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1.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S56-S57, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062107

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The considerable overlap in case definition and clinical features between patients with COVID-19 associated Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) and Kawasaki disease (KD) suggests shared pathogenesis. We sought to compare demographic, clinical presentation, management and outcomes of patients by COVID-19 status. Method(s): The International KD Registry (IKDR) began enrolling patients with clinical features of either acute MIS-C or KD or fever with hyperinflammation beginning in January 2020. The IKDR is unique regarding broad patient selection and includes sites from North, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Patient groups stratified by COVID-19 status were compared. Result(s): As of October 6, 2021, 1330 patients were registered from 31 sites. COVID status was POSITIVE for 59% (confirmed household COVID-19 contact and/or positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or serology), POSSIBLE for 4% (suggestive clinical features but some negative tests or absent exposure), NEGATIVE for 23%, and UNKNOWN (no known exposure and testing not com-pleted) for 14% (TABLE). Most of the UNKNOWN patients were from early in the COVID-19 pandemic before MIS-C was defined and before COVID-19 serologic testing was widely used. POSITIVE and POSSIBLE patients were older, had fewer KD clinical criteria, greater gastrointestinal symptoms, were more likely to present with shock and require ICU admission and inotropic support. POSSIBLE patients had greater days from symptom onset to first immune modulation treatment, with no differences between groups regarding days from admission to first treatment. Most patients in each group received intravenous immune globu-lin, with POSITIVE and POSSIBLE patients more likely to have received steroids and anakinra. NEGATIVE and UNKNOWN patients had higher maximal coronary artery Z scores, with a trend to having higher categories of aneurysm involvement. Conclusion(s): While there was considerable overlap in presentation, management and outcomes between COVID-19 POSITIVE/POSSIBLE (presumed MIS-C) and COVID NEGATIVE/UNKNOWN patients (presumed KD), COVID-19 POSITIVE/POSSIBLE patients had more severe presentations and required more intensive management, although coronary artery outcomes trended to be less severe. Patient recruitment con-tinues, and in-depth comparison of laboratory features and appli-cation of machine learning approaches to patient differentiation and prediction of optimal management pathways are forthcoming.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 1990-1998, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022576

ABSTRACT

Recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants have greater potential than earlier variants to cause vaccine breakthrough infections. During emergence of the Delta and Omicron variants, a matched case-control analysis used a viral genomic sequence dataset linked with demographic and vaccination information from New York, USA, to examine associations between virus lineage and patient vaccination status, patient age, vaccine type, and time since vaccination. Case-patients were persons infected with the emerging virus lineage, and controls were persons infected with any other virus lineage. Infections in fully vaccinated and boosted persons were significantly associated with the Omicron lineage. Odds of infection with Omicron relative to Delta generally decreased with increasing patient age. A similar pattern was observed with vaccination status during Delta emergence but was not significant. Vaccines offered less protection against Omicron, thereby increasing the number of potential hosts for emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , New York/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 1970-1976, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009833

ABSTRACT

The 4 common types of human coronaviruses (HCoVs)-2 alpha (HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E) and 2 beta (HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43)-generally cause mild upper respiratory illness. Seasonal patterns and annual variation in predominant types of HCoVs are known, but parameters of expected seasonality have not been defined. We defined seasonality of HCoVs during July 2014-November 2021 in the United States by using a retrospective method applied to National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System data. In the 6 HCoV seasons before 2020-21, season onsets occurred October 21-November 12, peaks January 6-February 13, and offsets April 18-June 27; most (>93%) HCoV detection was within the defined seasonal onsets and offsets. The 2020-21 HCoV season onset was 11 weeks later than in prior seasons, probably associated with COVID-19 mitigation efforts. Better definitions of HCoV seasonality can be used for clinical preparedness and for determining expected patterns of emerging coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(9): 1916-1918, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974603

ABSTRACT

Human infection with SARS-CoV-2 poses a risk for transmission to animals. To characterize the risk for cattle, we serologically investigated 1,000 samples collected from cattle in Germany in late 2021. Eleven antibody-positive samples indicated that cattle may be occasionally infected by contact with SARS-CoV-2-positive keepers, but we found no indication of further spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Germany/epidemiology , Humans
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(9): 1777-1784, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933544

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against death in Japan remains unknown. Furthermore, although evidence indicates that healthcare capacity influences case-fatality risk (CFR), it remains unknown whether this relationship is mediated by age. With a modeling study, we analyzed daily COVID-19 cases and deaths during January-August 2021 by using Tokyo surveillance data to jointly estimate COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against death and age-specific CFR. We also examined daily healthcare operations to determine the association between healthcare burden and age-specific CFR. Among fully vaccinated patients, vaccine effectiveness against death was 88.6% among patients 60-69 years of age, 83.9% among patients 70-79 years of age, 83.5% among patients 80-89 years of age, and 77.7% among patients >90 years of age. A positive association of several indicators of healthcare burden with CFR among patients >70 years of age suggested an age-dependent effect of healthcare burden on CFR in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1633-1641, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924010

ABSTRACT

To identify demographic factors associated with delaying or not receiving a second dose of the 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccine series, we matched 323 million single Pfizer-BioNTech (https://www.pfizer.com) and Moderna (https://www.modernatx.com) COVID-19 vaccine administration records from 2021 and determined whether second doses were delayed or missed. We used 2 sets of logistic regression models to examine associated factors. Overall, 87.3% of recipients received a timely second dose (≤42 days between first and second dose), 3.4% received a delayed second dose (>42 days between first and second dose), and 9.4% missed the second dose. Persons more likely to have delayed or missed the second dose belonged to several racial/ethnic minority groups, were 18-39 years of age, lived in more socially vulnerable areas, and lived in regions other than the northeastern United States. Logistic regression models identified specific subgroups for providing outreach and encouragement to receive subsequent doses on time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , RNA, Messenger , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1442-1445, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917186

ABSTRACT

To detect new and changing SARS-CoV-2 variants, we investigated candidate Delta-Omicron recombinant genomes from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national genomic surveillance. Laboratory and bioinformatic investigations identified and validated 9 genetically related SARS-CoV-2 viruses with a hybrid Delta-Omicron spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
8.
Phytother Res ; 36(9): 3632-3643, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1913878

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is arguably the biggest health crisis the world has faced in the 21st century. Therefore, two of the polyherbal formulations, Infuza and Kulzam were assessed for the prevention of COVID-19 infection as a repurposed medication. Four hundred seven high-risk subjects were recruited in the present open-label randomized controlled clinical trial for eligibility. After assessment for eligibility, remaining 251 subjects were randomized to the test and control groups. Further, 52 high-risk subjects in Infuza, 51 in Kulzam, 51 in Infuza & Kulzam and 53 in control group completed the 14 days of intervention/assessment. The phenotyping of lymphocytes at baseline (0 day) and after 14 days of treatment was carried out by flow cytometry assays. A total of 15.09% high-risk subjects in control group turned positive as compared to only 7.69% in Infuza, 3.92% in Kulzam and 1.96% in Infuza & Kulzam groups. The rate of conversion to COVID-19 infection in Infuza & Kulzam group was minimal and statistically significant as compared to control group (p0.017). No significant changes in phenotype of lymphocytes (T, B, NK cells), absolute lymphocyte count and cytokine levels were found in study groups. However, there was a decreasing trend of hs-CRP level in high-risk subjects after intervention of polyherbal formulations for 14 days. The combination of Infuza and Kulzam may synergistically prevent COVID-19 infection in high-risk subjects of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(4): 597-608, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898684

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Little is known about the value of routine clinical assessment in identifying patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to compare the exposure history, signs and symptoms, laboratory, and radiographic features of ED patients who tested positive and negative for COVID-19. Methods: This was a case-control study in 7 EDs in Hong Kong from 20 January to 29 February 2020. Thirty-seven patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were age- and sex-matched to 111 controls. We compared the groups with univariate analysis and calculated the odds ratio (OR) of having COVID-19 for each characteristic that was significantly different between the groups with adjustment for age and presumed location of acquiring the infection. Results: There were no significant differences in patient characteristics and reported symptoms between the groups. A positive contact history within 14 days (adjusted OR 37.61, 95% CI: 10.86-130.19), bilateral chest radiograph shadow (adjusted OR 13.19, 95% CI: 4.66-37.35), having prior medical consultation (adjusted OR 7.43, 95% 2.89-19.09), a lower white blood cell count (adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.51), and a lower platelet count (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12) were associated with a higher odds of COVID-19 separately. A higher neutrophil count was associated with a lower odds of COVID-19 (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). Conclusion: This study highlights a number of clinical features that may be useful in identifying high-risk patients for early testing and isolation while waiting for the test result. Further studies are warranted to verify the findings.

10.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 175, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is identified as the pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). The intravascular thrombotic phenomena related to the COVID-19 are emerging as an important complication that contribute to significant mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 62-year-old man with severe COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes. After symptomatic and supportive treatment, the respiratory function was gradually improved. However, the patient suddenly developed abdominal pain, and the enhanced CT scan revealed renal artery thrombosis. Given the risk of surgery and the duration of the disease, clopidogrel and heparin sodium were included in the subsequent treatment. The patient recovered and remained stable upon follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombosis is at a high risk in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia because of hypercoagulable state, blood stasis and endothelial injury. Thrombotic events caused by hypercoagulation status secondary to vascular endothelial injury deserves our attention. Because timely anticoagulation can reduce the risk of early complications, as illustrated in this case report.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1366-1374, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875359

ABSTRACT

Each September in England, ≈1 million students relocate to study at universities. To determine COVID-19 cases and outbreaks among university students after their return to university during the COVID pandemic in September 2020, we identified students with COVID-19 (student case-patients) by reviewing contact tracing records identifying attendance at university and residence in student accommodations identified by matching case-patients' residential addresses with national property databases. We determined COVID-19 rates in towns/cities with and without a university campus. We identified 53,430 student case-patients during September 1-December 31, 2020, which accounted for 2.7% of all cases during this period. Student case-patients increased rapidly after the start of the term, driven initially by cases and outbreaks in student accommodations. Case rates among students 18-23 years of age doubled at the start of term in towns with universities. Our findings highlight the need for face-to-face and control measures to reduce virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1281-1283, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862553

ABSTRACT

Bars and restaurants are high-risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. A multistate outbreak after a bar gathering in Chicago, Illinois, USA, highlights Omicron variant transmissibility, the value of local genomic surveillance and interstate coordination, vaccination value, and the potential for rapid transmission of a novel variant across multiple states after 1 event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1527-1530, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817900

ABSTRACT

Epidemiologic and genomic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infections associated with 2 repatriation flights from India to Australia in April 2021 indicated that 4 passengers transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to >11 other passengers. Results suggest transmission despite mandatory mask use and predeparture testing. For subsequent flights, predeparture quarantine and expanded predeparture testing were implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 1083, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809297
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798876

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has culminated in widespread infections and increased deaths over the last 3 years. In addition, it has also resulted in collateral economic and geopolitical tensions. Vaccination remains one of the cornerstones in the fight against COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy must be critically evaluated in individual countries to promote vaccine uptake. We describe a survey conducted in three Singapore community hospitals looking at healthcare workers' vaccine hesitancy and the barriers for its uptake. The online anonymous survey was conducted from March to July 2021 on all staff across three community hospital sites in SingHealth Singapore. The questionnaire was developed following a scoping review and was pilot tested and finalized into a 58-item instrument capturing data on demographics, contextual features, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and other vaccine-related factors in the vaccine hesitancy matrix. Logistic regression analysis was employed for all co-variates that are significant in univariate analysis. The response rate was 23.9%, and the vaccine hesitancy prevalence was 48.5% in the initial phase of the pandemic. On logistic regression analysis, only being female, a younger age, not having had a loved one or friend infected with COVID-19 and obtaining information from newspapers were associated with vaccine hesitancy in healthcare workers in Singapore community hospitals.

17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 873-876, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771002

ABSTRACT

The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network conducts longitudinal surveillance of pregnant persons in the United States with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy. Of 6,551 infected pregnant persons in this analysis, 142 (2.2%) had positive RNA tests >90 days and up to 416 days after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , United States
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 901-903, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760187

ABSTRACT

To determine optimal quarantine duration, we evaluated time from exposure to diagnosis for 107 close contacts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant case-patients. Average time from exposure to diagnosis was 3.7 days; 70% of diagnoses were made on day 5 and 99.1% by day 10, suggesting 10-day quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 998-1001, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742173

ABSTRACT

To determine virus shedding duration, we examined clinical samples collected from the upper respiratory tracts of persons infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant in Japan during November 29-December 18, 2021. Vaccinees with mild or asymptomatic infection shed infectious virus 6-9 days after onset or diagnosis, even after symptom resolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 1050-1052, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731731

ABSTRACT

To determine neutralizing activity against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ancestral strain and 4 variants of concern, we tested serum from 30 persons with breakthrough infection after 2-dose vaccination. Cross-variant neutralizing activity was comparable to that after 3-dose vaccination. Shorter intervals between vaccination and breakthrough infection correlated with lower neutralizing titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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