the caecum and colon and a direct correlation between CD8 + lymphocytes and [18F]FDG uptake in lungs and bone marrow. WBC scans showed the presence of leukocytes in the caecum and colon that disappeared at recovery. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients is associated with large bowel inflammation supporting the hypothesis that CD4 + lymphocytes migrate to peripheral lymphoid tissues in the bowel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphocytes , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
J Nucl Med ; 63(7): 1058-1063, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923992

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Long COVID syndrome, which impairs patients through cognitive deficits, fatigue, and exhaustion, has become increasingly relevant. Its underlying pathophysiology, however, is unknown. In this study, we assessed cognitive profiles and regional cerebral glucose metabolism as a biomarker of neuronal function in outpatients with long-term neurocognitive symptoms after COVID-19. Methods: Outpatients seeking neurologic counseling with neurocognitive symptoms persisting for more than 3 mo after polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 were included prospectively between June 16, 2020, and January 29, 2021. Patients (n = 31; age, 53.6 ± 2.0 y) in the long-term phase after COVID-19 (202 ± 58 d after positive PCR) were assessed with a neuropsychologic test battery. Cerebral 18F-FDG PET imaging was performed in 14 of 31 patients. Results: Patients self-reported impaired attention, memory, and multitasking abilities (31/31), word-finding difficulties (27/31), and fatigue (24/31). Twelve of 31 patients could not return to the previous level of independence/employment. For all cognitive domains, average group results of the neuropsychologic test battery showed no impairment, but deficits (z score < -1.5) were present on a single-patient level mainly in the domain of visual memory (in 7/31; other domains ≤ 2/31). Mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance (27/30 points) was above the cutoff value for detection of cognitive impairment (<26 points), although 9 of 31 patients performed slightly below this level (23-25 points). In the subgroup of patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET, we found no significant changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism. Conclusion: Long COVID patients self-report uniform symptoms hampering their ability to work in a relevant fraction. However, cognitive testing showed minor impairments only on a single-patient level approximately 6 mo after the infection, whereas functional imaging revealed no distinct pathologic changes. This clearly deviates from previous findings in subacute COVID-19 patients, suggesting that underlying neuronal causes are different and possibly related to the high prevalence of fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrum , Glucose , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebrum/metabolism , Fatigue , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Positron-Emission Tomography
6.
Brain ; 145(9): 3203-3213, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890882

ABSTRACT

While neuropathological examinations in patients who died from COVID-19 revealed inflammatory changes in cerebral white matter, cerebral MRI frequently fails to detect abnormalities even in the presence of neurological symptoms. Application of multi-compartment diffusion microstructure imaging (DMI), that detects even small volume shifts between the compartments (intra-axonal, extra-axonal and free water/CSF) of a white matter model, is a promising approach to overcome this discrepancy. In this monocentric prospective study, a cohort of 20 COVID-19 inpatients (57.3 ± 17.1 years) with neurological symptoms (e.g. delirium, cranial nerve palsies) and cognitive impairments measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test; 22.4 ± 4.9; 70% below the cut-off value <26/30 points) underwent DMI in the subacute stage of the disease (29.3 ± 14.8 days after positive PCR). A comparison of whole-brain white matter DMI parameters with a matched healthy control group (n = 35) revealed a volume shift from the intra- and extra-axonal space into the free water fraction (V-CSF). This widespread COVID-related V-CSF increase affected the entire supratentorial white matter with maxima in frontal and parietal regions. Streamline-wise comparisons between COVID-19 patients and controls further revealed a network of most affected white matter fibres connecting widespread cortical regions in all cerebral lobes. The magnitude of these white matter changes (V-CSF) was associated with cognitive impairment measured by the MoCA test (r = -0.64, P = 0.006) but not with olfactory performance (r = 0.29, P = 0.12). Furthermore, a non-significant trend for an association between V-CSF and interleukin-6 emerged (r = 0.48, P = 0.068), a prominent marker of the COVID-19 related inflammatory response. In 14/20 patients who also received cerebral 18F-FDG PET, V-CSF increase was associated with the expression of the previously defined COVID-19-related metabolic spatial covariance pattern (r = 0.57; P = 0.039). In addition, the frontoparietal-dominant pattern of neocortical glucose hypometabolism matched well to the frontal and parietal focus of V-CSF increase. In summary, DMI in subacute COVID-19 patients revealed widespread volume shifts compatible with vasogenic oedema, affecting various supratentorial white matter tracts. These changes were associated with cognitive impairment and COVID-19 related changes in 18F-FDG PET imaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , White Matter , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Edema , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Prospective Studies , Water , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
7.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850449

ABSTRACT

AIM: Arterial involvement has been implicated in the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging is a valuable tool for the assessment of aortic inflammation and is a predictor of outcome. We sought to prospectively assess the presence of aortic inflammation and its time-dependent trend in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Between November 2020 and May 2021, in this pilot, case-control study, we recruited 20 patients with severe or critical COVID-19 (mean age of 59 ± 12 years), while 10 age and sex-matched individuals served as the control group. Aortic inflammation was assessed by measuring 18F-FDG uptake in PET/CT performed 20-120 days post-admission. Global aortic target to background ratio (GLA-TBR) was calculated as the sum of TBRs of ascending and descending aorta, aortic arch, and abdominal aorta divided by 4. Index aortic segment TBR (IAS-TBR) was designated as the aortic segment with the highest TBR. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in aortic 18F-FDG PET/CT uptake between patients and controls (GLA-TBR: 1.46 [1.40-1.57] vs. 1.43 [1.32-1.70], respectively, P = 0.422 and IAS-TBR: 1.60 [1.50-1.67] vs. 1.50 [1.42-1.61], respectively, P = 0.155). There was a moderate correlation between aortic TBR values (both GLA and IAS) and time distance from admission to 18F-FDG PET-CT scan (Spearman's rho = - 0.528, P = 0.017 and Spearman's rho = - 0.480, p = 0.032, respectively). Patients who were scanned less than or equal to 60 days from admission (n = 11) had significantly higher GLA-TBR values compared to patients that were examined more than 60 days post-admission (GLA-TBR: 1.53 [1.42-1.60] vs. 1.40 [1.33-1.45], respectively, P = 0.016 and IAS-TBR: 1.64 [1.51-1.74] vs. 1.52 [1.46-1.60], respectively, P = 0.038). There was a significant difference in IAS- TBR between patients scanned ≤ 60 days and controls (1.64 [1.51-1.74] vs. 1.50 [1.41-1.61], P = 0.036). CONCLUSION: This is the first study suggesting that aortic inflammation, as assessed by 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging, is increased in the early post COVID phase in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 and largely resolves over time. Our findings may have important implications for the understanding of the course of the disease and for improving our preventive and therapeutic strategies.

8.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818059

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus infects organs other than the lung, such as mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen, and liver, but, to date, metabolic imaging studies obtained in short-term follow-ups of patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 infection are rare. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of [18F]FDG-PET/CT in the short-term follow-up of patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia and to explore the association of the findings with clinical prognostic markers. The prospective study included 20 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (November 2020-March 2021). Clinical and laboratory test findings were gathered at admission, 48-72 h post-admission, and 2-3 months post-discharge, when [18F]FDG-PET/CT and respiratory function tests were performed. Lung volumes, spirometry, lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and respiratory muscle strength were measured. Volumetric [18F]FDG-PET/CT results were correlated with laboratory and respiratory parameters. Eleven [18F]FDG-PET/CT (55%) were positive, with hypermetabolic mediastinal lymphadenopathy in 90.9%. Mediastinal lesion's SUVpeak was correlated with white cells' count. Eleven (55%) patients had impaired respiratory function, including reduced DLCO (35%). SUVpeak was correlated with %predicted-DLCO. TLG was negatively correlated with %predicted-DLCO and TLC. In the short-term follow-up of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, [18F]FDG-PET/CT findings revealed significant detectable inflammation in lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes that correlated with pulmonary function impairment in more than half of the patients.

9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(12): 2834, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679127

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originated from Wuhan province of China, is responsible for causing severe respiratory syndrome (SARS-Cov-2). Initial specific investigation to diagnose the viral infection includes nasopharyngeal nucleic acid testing (RT-PCR). However other modalities can also aid in detection of COVID-19 infection. For instance, COVID pneumonitis related findings on positron emission tomography (PET/CT) scan acquired, during routine evaluation; can help in detection the viral infection in asymptomatic patients thereby preventing further spread of infection to other patients, physicians; and family members. This can alert physicians in taking prophylactic and preventive measures for management of these asymptomatic patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Nucl Med ; 63(2): 274-279, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674255

ABSTRACT

Although the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present as nonspecific clinical forms, subclinical cases represent an important route of transmission and a significant source of mortality, mainly in high-risk subpopulations such as cancer patients. A deeper knowledge of the metabolic shift in cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 could provide new insights about its pathogenic and host response and help to diagnose pulmonary involvement. We explored the potential added diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in asymptomatic cancer patients with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia by investigating the association between metabolic and structural changes in the lung parenchyma. Methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT studies acquired between February 19 and May 29, 2020, were reviewed to identify those cancer patients with incidental findings suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia. PET studies were interpreted through qualitative (visual) and semiquantitative (measurement of SUVmax) analysis evaluating lung findings. Several characteristic signs of COVID-19 pneumonia on CT were described as COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) categories (1-6). After comparing the SUVmax of pulmonary infiltrates among different CO-RADS categories, we explored the best potential cutoffs for pulmonary SUVmax against CO-RADS categories as the gold standard result to eliminate the possibility that the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia exists. Results: On multimodal PET/CT imaging, CT signs classified as CO-RADS category 5 or 6 were found in 16 of 41 (39%) oncologic patients. SUVmax was higher in patients with categories 5 and 6 than in patients with category 4 (6.17 ± 0.82 vs. 3.78 ± 0.50, P = 0.04) or categories 2 and 3 (3.59 ± 0.41, P = 0.01). A specificity of 93.8% (95% CI, 71.7%-99.7%) and an accuracy of 92.9% were obtained when combining a CO-RADS score of 5 or 6 with an SUVmax of 2.45 in pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: In asymptomatic cancer patients, the metabolic activity in lung infiltrates is closely associated with several combined tomographic changes characteristic of COVID-19 pneumonia. Multimodal 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging could provide additional information during early diagnosis in selected predisposed patients during the pandemic. The prognostic implications of simultaneous radiologic and molecular findings in cancer patients and other subpopulations at high risk for COVID-19 pneumonia deserve further evaluation in prospective research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology
11.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(6): e633-e638, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Reactive axillary lymph nodes (ALN) may occur post-COVID-19 vaccination. This may be confused with malignant nodal metastases on oncological imaging. We aimed to determine the reactive ALN incidence and duration on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT), and its relationship with gender, age and vaccine type. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Two-hundred and four eligible patients had 18F-FDG PET-CT between 01 January 2021 and 31 March 2021, post-vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. Image analysis was performed on dedicated workstations. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six per cent of patients had reactive ALN until 10 weeks post-vaccination; reducing in frequency and intensity with time. Women were more likely to have reactive ALN compared with men. The frequency and intensity were higher in patients aged <65 years compared with those aged ≥65 years. However, no difference was found between both vaccine types in our study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' awareness of COVID-19 vaccine-related reactive ALN on 18F-FDG PET-CT is important to avoid inappropriate upstaging of cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Incidence , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Nucl Med ; 63(8): 1231-1238, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551435

ABSTRACT

We aimed to predict the presence of vaccine-induced hypermetabolic lymph nodes (v-HLNs) on 18F-FDG PET/CT after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and determine their association with lymphocyte counts. Methods: In this retrospective single-center study, we included consecutive patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging after messenger RNA- or viral vector-based COVID-19 vaccination between early March and late April 2021. Demographics, clinical parameters, and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) were collected, and their association with the presence of v-HLNs in the draining territory was studied by logistic regression. Results: In total, 260 patients were eligible, including 209 (80%) women and 145 (56%) with breast cancer. The median age was 50 y (range, 23-96 y). The messenger RNA vaccine had been given to 233 (90%). Ninety (35%) patients had v-HLNs, with a median SUVmax of 3.7 (range, 2.0-26.3), and 74 (44%) displayed lymphopenia, with a median ALC of 1.4 × 109/L (range, 0.3-18.3 × 109/L). An age of no more than 50 y (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0-4.5), the absence of lymphopenia (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3), and less than a 30-d interval from the last vaccine injection to the 18F-FDG PET/CT (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6) were independent factors for v-HLNs on multivariate analysis. In breast cancer patients, the absence of lymphopenia was the only independent factor significantly associated with v-HLNs (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-7.4). Conclusion: Patients with a normal ALC after COVID-19 vaccination were more likely to have v-HLNs on 18F-FDG PET/CT, both of which might be associated with a stronger immune response to vaccination.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lymph Nodes , Lymphopenia , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533839

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal disease (IFD) leads to increased mortality, morbidity, and costs of treatment in patients with immunosuppressive conditions. The definitive diagnosis of IFD relies on the isolation of the causative fungal agents through microscopy, culture, or nucleic acid testing in tissue samples obtained from the sites of the disease. Biopsy is not always feasible or safe to be undertaken in immunocompromised hosts at risk of IFD. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are, therefore, needed for the diagnosis and treatment response assessment of IFD. The available techniques that identify fungal-specific antigens in biological samples for diagnosing IFD have variable sensitivity and specificity. They also have limited utility in response assessment. Imaging has, therefore, been applied for the noninvasive detection of IFD. Morphologic imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most applied technique. These techniques are neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific for the early diagnosis of IFD. Morphologic changes evaluated by CT and MRI occur later in the disease course and during recovery after successful treatment. These modalities may, therefore, not be ideal for early diagnosis and early response to therapy determination. Radionuclide imaging allows for targeting the host response to pathogenic fungi or specific structures of the pathogen itself. This makes radionuclide imaging techniques suitable for the early diagnosis and treatment response assessment of IFD. In this review, we aimed to discuss the interplay of host immunity, immunosuppression, and the occurrence of IFD. We also discuss the currently available radionuclide probes that have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies for their ability to detect IFD.

14.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(3): 284-285, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399106

ABSTRACT

Incidental detection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related lung changes on 18F-FDG PET/CT images of oncology patients has been increasingly reported. Most of the case reports or series have stressed the retrospective diagnosis of COVID-19 with the help of 18F-FDG PET/CT lung findings. In this case report, we introduce a different aspect of COVID-19-related lung changes on 18F-FDG PET/CT, interfering with the evaluation of metastatic lung lesions in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(10): 3187-3197, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396993

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study hypothesised that whole-body [18F]FDG-PET/CT might provide insight into the pathophysiology of long COVID. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 13 adult long COVID patients who complained for at least one persistent symptom for >30 days after infection recovery. A group of 26 melanoma patients with negative PET/CT matched for sex/age was used as controls (2:1 control to case ratio). Qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of whole-body images was performed. Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests were applied to test differences between the two groups. Voxel-based analysis was performed to compare brain metabolism in cases and controls. Cases were further grouped according to prevalent symptoms and analysed accordingly. RESULTS: In 4/13 long COVID patients, CT images showed lung abnormalities presenting mild [18F]FDG uptake. Many healthy organs/parenchyma SUVs and SUV ratios significantly differed between the two groups (p ≤ 0.05). Long COVID patients exhibited brain hypometabolism in the right parahippocampal gyrus and thalamus (uncorrected p < 0.001 at voxel level). Specific area(s) of hypometabolism characterised patients with persistent anosmia/ageusia, fatigue, and vascular uptake (uncorrected p < 0.005 at voxel level). CONCLUSION: [18F]FDG PET/CT acknowledged the multi-organ nature of long COVID, supporting the hypothesis of underlying systemic inflammation. Whole-body images showed increased [18F]FDG uptake in several "target" and "non-target" tissues. We found a typical pattern of brain hypometabolism associated with persistent complaints at the PET time, suggesting a different temporal sequence for brain and whole-body inflammatory changes. This evidence underlined the potential value of whole-body [18F]FDG PET in disclosing the pathophysiology of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2
16.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(11): 2322-2325, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340495

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a worldwide pandemic. Especially in the centers most affected by the pandemic, symptoms (such as fever, cough, myalgia, or fatigue) and/or radiological signs (such as ground-glass opacity) typically related to COVID-19 often diverted clinicians' attention from other diseases. Despite the urgency to recognize and cure SARS-CoV-2 infection, a plethora of differential diagnoses must be considered, and other diseases must be equally and promptly treated, as described in this case report.

17.
Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol (Engl Ed) ; 40(5): 299-309, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338467

ABSTRACT

In recent months, much of the scientific efforts have focused on research on SARSCoV-2 infection and its consequences in humans. Still, many aspects remain unknown. It is known that the damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 is multifactorial and that its extension goes beyond lung inflammation and the acute phase, with the appearance of numerous complications and sequelae. To date, knowledge about the usefulness of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the acute phase has been limited to the incidental detection of SARS-CoV-2 unsuspected pneumonia. Recent studies have been appearing collecting the findings of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in long COVID-19 or persistent COVID-19 state as well as the alterations caused after mass vaccination of the population in the metabolic studies. This work aims to review the existing literature focusing on these three issues and to briefly present our own preliminary experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods
18.
Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol ; 40(5): 299-309, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307161

ABSTRACT

In recent months, much of the scientific efforts have focused on research on SARSCoV-2 infection and its consequences in humans. Still, many aspects remain unknown. It is known that the damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 is multifactorial and that its extension goes beyond lung inflammation and the acute phase, with the appearance of numerous complications and sequelae. To date, knowledge about the usefulness of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the acute phase has been limited to the incidental detection of SARS-CoV-2 unsuspected pneumonia. Recent studies have been appearing collecting the findings of 18F-FDG- PET/CT in long COVID-19 or persistent COVID-19 state as well as the alterations caused after mass vaccination of the population in the metabolic studies. This work aims to review the existing literature focusing on these three issues and to briefly present our own preliminary experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295895

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several case studies demonstrated that many asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 underwent fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination for various indications. However, there is a lack of literature to characterize the pattern of [18F]FDG PET/CT imaging on asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Therefore, a systematic review to analyze the pulmonary findings of [18F]FDG PET/CT on asymptomatic COVID-19 patients was conducted. This systematic review was performed under the guidelines of PRISMA. PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science were used to search for articles for this review. Articles with the key words: "asymptomatic", "COVID-19", "[18F]FDG PET/CT", and "nuclear medicine" were searched for from 1 January 2020 to 20 May 2021. Thirty asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 were included in the eighteen articles. These patients had a mean age of 62.25 ± 14.85 years (male: 67.71 ± 12.00; female: 56.79 ± 15.81). [18F]FDG-avid lung lesions were found in 93.33% (28/30) of total patients. The major lesion was [18F]FDG-avid multiple ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the peripheral or subpleural region in bilateral lungs, followed by the consolidation. The intensity of [18F]FDG uptake in multiple GGOs was 5.605 ± 2.914 (range from 2 to 12) for maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax). [18F]FDG-avid thoracic lymph nodes (LN) were observed in 40% (12/40) of the patients. They mostly appeared in both mediastinal and hilar regions with an SUVmax of 5.8 ± 2.93 (range from 2.5 to 9.6). The [18F]FDG uptake was observed in multiple GGOs, as well as in the mediastinal and hilar LNs. These are common patterns in PET/CT of asymptomatic patients with COVID-19.

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