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Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 920016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043482


Introduction: Numerous clinical and laboratory scores that include C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin 6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels and oxygenation (PaO2 and SaO2) have been used for the prognosis of COVID-19. In addition, composite scores have been developed for the assessment of general state and risk in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that may be applied for COVID-19 as well. In this study, we assessed severity and potential prognostic risk factors for unfavorable outcome among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We also applied the A-DROP general scoring system used in CAP to COVID-19. Patients and methods: Altogether 233 patients admitted to our center with COVID-19 were included in the study. Clinical status, several laboratory biomarkers described above, indicators of oxygenation were determined at hospital admission. We also applied the A-DROP composite scoring system that includes Age (≥ 70 years in males and ≥ 75 years in females), Dehydration (BUN ≥ 7.5 mmol/l), Respiratory failure (SaO2 ≤ 90% or PaO2 ≤ 60 mmHg), Orientation disturbance (confusion) and low blood Pressure (systolic BP ≤ 90 mmHg) to COVID-19. Results: At the time of admission, most patients had elevated CRP, LDH, ferritin, D-dimer, and IL-6 levels indicating multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (MIS). Altogether 49 patients (21.2%) required admission to ICU, 46 (19.7%) needed ventilation and 40 patients (17.2%) died. In the binary analysis, admission to ICU, the need for ventilation and death were all significantly associated with the duration of hospitalization, history of hypertension or obesity, confusion/dizziness, as well as higher absolute leukocyte and neutrophil and lower lymphocyte counts, elevated CRP, PCT, LDH, ferritin, IL-6, BUN, and creatinine levels, low PaO2 and SaO2 and higher A-DROP score at the time of admission (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Numerous laboratory biomarkers in addition to obesity, dizziness at the time of admission and the history of hypertension may predict the need for ICU admission and ventilation, as well as mortality in COVID-19. Moreover, A-DROP may be a suitable scoring system for the assessment of general health and disease outcome in COVID-19.

Respir Med Res ; 79: 100826, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221020


BACKGROUND: Early recognition of the severe illness is critical in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) to provide best care and optimize the use of limited resources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the predictive properties of common community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity scores and COVID-19 specific indices. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort, COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a teaching hospital between 18 March-20 May 2020 were included. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics related to severity and mortality were measured and CURB-65, PSI, A-DROP, CALL, and COVID-GRAM scores were calculated as defined previously in the literature. Progression to severe disease and in-hospital/overall mortality during the follow-up of the patients were determined from electronic records. Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression model was used. The discrimination capability of pneumonia severity indices was evaluated by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-eight patients were included in the study. Sixty-two patients (20.8%) presented with severe COVID-19 while thirty-one (10.4%) developed severe COVID-19 at any time from the admission. In-hospital mortality was 39 (13.1%) while the overall mortality was 44 (14.8%). The mortality in low-risk groups that were identified to manage outside the hospital was 0 in CALL Class A, 1.67% in PSI low risk, and 2.68% in CURB-65 low-risk. However, the AUCs for the mortality prediction in COVID-19 were 0.875, 0.873, 0.859, 0.855, and 0.828 for A-DROP, PSI, CURB-65, COVID-GRAM, and CALL scores respectively. The AUCs for the prediction of progression to severe disease was 0.739, 0.711, 0,697, 0.673, and 0.668 for CURB-65, CALL, PSI, COVID-GRAM, A-DROP respectively. The hazard ratios (HR) for the tested pneumonia severity indices demonstrated that A-DROP and CURB-65 scores had the strongest association with mortality, and PSI, and COVID-GRAM scores predicted mortality independent from age and comorbidity. CONCLUSION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) scores can predict in COVID-19. The indices proposed specifically to COVID-19 work less than nonspecific scoring systems surprisingly. The CALL score may be used to decide outpatient management in COVID-19.

COVID-19/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 336-341, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978337


INTRODUCTION: In patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), respiratory failure is a major complication and its symptoms occur around one week after onset. The CURB-65, A-DROP and expanded CURB-65 tools are known to predict the risk of mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In this retrospective single-center retrospective study, we aimed to assess the correlations of the A-DROP, CURB-65, and expanded CURB-65 scores on admission with an increase in oxygen requirement in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients who were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Performance of A-DROP, CURB-65, and the expanded CURB-65 scores were validated. In addition, we assessed whether there were any associations between an increase in oxygen requirement and known risk factors for critical illness in COVID-19, including elevation of liver enzymes and C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocytopenia, high D-dimer levels and the chest computed tomography (CT) score. RESULTS: The areas under the curve for the ability of CURB-65, A-DROP, and the expanded CURB-65 scores to predict an increase in oxygen requirement were 0.6961, 0.6980 and 0.8327, respectively, and the differences between the three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Comorbid cardiovascular disease, lymphocytopenia, elevated CRP, liver enzyme and D-dimer levels, and higher chest CT score were significantly associated with an increase in oxygen requirement CONCLUSIONS: The expanded CURB-65 score can be a better predictor of an increase in oxygen requirement in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo , Tomography, X-Ray Computed