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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1366-1374, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875359

ABSTRACT

Each September in England, ≈1 million students relocate to study at universities. To determine COVID-19 cases and outbreaks among university students after their return to university during the COVID pandemic in September 2020, we identified students with COVID-19 (student case-patients) by reviewing contact tracing records identifying attendance at university and residence in student accommodations identified by matching case-patients' residential addresses with national property databases. We determined COVID-19 rates in towns/cities with and without a university campus. We identified 53,430 student case-patients during September 1-December 31, 2020, which accounted for 2.7% of all cases during this period. Student case-patients increased rapidly after the start of the term, driven initially by cases and outbreaks in student accommodations. Case rates among students 18-23 years of age doubled at the start of term in towns with universities. Our findings highlight the need for face-to-face and control measures to reduce virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1281-1283, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862553

ABSTRACT

Bars and restaurants are high-risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. A multistate outbreak after a bar gathering in Chicago, Illinois, USA, highlights Omicron variant transmissibility, the value of local genomic surveillance and interstate coordination, vaccination value, and the potential for rapid transmission of a novel variant across multiple states after 1 event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Gene Rep ; 27: 101624, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851129

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who has a compromised immune system can be associated with more significant risks for severe complications. To date, no comprehensive study has been performed to evaluate HIV in patients with COVID-19. In the present study, we assessed the status of patients co-infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HIV as a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic literature search strategy was conducted via reviewing original research articles published in Medline, Web of Science, and Embase databases in 2019 and 2020. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA software, version 14.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA), to report the prevalence of HIV among patients with COVID-19. Case reports/case series were also evaluated as a systematic review. Results: Sixty-three studies (53 case reports/case series and ten prevalence studies) were included in our study. A meta-analysis of prevalence studies showed that HIV infection among patients with COVID-19 was reported in 6 countries (Uganda, China, Iran, USA, Italy, and Spain) with an overall frequency of 1.2% [(95% CI) 0.8-1.7] among 14,424 COVID-19 patients. According to the case reports and case series, 111 patients with HIV have been reported among 113 patients with COVID-19 from 19 countries. Most of the cases were in the USA, China, Italy, and Spain. Conclusion: The small number of SARS-CoV-2-HIV co-infected patients reported in the literature makes it difficult to draw precise conclusions. However, since people with HIV are more likely to develop more severe complications of COVID-19, targeted policies to address this raised risk in the current pandemic should be considered. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying underlying diseases, co-infections, co-morbidities, laboratory findings, and beneficial treatment strategies for HIV patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1442-1445, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847127

ABSTRACT

To detect new and changing SARS-CoV-2 variants, we investigated candidate Delta-Omicron recombinant genomes from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national genomic surveillance. Laboratory and bioinformatic investigations identified and validated 9 genetically related SARS-CoV-2 viruses with a hybrid Delta-Omicron spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
5.
Ain - Shams Journal of Anesthesiology ; 14(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837966

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn December of 2019, a new disease which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, as an epidemic disease out of Wuhan, China, began to circulate. On March 11, 2020, the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health had announced the first case from Turkey. The aim of this study is to analyze the scientific publications in the field of COVID-19 included in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) from Turkey and to establish a theoretical background for future studies in the health literature with obtained valuable information about the publications. We searched all papers published in the field of COVID-19 by using the terms of “COVID-19,” “2019-n-CoV,” “SARS-CoV-2,” “Coronavirus disease 19,” and “2019 novel coronavirus” as scientific nomenclatures of COVID-19 in the topic search section of the software.ResultsOverall, 47,368 papers, indexed by SCI-E, were found related to COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and December 13, 2020. Of these, 931 were from Turkey. In terms of specialities, the most contribution was from the Medicine General Internal followed by Dermatology. Most of the publications were article. English was the most preferred language in papers. Dermatological Theraphy published the most paper.ConclusionsApplying this kind of analysis on an intermittent basis gives a general perspective for contribution of a countries to scientific publications and useful for the further studies.

6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; 38(3):582-586, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1834994

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical features of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant infection and abnormal liver function in Guangdong Province, China. Methods The patients with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection who belonged to the same chain of transmission in Guangdong Province (Guangzhou and Foshan) and were admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University from May 21 to June 18, 2021 were enrolled in this study, and the judgment criteria for liver function were alanine aminotransferase (male/female) > 50/40 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase > 40 U/L, total bilirubin > 26 μmol/L, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase > 60 U/L, and alkaline phosphatase (ALK) > 125 U/L. Abnormality in any one item of the above criteria was defined as abnormal liver function, and such patients were included in analysis (the patients, aged < 18 years, who had a mild or moderate increase in ALP alone were not included in analysis). Clinical data were compared between the patients with normal liver function and those with abnormal liver function, and the etiology and prognosis of abnormal liver function were analyzed. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups;the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. Results Among the 166 patients with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection, 32 (19.3%) had abnormal liver function with mild-to-moderate increases in liver function parameters, and compared with the normal liver function group, the abnormal liver function group had a significantly higher proportion of critical patients (χ2=38.689, P < 0.001) and significantly higher age and inflammatory cytokines [C-reactive protein type, serum amyloid A, and interleukin-6 (IL-6)](all P < 0.05). Among the 32 patients with abnormal liver function, 13 patients had abnormal liver function on admission (defined as primary group), while 19 patients had normal liver function on admission but were found to have abnormal liver function by reexamination after treatment (defined as secondary group). For the primary group, the evidence of abnormal liver function was not found for 3 patients (3/13, 23.1%), and the possibility of toxic liver injury directly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection was considered. Among the 19 patients in the secondary group, 9 (47.4%) had mild/common type and 10 (52.6%) had critical type, and all critical patients had the evidence of liver injury indirectly caused by the significant increases in C-reactive protein type, serum amyloid A, and IL-6 and hypoxemia;the evidence of abnormal liver function was not found for only 1 patient (1/19, 5.3%), and the possibility of toxic liver injury directly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection was considered. All 32 patients with abnormal liver function had [JP2]significant reductions in liver function parameters after treatment including liver protection. Conclusion As for the patients with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection who belong to the same chain of transmission in Guangdong Province, the critical patients show a significantly higher proportion of patients with abnormal liver function than the patients with other clinical types, and other factors except SARS-CoV-2 infection and indirect injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are the main cause of liver injury. © 2022 Editorial Board of Jilin University. All rights reserved.

7.
Global Health ; 18(1): 37, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncertainties surrounding the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) remain a major global health challenge and requires attention. Researchers and medical experts have made remarkable efforts to reduce the number of cases and prevent future outbreaks through vaccines and other measures. However, there is little evidence on how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection entropy can be applied in predicting the possible number of infections and deaths. In addition, more studies on how the COVID-19 infection density contributes to the rise in infections are needed. This study demonstrates how the SARS-COV-2 daily infection entropy can be applied in predicting the number of infections within a given period. In addition, the infection density within a given population attributes to an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases and, consequently, the new variants. RESULTS: Using the COVID-19 initial data reported by Johns Hopkins University, World Health Organization (WHO) and Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID), the result shows that the original SAR-COV-2 strain has R0<1 with an initial infection growth rate entropy of 9.11 bits for the United States (U.S.). At close proximity, the average infection time for an infected individual to infect others within a susceptible population is approximately 7 minutes. Assuming no vaccines were available, in the U.S., the number of infections could range between 41,220,199 and 82,440,398 in late March 2022 with approximately, 1,211,036 deaths. However, with the available vaccines, nearly 48 Million COVID-19 cases and 706, 437 deaths have been prevented. CONCLUSION: The proposed technique will contribute to the ongoing investigation of the COVID-19 pandemic and a blueprint to address the uncertainties surrounding the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
8.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 175, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is identified as the pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). The intravascular thrombotic phenomena related to the COVID-19 are emerging as an important complication that contribute to significant mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 62-year-old man with severe COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes. After symptomatic and supportive treatment, the respiratory function was gradually improved. However, the patient suddenly developed abdominal pain, and the enhanced CT scan revealed renal artery thrombosis. Given the risk of surgery and the duration of the disease, clopidogrel and heparin sodium were included in the subsequent treatment. The patient recovered and remained stable upon follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombosis is at a high risk in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia because of hypercoagulable state, blood stasis and endothelial injury. Thrombotic events caused by hypercoagulation status secondary to vascular endothelial injury deserves our attention. Because timely anticoagulation can reduce the risk of early complications, as illustrated in this case report.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1527-1530, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817900

ABSTRACT

Epidemiologic and genomic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infections associated with 2 repatriation flights from India to Australia in April 2021 indicated that 4 passengers transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to >11 other passengers. Results suggest transmission despite mandatory mask use and predeparture testing. For subsequent flights, predeparture quarantine and expanded predeparture testing were implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 1083, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809297
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798876

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has culminated in widespread infections and increased deaths over the last 3 years. In addition, it has also resulted in collateral economic and geopolitical tensions. Vaccination remains one of the cornerstones in the fight against COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy must be critically evaluated in individual countries to promote vaccine uptake. We describe a survey conducted in three Singapore community hospitals looking at healthcare workers' vaccine hesitancy and the barriers for its uptake. The online anonymous survey was conducted from March to July 2021 on all staff across three community hospital sites in SingHealth Singapore. The questionnaire was developed following a scoping review and was pilot tested and finalized into a 58-item instrument capturing data on demographics, contextual features, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and other vaccine-related factors in the vaccine hesitancy matrix. Logistic regression analysis was employed for all co-variates that are significant in univariate analysis. The response rate was 23.9%, and the vaccine hesitancy prevalence was 48.5% in the initial phase of the pandemic. On logistic regression analysis, only being female, a younger age, not having had a loved one or friend infected with COVID-19 and obtaining information from newspapers were associated with vaccine hesitancy in healthcare workers in Singapore community hospitals.

13.
Front Psychol ; 13: 764638, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775762

ABSTRACT

Objective: Investigating the mental health status of Chinese resident physicians during the 2019 new coronavirus outbreak. Methods: A cluster sampling method was adopted to collect all China-wide resident physicians during the epidemic period as the research subjects. The Symptom Checklist-90 self-rating scale was used to assess mental health using WeChat electronic questionnaires. Results: In total, 511 electronic questionnaires were recovered, all of which were valid. The negative psychological detection rate was 93.9% (480/511). Among the symptoms on the self-rating scale, more than half of the Chinese resident physicians had mild to moderate symptoms of mental unhealthiness, and a few had asymptomatic or severe unhealthy mental states. In particular, the detection rate of abnormality was 88.3% (451/511), obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 90.4% (462/511), the sensitive interpersonal relationship was 90.6% (463/511), depression abnormality was 90.8% (464)/511), anxiety abnormality was 88.3% (451/511), hostility abnormality was 85.3% (436/511), terror abnormality was 84.9% (434/511), paranoia abnormality was 86.9% (444/511), psychotic abnormalities was 89.0% (455/511), and abnormal sleeping and eating status was 90.8% (464/511). The scores of various psychological symptoms of pediatric resident physicians were significantly lower than those of non-pediatrics (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The new coronavirus epidemic has a greater impact on the mental health of Chinese resident physicians.

14.
Food Science and Technology ; 42:6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1770822

ABSTRACT

To explore characteristics of patients with pneumonia infected by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in 2019 outside Hubei Province, China. 40 patients with pneumonia infected by COVID-19 which were confirmed by COVID-19 nucleic acid test were included. Procalcitonin (PCT), serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and computed tomography (CT) manifestations were analyzed. 40% of patients had clear contact history with Wuhan or other areas of Hubei Province. 60% of patients were clustered diseases and 40% were imported cases. 75% of patients had initial fever, 7.5% had cough, 5% had sore throat at first. 45% had decreased lymphocyte count, 72.5% and 55% patients had increased levels of SAA and CRP. 72.5% of the patients showed multiple ground glass lesions in one or two lungs on chest CT. 90% of the patients with pneumonia are of the common type, and alpha-interferon atomization inhalation combined with Lopinavir/Ritonavir tablets were given to patients during treatment. 62.5% of the patients were treated with antibiotics, and 15% with hormone. All patients improved after treatment, and 14 patients were cured and discharged. Family cluster infection and asymptomatic infection may be the main way of spreading of COVID-19 pneumonia outside Hubei Province in China.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 873-876, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771002

ABSTRACT

The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network conducts longitudinal surveillance of pregnant persons in the United States with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy. Of 6,551 infected pregnant persons in this analysis, 142 (2.2%) had positive RNA tests >90 days and up to 416 days after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , United States
16.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 59(1):4-14, 2021.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1761369

ABSTRACT

In the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, underlying diseases such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory illness, liver and kidney disease or malignancies, have a critical prognostic role for these patients. Due to the increased risk of mortality in patients with established or new-onset comorbidities, we decided to conduct a study to further investigate the possible comorbidities and treatment recommendations of COVID-19. All articles published by March 25, 2020, on the new coronavirus infection were reviewed and for cutaneous manifestation as a new emerging concern, by April 25, 2020. ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed databases were searched, and keywords such as "COVID-19", "2019-nCoV", "Coronavirus2019", "SARS-CoV-2”, and "comorbidity" have been used. The most important comorbidity in elderly patients with confirmedCOVID-19 was cardiovascular disease, followed by diabetes and chronic respiratory disease, respectively, and on the other hand, COVID-19 itself could cause acute heart, lung, liver, kidney, and skin disease. Also, the prevalence of underlying diseases in dead patients or patients with severe COVID-19 is higher than the others. Considering treatment, drug interactions, and careful drug adjustment based on hepatic and renal metabolism are essential. The results of this study showed that the mortality rate and ICU admission in people with the underlying disease is higher than in other people. Also, we must pay attention to the possible multi-organ damages and comorbidities for the protection and successful treatment of COVID-19. There are some comorbidities like primary cutaneous manifestations that may have diagnostic or prognostic values in the COVID-19 course.

17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 901-903, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760187

ABSTRACT

To determine optimal quarantine duration, we evaluated time from exposure to diagnosis for 107 close contacts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant case-patients. Average time from exposure to diagnosis was 3.7 days; 70% of diagnoses were made on day 5 and 99.1% by day 10, suggesting 10-day quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 998-1001, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742173

ABSTRACT

To determine virus shedding duration, we examined clinical samples collected from the upper respiratory tracts of persons infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant in Japan during November 29-December 18, 2021. Vaccinees with mild or asymptomatic infection shed infectious virus 6-9 days after onset or diagnosis, even after symptom resolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 1050-1052, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731731

ABSTRACT

To determine neutralizing activity against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ancestral strain and 4 variants of concern, we tested serum from 30 persons with breakthrough infection after 2-dose vaccination. Cross-variant neutralizing activity was comparable to that after 3-dose vaccination. Shorter intervals between vaccination and breakthrough infection correlated with lower neutralizing titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(9)2020 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725605

ABSTRACT

In the early stages of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, containment of disease importation from epidemic areas was essential for outbreak control. This study is based on publicly accessible data on confirmed COVID-19 cases in Taiwan extracted from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control website. We analysed the characteristics, infection source, symptom presentation, and route of identification of the 321 imported cases that were identified from 21 January to 6 April 2020. They were mostly returned Taiwanese citizens who had travelled to one or more of 37 countries for tourism, business, work, or study. Half of these cases developed symptoms before arrival, most of the remainder developed symptoms 1-13 days (mean 4.0 days) after arrival, and 3.4% never developed symptoms. Three-quarters of the cases had respiratory symptoms, 44.9% had fever, 13.1% lost smell or taste, and 7.2% had diarrhoea. Body temperature and symptom screening at airports identified 32.7% of the cases. Of the remainder, 27.7% were identified during home quarantining, 16.2% were identified via contact tracing, and 23.4% were reported by hospitals. Under the strict enforcement of these measures, the incidence of locally acquired COVID-19 cases in Taiwan remains sporadic. In conclusion, proactive border control measures are effective for preventing community transmission of this disease.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Fever of Unknown Origin/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Travel , Airports , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Social Isolation , Taiwan/epidemiology , Travel Medicine
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