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1.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095570

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is still threat for humanity and its detection is crucial. Although real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the most reliable method for detection of N protein genes, alternative methods for molecular detection is still needed. Thus, lateral flow assay models for 2019-nCoV_ N3 were developed for molecular detection. Briefly, gold nanoparticles were used as label and three sandwich models (1A, 1B, 1.2) were designed. Prob concentrations on gold nanoparticles, types of sandwich model and membrane, limit of detection of target gene and buffer efficiency were studied. Model 1B has shown the best results with M170 membrane. Lower limit of detection was achieved by model 1.2 as 5pM. All parameters have significant role for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 by lateral flow assays, and these results will be useful for nucleic acid based lateral flow assays for viral detection or multiple detection of mutated forms in various detection systems.

2.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk of experiencing a systemic adverse event (AE) after mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination may be greater among persons with a history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; data on serious events are limited. We assessed if adults reporting systemic AEs resulting in emergency department visits or hospitalizations during days 0-7 after mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose 1 were more likely to have a history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with persons who reported no or non-severe systemic AEs. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using v-safe surveillance data. Participants were ≥ 18 years and received dose 1 during December 14, 2020─May 9, 2021. Cases reported severe systemic AEs 0-7 days after vaccination. Three controls were frequency matched per case by age, vaccination date, and days since vaccination. Follow-up surveys collected SARS-CoV-2 histories. RESULTS: Follow-up survey response rates were 38.6 % (potential cases) and 56.8 % (potential controls). In multivariable analyses including 3,862 case-patients and 11,586 controls, the odds of experiencing a severe systemic AE were 2.4 (Moderna, mRNA-1273; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.89, 3.09) and 1.5 (Pfizer-BioNTech, BNT162b2; 95 % CI: 1.17, 2.02) times higher among participants with pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 histories compared with those without. Medical attention of any kind for symptoms during days 0-7 following dose 2 was not common among case-patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: History of SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly associated with severe systemic AEs following dose 1 of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; the effect varied by vaccine received. Most participants who experienced severe systemic AEs following dose 1 did not require medical attention of any kind for symptoms following dose 2. Vaccine providers can use these findings to counsel patients who had pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection histories, experienced severe systemic AEs following dose 1, and are considering not receiving additional mRNA COVID-19 vaccine doses.

3.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091648
4.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(4): 501-504, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089760

ABSTRACT

From December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia (formerly known as the 2019 novel Coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) broke out in Wuhan, China. In this study, we present serial CT findings in a 40-year-old female patient with COVID-19 pneumonia who presented with the symptoms of fever, chest tightness, and fatigue. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CT showed rapidly progressing peripheral consolidations and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. After treatment, the lesions were shown to be almost absorbed leaving the fibrous lesions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
International Journal of Biomathematics ; 15(8), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079038

ABSTRACT

Considering the prevailing situations, the mathematical modeling and dynamics of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) particularly in India are studied in this paper. The goal of this work is to create an effective SEIRS model to study about the epidemic. Four different SEIRS models are considered and solved in this paper using an efficient homotopy perturbation method. A clear picture of disease spreading can be obtained from the solutions derived using this method. We parametrized the model by considering the number of infection cases from 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020. Finally, numerical analysis and graphical representations are provided to interpret the spread of virus. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Company.

6.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 20(3):365-368, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067157

ABSTRACT

After the occurrence of public health emergencies, as the most direct front position, how to carry out medical treatment orderly, effectively, rapidly and safely in a short time has become the focus and difficulty of epidemic control. After the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (2019-nCoV), West China Hospital of Sichuan University, as a large-scale general hospital under the supervision of the CPC central committee, put people's life safety and health first, and attach great importance to the prevention and control of the epidemic. This paper introduces the ten measures taken by West China Hospital of Sichuan University to fight against the 2019-nCoV pneumonia, in order to provide reference for other hospitals. Copyright © 2020 West China University of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

7.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 20(3):359-364, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067155

ABSTRACT

Objectives To estimate the basic reproduction number of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and to provide support to epidemic preparedness and response. Methods Based on the susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) compartment model and the assumption that the infection cases with symptoms occurred before January 26, 2020 were resulted from free propagation without intervention, we estimated the basic reproduction number of 2019-nCoV according to the reported confirmed cases and suspected cases, as well as theoretical estimated number of infected cases by other research teams, together with some epidemiological determinants learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome. Results The basic reproduction number fall between 2.8 to 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the number of 2019-nCoV infected cases from People's Daily in China, and fall between 3.2 and 3.9 on the basis of the predicted number of infected cases from international colleagues. Conclusions The early transmission capability of 2019-nCoV is close to or slightly higher than SARS. It is a controllable disease with moderate-high transmissibility. Timely and effective control measures are capable to quickly reduce further transmission. Copyright © 2020 West China University of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

8.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 304(7938), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064892

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection, more commonly referred to as COVID-19,has rapidly developed into a worldwide pandemic with a significant health burden. At the time ofpublication (23 June 2020) there are no approved pharmacological treatments or preventativetherapeutic strategies in place to combat the infection. However, globally, hundreds of clinical studiesthat aim to discover effective COVID-19 treatments are ongoing. This article summarises the rationalebehind several of these interventional trials, including evidence from in vitro studies, and early resultsto provide an insight into the global response. As patients are being enrolled in clinical trials across theUK, some of the safety and practical considerations for the investigational medicines that pharmacistsare most likely to encounter in practice are discussed as part of this review. Copyright © 2020 Pharmaceutical Press. All right reserved.

9.
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ; 30(7):528-532, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056376

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Corona Virus Disease 2019,COVID-19) has become a public health emergency that has attracted global attention because of its large-scale outbreak resulting in numerous human infections and deaths. COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Due to a large number of infections and fast transmission speed, it's significant to diagnose the infected people quickly and detect the asymptomatic infected people as soon as possible. At present, the preliminary screening is judged by the clinical manifestations of the patients, mainly involving the respiratory system, but recent studies have found that the patients infected with COVID-19 have unique oral manifestations, such as taste disturbance, xerostomia, halitosis, inflammation of salivary glands, necrotizing periodontal disease and some of them are earlier than typical symptoms such as dry cough, fever, etc. Paying attention to the oral manifestations of patients can further improve the COVID-19 screening procedure. At present, symptomatic treatment is mainly used for these oral symptoms. © 2022, J Prev Treat Stomatol Dis. All rights reserved.

10.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040677
11.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343198

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of one of the RNA viruses (2019-nCoV) has affected most of the population and the fatalities reported may label it as a modern-day scourge. Active research on RNA virus infections and vaccine development had more commercial impact which leads to an increase in patent filings. Patents are a goldmine of information whose mining yields crucial technological inputs for further research. In this research article, we have investigated both the patent applications and granted patents, to identify the technological trends and their impact on 2019-nCoV infection using biotechnology-related keywords such as genes, proteins, nucleic acid etc. related to the RNA virus infection. In our research, patent analysis was majorly focused on prospecting for patent data related to the diagnosis and treatment of RNA virus infections. The patent analysis specifically identified spike protein (S protein) and nucleocapsid proteins (N proteins) as the most actively researched macromolecules for vaccine and/or drug development for the diagnosis and treatment of RNA virus-based infectious diseases. The outcomes of this patent intelligence study will be useful for the researchers who are actively working in the area of vaccine or drug development for RNA virus-based infections including 2019-nCoV and other emerging viral infections in the near future.

12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 2126-2130, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022577

ABSTRACT

Among previously uninfected healthcare workers in Taiwan, mRNA COVID-19 booster vaccine was associated with lower odds of COVID-19 after primary recombinant vaccine. Symptom-triggered testing revealed that tetravalent influenza vaccine was associated with higher odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 vaccination continues to be most effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
13.
Fractals ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2020338

ABSTRACT

Currently, the entire planet is suffering from a contagious epidemic infection, 2019-nCOV due to newly detected coronavirus. This is a lethal infectious virus that has destroyed thousands of lives all over the world. The important aim of this study is to investigate a susceptible-infected-treatment-recovered (SITR) model of coronavirus (2019-nCOV) with bi-modal virus spread in a susceptible population. The considered 2019-nCOV model is analyzed by two fractional derivatives: the Caputo and Atangana–Baleanu–Caputo (ABC). For the Caputo model, we present a few basic mathematical characteristics such as existence, positivity, boundedness and stability result for disease-free equilibria. The fixed-point principle is used to establish the existence and uniqueness conditions for the ABC model solution. We employed the Adams–Bashforth–Moulton (ABM) numerical technique for the Caputo model solution and the Toufik–Atangana (TA) numerical approach for the ABC model solution. Finally, using MATLAB, the simulation results are shown to highlight the impact of arbitrarily chosen fractional-order and model parameters on infection dynamics. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Fractals is the property of World Scientific Publishing Company and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
Circulation ; 146(10): 743-754, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis is more common after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection than after COVID-19 vaccination, but the risks in younger people and after sequential vaccine doses are less certain. METHODS: A self-controlled case series study of people ages 13 years or older vaccinated for COVID-19 in England between December 1, 2020, and December 15, 2021, evaluated the association between vaccination and myocarditis, stratified by age and sex. The incidence rate ratio and excess number of hospital admissions or deaths from myocarditis per million people were estimated for the 1 to 28 days after sequential doses of adenovirus (ChAdOx1) or mRNA-based (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273) vaccines, or after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. RESULTS: In 42 842 345 people receiving at least 1 dose of vaccine, 21 242 629 received 3 doses, and 5 934 153 had SARS-CoV-2 infection before or after vaccination. Myocarditis occurred in 2861 (0.007%) people, with 617 events 1 to 28 days after vaccination. Risk of myocarditis was increased in the 1 to 28 days after a first dose of ChAdOx1 (incidence rate ratio, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.09-1.62]) and a first, second, and booster dose of BNT162b2 (1.52 [95% CI, 1.24-1.85]; 1.57 [95% CI, 1.28-1.92], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.33-2.22], respectively) but was lower than the risks after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test before or after vaccination (11.14 [95% CI, 8.64-14.36] and 5.97 [95% CI, 4.54-7.87], respectively). The risk of myocarditis was higher 1 to 28 days after a second dose of mRNA-1273 (11.76 [95% CI, 7.25-19.08]) and persisted after a booster dose (2.64 [95% CI, 1.25-5.58]). Associations were stronger in men younger than 40 years for all vaccines. In men younger than 40 years old, the number of excess myocarditis events per million people was higher after a second dose of mRNA-1273 than after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (97 [95% CI, 91-99] versus 16 [95% CI, 12-18]). In women younger than 40 years, the number of excess events per million was similar after a second dose of mRNA-1273 and a positive test (7 [95% CI, 1-9] versus 8 [95% CI, 6-8]). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the risk of myocarditis is greater after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after COVID-19 vaccination and remains modest after sequential doses including a booster dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. However, the risk of myocarditis after vaccination is higher in younger men, particularly after a second dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Viral Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
15.
J Herb Med ; 35: 100588, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996195

ABSTRACT

Objective: Many studies have suggested herbal medicines as alternatives or adjuvants to modern drugs for COVID-19. Their scientometric analyses can provide a scientific overview of this topic. Materials and methods: Web of Science (WOS) and Scopus were searched for articles on the use of herbal medicines in COVID-19 published until 26 October 2020. Collected data were analyzed for document type, subject area, top journal, citation number, and authors' collaboration network using VOSviewer 1.6.15, ScientoPy 2.0.3, Gephi 0.9.2, and SPSS 15 statistical tools. Results: After screening the 3185 retrieved records, 378 and 849 records, respectively from WOS and Scopus, remained for quantity analysis. Original and review articles were the two main types of papers in both databases. Top subject areas were drug and medicine, respectively in the WOS and Scopus databases. The top three productive countries in the field were China, the US, and India. The most cited article was a practice guideline in both databases. "Journal of Biomolecular Structure Dynamics" in WOS and "Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs" in Scopus were the top journals. Top keywords included "COVID-19″ and "Traditional Chinese Medicine". US authors had the highest collaboration with other authors. Conclusions: The current study provides a snapshot of the quantity and characteristics of published scholarly documents in recent months in the intersection of herbal medicines and COVID-19. Our findings help scientists to find the existing gaps, identify the active authors and scientific institutes to collaborate with and use their experience to produce new knowledge in the future.

16.
Computational and Mathematical Biophysics ; 10(1):105-122, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1993546

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current global COVID-19 pandemic, in which millions of lives have been lost. Understanding the zoonotic evolution of the coronavirus may provide insights for developing effective vaccines, monitoring the transmission trends, and preventing new zoonotic infections. Homopolymeric nucleotide repeats (HP), the most simple tandem repeats, are a ubiquitous feature of eukaryotic genomes. Yet the HP distributions and roles in coronavirus genome evolution are poorly investigated. In this study, we characterize the HP distributions and trends in the genomes of bat and human coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 variants. The results show that the SARS-CoV-2 genome is abundant in HPs, and has augmented HP contents during evolution. Especially, the disparity of HP poly-(A/T) and ploy-(C/G) of coronaviruses increases during the evolution in human hosts. The disparity of HP poly-(A/T) and ploy-(C/G) is correlated to host adaptation and the virulence level of the coronaviruses. Therefore, we propose that the HP disparity can be a quantitative measure for the zoonotic evolution levels of coronaviruses. Peculiarly, the HP disparity measure infers that SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants have a high disparity of HP poly-(A/T) and ploy-(C/G), suggesting a high adaption to the human hosts. © 2022 Changchuan Yin, published by De Gruyter.

17.
J Med Signals Sens ; 12(3): 233-253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988231

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global public health problem that is crucially important to be diagnosed in the early stages. This study aimed to investigate the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to process X-ray-oriented images to diagnose COVID-19 disease. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in Medline (through PubMed), Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and IEEE Xplore Digital Library to identify relevant studies published until 21 September 2020. Results: We identified 208 papers after duplicate removal and filtered them into 60 citations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Direct results sufficiently indicated a noticeable increase in the number of published papers in July-2020. The most widely used datasets were, respectively, GitHub repository, hospital-oriented datasets, and Kaggle repository. The Keras library, Tensorflow, and Python had been also widely employed in articles. X-ray images were applied more in the selected articles. The most considerable value of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Area under the ROC Curve was reported for ResNet18 in reviewed techniques; all the mentioned indicators for this mentioned network were equal to one (100%). Conclusion: This review revealed that the application of AI can accelerate the process of diagnosing COVID-19, and these methods are effective for the identification of COVID-19 cases exploiting Chest X-ray images.

18.
Adv Respir Med ; 90(4): 338-348, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987634

ABSTRACT

There is a lot of evidence to suggest that patients infected with the COVID-19 and influenza viruses are at risk of atherosclerosis. Additionally, there are heterogeneous studies on the risk of arthrosclerosis in patients infected with the influenza and COVID-19 viruses. We conducted a case-control and cross-sectional study and examined the association between the risk of atherosclerosis, and influenza virus (IV-A and IV-B) and COVID-19 infections in this study. We searched for keywords such as influenza virus, COVID-19 and atherosclerosis in English and Persian in well-known databases such as PubMed, SID, Magiran and Google Scholar. In this study, we analyzed the information using a meta-analysis, the random effect model, the I2 index and STAT (version 11.2). The results from the analysis of ten studies on influenza virus and nine studies on COVID-19 reviewed individually (totaling 6428 samples for influenza virus infections and 10,785 samples for COVID-19 infections) demonstrated a risk of arthrosclerosis in patients with influenza and COVID-19 infections, with an OR (odds ratio) = 0.45 ((95% CI): 0.25 to 0.64) and an OR (odds ratio) = 1.04 ((95% CI): 0.82 to 1.26), respectively. The present study provides new insights into the risk of atherosclerosis in patients infected with the COVID-19 and influenza viruses. Therefore, it seems necessary to consider different strategies for managing and eradicating viral infections among individuals.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
French-Ukrainian Journal of Chemistry ; 10(1):30-47, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1976330

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is posing a global threat to human population. The pandemic caused by novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also called as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2);first emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei province of China in December 2019. The rapid human to human transmission has caused the contagion to spread world-wide affecting 244,385,444 (244.4 million) people globally causing 4,961,489 (5 million) fatalities dated by 27 October 2021. At present, 6,697,607,393 (6.7 billion) vaccine doses have been administered dated by 27 October 2021, for the prevention of COVID-19 infections. Even so, this critical and threatening situation of pandemic and due to various variants' emergence, the pandemic control has become challenging;this calls for gigantic efforts to find new potent drug candidates and effective therapeutic approaches against the virulent respiratory disease of COVID-19. In the respiratory morbidities of COVID-19, the functionally crucial drug target for the antiviral treatment could be the main protease/3-chymotrypsin protease (Mpro/3CLpro) enzyme that is primarily involved in viral maturation and replication. In view of this, in the current study I have designed a library of small molecules against the main protease (Mpro) of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) by using multimodal generative neural-networks. The scaffold-based molecular docking of the series of compounds at the active site of the protein was performed;binding poses of the molecules were evaluated and protein-ligand interaction studies followed by the binding affinity calculations validated the findings. I have identified a number of small promising lead compounds that could serve as potential inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) enzyme of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV). This study would serve as a step forward in the development of effective antiviral therapeutic agents against the COVID-19.

20.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 46, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1975827
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