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1.
Gastro Hep Adv ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUN AND AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms occur among patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and there is clear evidence that SARS-CoV-2, the causative pathogen, infects the GI tract. In this large, multi-center cohort study, we evaluated variations in gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic manifestations of COVID-19 throughout the United States (US). METHODS: Patients hospitalized with a positive COVID-19 test prior to October 2020 were identified at seven US academic centers. Demographics, presenting symptoms, laboratory data, and hospitalization outcomes were abstracted. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to evaluate GI manifestations and their potential predictors. RESULTS: Among 2,031 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, GI symptoms were present in 18.9%; diarrhea was the most common (15.2%), followed by nausea and/or vomiting (12.6%) and abdominal pain (6.0%). GI symptoms were less common in the Western cohort (16.0%) than the Northeastern (25.6%) and Midwestern (26.7%) cohorts. Compared to non-ICU patients, ICU patients had a higher prevalence of abnormal aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (58.1% vs. 37.3%; p<0.01), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (37.5% vs. 29.3%; p=0.01), and total bilirubin (12.7% vs. 9.0%; p<0.01). ICU patients also had a higher mortality rate (22.7% vs. 4.7%; p<0.01). Chronic liver disease was associated with the development of GI symptoms. Abnormal AST or ALT were associated with an increased risk of ICU admission. CONCLUSION: We present the largest multi-center cohort of patients with COVID-19 across the US. GI manifestations were common among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, although there was significant variability in prevalence and predictors across the US.

2.
Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med ; 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867255

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the initial emergence of the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus responsible for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, many studies have been exploring the nature and characteristics of this virus and its associated clinical manifestations. The present study aimed to describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of COVID-19 infections in pediatric patients. Methods: A retrospective review of findings associated with 143 pediatric patients (age <14 years) with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis who had undergone inpatient or outpatient treatment at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March 2020 and October 2020, was conducted. The analyzed data included patient demographic information, pre-existing medical conditions, symptoms, interventions, and outcomes. Results: The median age of this patient population was 7 years. Of these 143 patients, 67 (46.8%) had known pre-existing medical conditions including bronchial asthma (12.8%), chronic lung disease (CLD) (3%), congenital heart disease (CHD) (17%), primary immunodeficiencies (1.5%), malignancies (9.8%), and 7.5% were post-transplant patients. Thirty-seven patients (26%) were overweight or obese. Sixty-three of these patients (51%) were symptomatic, with the most common symptom being fever (55%). Ultimately, 45 patients (31%) required admission to the hospital, with a median duration of hospitalization of 9.6 days for admitted patients. There were no documented cases of infection-related mortality among this pediatric cohort, although 11 patients experienced post-infectious complications that primarily manifested as a loss of taste and smell. Conclusion: These findings suggest that pediatric COVID-19 patients tend to experience mild forms of disease, without any significant differences in disease severity as a function of patient gender or immune status.

3.
Trends Food Sci Technol ; 104: 219-234, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a common herb consumed worldwide as functional food and traditional remedy for the prevention of infectious diseases since ancient time. Garlic and its active organosulfur compounds (OSCs) have been reported to alleviate a number of viral infections in pre-clinical and clinical investigations. However, so far no systematic review on its antiviral effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms exists. SCOPE AND APPROACH: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize pre-clinical and clinical investigations on antiviral effects of garlic and its OSCs as well as to further analyse recent findings on the mechanisms that underpin these antiviral actions. PubMed, Cochrane library, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases were searched and articles up to June 2020 were included in this review. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Pre-clinical data demonstrated that garlic and its OSCs have potential antiviral activity against different human, animal and plant pathogenic viruses through blocking viral entry into host cells, inhibiting viral RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, DNA synthesis and immediate-early gene 1(IEG1) transcription, as well as through downregulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The alleviation of viral infection was also shown to link with immunomodulatory effects of garlic and its OSCs. Clinical studies further demonstrated a prophylactic effect of garlic in the prevention of widespread viral infections in humans through enhancing the immune response. This review highlights that garlic possesses significant antiviral activity and can be used prophylactically in the prevention of viral infections.

4.
Food Chem X ; 14: 100302, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796842

ABSTRACT

Kombucha, originated in China 2000  years ago, is a sour and sweet-tasted drink, prepared traditionally through fermentation of black tea. During the fermentation of kombucha, consisting of mainly acidic compounds, microorganisms, and a tiny amount of alcohol, a biofilm called SCOBY forms. The bacteria in kombucha has been generally identified as Acetobacteraceae. Kombucha is a noteworthy source of B complex vitamins, polyphenols, and organic acids (mainly acetic acid). Nowadays, kombucha is tended to be prepared with some other plant species, which, therefore, lead to variations in its composition. Pre-clinical studies conducted on kombucha revealed that it has desired bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-hypercholestorelomic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, etc. Only a few clinical studies have been also reported. In the current review, we aimed to overhaul pre-clinical bioactivities reported on kombucha as well as its brief compositional chemistry. The literature data indicate that kombucha has valuable biological effects on human health.

5.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 11: 100244, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783617

ABSTRACT

Background: We evaluated in-hospital mortality and outcomes incidence after hospital discharge due to COVID-19 in a Brazilian multicenter cohort. Methods: This prospective multicenter study (RECOVER-SUS, NCT04807699) included COVID-19 patients hospitalized in public tertiary hospitals in Brazil from June 2020 to March 2021. Clinical assessment and blood samples were performed at hospital admission, with post-hospital discharge remote visits. Hospitalized participants were followed-up until March 31, 2021. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and incidence of rehospitalization or death after hospital discharge. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazard models were performed. Findings: 1589 participants [54.5% male, age=62 (IQR 50-70) years; BMI=28.4 (IQR,24.9-32.9) Kg/m² and 51.9% with diabetes] were included. A total of 429 individuals [27.0% (95%CI,24.8-29.2)] died during hospitalization (median time 14 (IQR,9-24) days). Older age [vs<40 years; age=60-69 years-aHR=1.89 (95%CI,1.08-3.32); age=70-79 years-aHR=2.52 (95%CI,1.42-4.45); age≥80-aHR=2.90 (95%CI 1.54-5.47)]; noninvasive or mechanical ventilation at admission [vs facial-mask or none; aHR=1.69 (95%CI 1.30-2.19)]; SAPS-III score≥57 [vs<57; aHR=1.47 (95%CI 1.13-1.92)] and SOFA score≥10 [vs <10; aHR=1.51 (95%CI 1.08-2.10)] were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. A total of 65 individuals [6.7% (95%CI 5.3-8.4)] had a rehospitalization or death [rate=323 (95%CI 250-417) per 1000 person-years] in a median time of 52 (range 1-280) days post-hospital discharge. Age ≥ 60 years [vs <60, aHR=2.13 (95%CI 1.15-3.94)] and SAPS-III ≥57 at admission [vs <57, aHR=2.37 (95%CI 1.22-4.59)] were independently associated with rehospitalization or death after hospital discharge. Interpretation: High in-hospital mortality rates due to COVID-19 were observed and elderly people remained at high risk of rehospitalization and death after hospital discharge. Funding: Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Programa INOVA-FIOCRUZ.

6.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(2): 390-397, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751085

ABSTRACT

AIM: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak resulted in severe health impact with the loss of many lives across the world. Pulmonary parenchyma suffers the most from the brunt of the infection. However, evidence suggested a systemic involvement during the course of illness. Information on morphological changes of the liver is sparse in the literature. We aimed to evaluate the pathological findings in the liver by minimally invasive autopsies. METHODS: Postmortem core biopsies of the liver obtained from patients who succumbed to coronavirus disease 2019 disease were studied. Demographic findings, comorbidities, and relevant laboratory tests were collected. Detailed histopathological changes were assessed. RESULTS: Liver function tests were available in 40 cases, and it was deranged in 80% cases. A spectrum of histological changes was observed. Macrovesicular steatosis and nonspecific portal inflammation of mild degree were the common morphological changes. Features suggestive of vascular alteration were noted in more than half of the cases. These included increased portal vein branches, irregular luminal dilation, and herniation of portal veins into the periportal hepatocytes. In addition, we observed morphological changes attributed to terminal shock-related changes. CONCLUSION: The present study results highlight that liver parenchyma changes may be related to multiple pathogenic mechanisms. The presence of vascular alteration in portal tracts suggests derangement of hepatic vasculature related to systemic hypercoagulable state induced by the viral infection. It remains to be established if the histological changes are related to direct viral insult or to the systemic response caused by the viral attack.

7.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(4): 1114-1123, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751088

ABSTRACT

Background: The most dreaded pandemic grappling world now, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), chiefly involves the respiratory system; nevertheless, it is a multisystem disorder. Its involvement of the hepatic system is considerable; however, still emerging are its clinical implications and the effects on morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of this study is to report on the various aspects of its hepatic involvement by describing the alterations in tests of liver function and its significance in the disease outcome in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at a tertiary center in northern India. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary-care hospital in northern India. All confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 cases aged 15 and above from Apr to Oct 2020 with no pre-existing liver disease were included. The primary endpoint was death at 28 days. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, sensitivity-specificity, and univariable and multivariable regression analysis as well as survival analysis. Results: A total of 708 patients with COVID-19 fulfilled the inclusion criteria included 561 (79.2%) males and 147 (20.8%) females. The median age was 49 (IQR = 25) years. Mild and moderate/severe disease were seen in 508 (71.8%) and 200 (28.2) patients, respectively. Serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were elevated in 6.92%, 69.91%, and 80.22% of patients, respectively. In univariable logistic regression, AST [odds ratio; OR 1.008 95% CI (1.005-1.012) per 1 IU/L increase] and ALT [OR 1.005 95% CI (1.002-1.007) per 1 IU/L increase] were significantly associated with the odds of moderate to severe disease but only AST was significant after adjustment to age, sex, and comorbidity [adjusted odds ratio; aOR 1.007 95% CI (1.003-1.011) per 1 IU/L increase]. Serum albumin was negatively associated with the odds of moderate to severe disease and remained significant in the adjusted model [aOR 0.217 95%CI (0.149-0.316) per 1 g/dL increase].Ninety-six patients succumbed to illness [case fatality rate; CFR 13.6%). In adjusted Cox Proportional-Hazards Model for mortality, AST [adjusted hazard ratio; aHR 1.002 95% CI (1.000-1.003) per 1 IU/L increase] and serum albumin [aHR 0.396 95% CI (0.285-0.549) per 1 g/dL increase] showed significant association with mortality. Conclusion: Liver function abnormalities are common in patients with COVID-19. In particular, AST and serum albumin levels are effective predictors of disease severity and mortality and can be used as markers of fatal disease in the management as well as prognostication of COVID-19.

8.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21724, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732447

ABSTRACT

Background Clinically most apparent symptoms of COVID-19 include fever and cough, which in some patients show a worsening trend but are completely non-apparent in patients who present with an asymptomatic course of the disease. The aim of this study was to identify clinical and biochemical differences among polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive patients who are either febrile or afebrile. Methods This study was conducted in Rawalpindi Medical University and Allied Hospitals between September and December 2020. All patients who tested positive for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) COVID-19 were included in the study. After evaluation of 146 patients, 100 were selected, and with a response rate of 97%, a total of 97 patients were included in the final analysis. Depending on the presence of fever, the participants were divided into two groups. Both groups were then compared for baselines vitals and laboratory investigations. Data was entered and analyzed in SPSS v23.0 (IBM Inc., Armonk, New York). Results Among the 97 patients, 66 (68%) of the participants were male, and 31 (32%) were females. The mean age of the study participants was 45.23±18.08 years. Fever was present in 39 (40.2%) of the participants. When compared with patients with no fever, the patients with fever had greater severity of disease (p<0.001), higher heart rate (p<0.001), decreased oxygen saturation (p<0.001). Among the laboratory investigations, the fever group had a greater tendency of having deranged alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (70.82±29.23 vs. 32.83±16.22, p=0.010), Lymphocytes (1.56±0.54 vs. 2.12±0.94, p=0.003) and serum total bilirubin (1.06±0.36 vs. 0.55±0.21, p=0.009). Based on multiple regression analysis, the presence of fever is a predictor of derangement in ALT (OR=1.034, CI=1.001-1.068 p=0.025) and total bilirubin (OR=4.38, CI=2.14-6.78, p=0.021). Conclusion Fever may not be present among all patients presenting with COVID-19 infection, but those who have a fever have a greater risk of having deranged liver function tests. Hence, it is important to monitor liver function tests (LFTs) in COVID-19 patients presenting with fever.

9.
Gastro Hep Adv ; 1(3): 393-402, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apolipoprotein A1 (A1) and haptoglobin (HP) serum levels are associated with the spread and severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We have constructed and validated a multivariable risk calculator (A1HPV6) integrating A1, HP, alpha2-macroglobulin, and gamma glutamyl transferase to improve the performances of virological biomarkers. METHODS: In a prospective observational study of hospitalized patients with nonsevere SARS-CoV-2 infection, A1HPV6 was constructed in 127 patients and validated in 116. The specificity was assessed in 7482 controls representing the general population. The primary diagnostic endpoint was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. The primary prognostic endpoint was the age-and sex-adjusted risk of A1HPV6 to predict patients with WHO-stage > 4 (W > 4) severity. We assessed the kinetics of the A1HPV6 components in a nonhuman primate model (NHP), from baseline to 7 days (D7) after SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for A1HPV6 was 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) in the validation subset, which was not significantly different from that in the construction subset, 0.99 (0.99-0.99; P = .80), like for sensitivity 92% (85-96) vs 94% (88-97; P = .29). A1HPV6 was associated with W > 4, with a significant odds ratio of 1.3 (1.1-1.5; 0.002). In NHP, A1 levels decreased (P < .01) at D2 and normalized at D4; HP levels increased at D2 and peaked at D4. In patients, A1 concentration was very low at D2 vs controls (P < .01) and increased at D14 (P < .01) but was still lower than controls; HP increased at D2 and remained elevated at D14. CONCLUSION: These results validate the diagnostic and prognostic performances of A1HPV6. Similar kinetics of apolipoprotein A1, HP, and alpha-2-macroglobulin were observed in the NHP model. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01927133.

10.
IJID Reg ; 2: 191-197, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639444

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on biochemical markers and their association with mortality rates in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. An evaluation of baseline routine biochemical parameters was performed in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU, in order to identify prognostic biomarkers. Methods: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the adult ICU of a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, between October 2020 and February 2021. Robust Poisson regression methods and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to explore the association of biochemical parameters with severity and mortality. Results: A total of 82 patients (median age 53.8 years, interquartile range 46.4-59.7 years) were enrolled, of whom 55 (67%) were female and 27 (33%) were male. The median duration of ICU stay was 10 days (interquartile range 5-14 days); 54/82 patients died (66% case fatality rate). Baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (adjusted relative risk 1.002, 95% confidence interval 1.0004-1.004; P = 0.016) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (adjusted relative risk 1.0004, 95% confidence interval 1.0001-1.0007; P = 0.014) were both found to be independent risk factors of a poor prognosis, with optimal cut-off values of 449.5 U/l (sensitivity 100%, specificity 43%) and 551 pg/ml (sensitivity 49%, specificity 86%), respectively. Conclusions: LDH and NT-proBNP appear to be promising predictors of a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients in the ICU. Studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm the validity of this combination of biomarkers.

11.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 74: 103234, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The latest novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic shows a significant health concern. We aimed to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms among COVID-19 Egyptian patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 860 patients with COVID-19 infection classified according to Ministry of Health Program (MOHP) into three groups (280 patients with mild infection, 258 patients with moderate disease and 322 patients with severe disease). All patients were subjected to medical history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations, high-resolution computed tomography chest (HRCT chest) and other investigations when needed in some patients e.g., upper gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy, abdomino-pelvic ultrasound and ECHO. RESULTS: Gastro-intestinal symptoms were present in 27.2% of the studied patients. The most common reported GIT symptoms were vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal/gastric pain, followed by nausea. GIT symptoms presence was significantly higher in severe cases in comparison to mild or moderate cases. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, and creatinine were significantly associated with the presence of GI symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: GI symptoms are prevalent among COVID-19 patients, the most common were vomiting and diarrhea and were associated with COVID-19 severity.

12.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(3): 830-840, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540738

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with cirrhosis and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have high in-hospital mortality. The information on the outcome of cirrhosis patients in the posthospitalization period is limited. Aims: We aimed to study the outcome of cirrhosis patients with COVID-19 after hospital discharge. Methods: The records of the cirrhosis patients discharged after COVID-19 were reviewed. Their data were compared with a similar number of cirrhosis patients without COVID-19 after propensity score matching for age, sex, etiology of cirrhosis, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Results: Cirrhosis patients with (n = 92) or without (n = 92) COVID-19 were included in 1:1 ratio. The mortality among COVID-19 (22; 23.9%) and non-COVID-19 (19; 20.7%) were comparable (HR 1.224; 95% CI 0.663-2.263, P = 0.520), over a similar duration of follow-up [186 (86-271) vs. 183 (103-274)]. Among COVID-19 patients, 45; 48.9% developed a new acute decompensation-increased ascites (40; 43.5%), hepatic encephalopathy (20; 21.7%), or variceal bleeding (8; 8.7%) whereas 25 (27.2%) patients needed rehospitalization. A proportion of participants continued to have either fatigue/weakness (24/80; 30.0%), sleep disturbances (11/80; 13.7%), or joint pains (16/80; 20.0%). The most common causes of death in patients of both groups were end-stage liver disease: 16 (72.7%) vs. 9 (47.4%), followed by multiorgan dysfunction: 4 (18.2%) vs. 6 (31.6%), GI bleeding: 2 (9.1%) vs. 4 (21.0%), P = 0.484. A lower albumin level, higher international normalized ratio, bilirubin, Child-Turcotte-Pugh, and MELD scores at discharge predicted mortality in the COVID-19 group. Conclusion: Short-term outcomes of patients with cirrhosis who survive the initial insult of COVID-19 are not different from patients without COVID-19, and survival is determined by the severity of liver disease at discharge.

13.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(3): 876-886, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487816

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases continue to increase globally. Poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis have been reported; predictors of outcome are unclear. The existing data is from the early part of the pandemic when variants of concern (VOC) were not reported. Aims: We aimed to assess the outcomes and predictors in patients with cirrhosis and COVID-19. We also compared the differences in outcomes between the first wave of pandemic and the second wave. Methods: In this retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database, data on consecutive cirrhosis patients (n = 221) admitted to the COVID-19 care facility of a tertiary care center in India were evaluated for presentation, the severity of liver disease, the severity of COVID-19, and outcomes. Results: The clinical presentation included: 18 (8.1%) patients had compensated cirrhosis, 139 (62.9%) acute decompensation (AD), and 64 (29.0%) had an acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Patients with ACLF had more severe COVID-19 infection than those with compensated cirrhosis and AD (54.7% vs. 16.5% and 33.3%, P < 0.001). The overall mortality was 90 (40.7%), the highest among ACLF (72.0%). On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of mortality were high leukocyte count, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, child class, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and COVID-19 severity. The second wave had more cases of severe COVID-19 as compared to the first wave, with a similar MELD score and Child score. The overall mortality was similar between the two waves. Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis have high mortality (40%), particularly those with ACLF (72%). A higher leukocyte count, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, Child class, and MELD score are predictors of mortality.

14.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(2): 390-397, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322187

ABSTRACT

AIM: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak resulted in severe health impact with the loss of many lives across the world. Pulmonary parenchyma suffers the most from the brunt of the infection. However, evidence suggested a systemic involvement during the course of illness. Information on morphological changes of the liver is sparse in the literature. We aimed to evaluate the pathological findings in the liver by minimally invasive autopsies. METHODS: Postmortem core biopsies of the liver obtained from patients who succumbed to coronavirus disease 2019 disease were studied. Demographic findings, comorbidities, and relevant laboratory tests were collected. Detailed histopathological changes were assessed. RESULTS: Liver function tests were available in 40 cases, and it was deranged in 80% cases. A spectrum of histological changes was observed. Macrovesicular steatosis and nonspecific portal inflammation of mild degree were the common morphological changes. Features suggestive of vascular alteration were noted in more than half of the cases. These included increased portal vein branches, irregular luminal dilation, and herniation of portal veins into the periportal hepatocytes. In addition, we observed morphological changes attributed to terminal shock-related changes. CONCLUSION: The present study results highlight that liver parenchyma changes may be related to multiple pathogenic mechanisms. The presence of vascular alteration in portal tracts suggests derangement of hepatic vasculature related to systemic hypercoagulable state induced by the viral infection. It remains to be established if the histological changes are related to direct viral insult or to the systemic response caused by the viral attack.

15.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 1863-1873, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171610

ABSTRACT

Metabolic profiling in COVID-19 patients has been associated with disease severity, but there is no report on sex-specific metabolic changes in discharged survivors. Herein we used an integrated approach of LC-MS-and GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics to analyze plasma metabolic characteristics in men and women with non-severe COVID-19 at both acute period and 30 days after discharge. The results demonstrate that metabolic alterations in plasma of COVID-19 patients during the recovery and rehabilitation process were presented in a sex specific manner. Overall, the levels of most metabolites were increased in COVID-19 patients after the cure relative to acute period. The major plasma metabolic changes were identified including fatty acids in men and glycerophosphocholines and carbohydrates in women. In addition, we found that women had shorter length of hospitalization than men and metabolic characteristics may contribute to predict the duration from positive to negative in non-severe COVID-19 patients. Collectively, this study shed light on sex-specific metabolic shifts in non-severe COVID-19 patients during the recovery process, suggesting a sex bias in prognostic and therapeutic evaluations based on metabolic profiling.

16.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(7): 324-331, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate hyperferritinemia could be a predicting factor of mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 100 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled and classified into moderate (n = 17), severe (n = 40) and critical groups (n = 43). Clinical information and laboratory results were collected and the concentrations of ferritin were compared among different groups. The association between ferritin and mortality was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Moreover, the efficiency of the predicting value was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The amount of ferritin was significantly higher in critical group compared with moderate and severe groups. The median of ferritin concentration was about three times higher in death group than survival group (1722.25 µg/L vs. 501.90 µg/L, p < 0.01). The concentration of ferritin was positively correlated with other inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ferritin was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Especially, high-ferritin group was associated with higher incidence of mortality, with adjusted odds ratio of 104.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.63-4185.89; p = 0.013]. Moreover, ferritin had an advantage of discriminative capacity with the area under ROC (AUC) of 0.822 (95% CI 0.737-0.907) higher than procalcitonin and CRP. CONCLUSION: The ferritin measured at admission may serve as an independent factor for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 in ICU.


ANTECEDENTES: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si la hiperferritinemia podría ser un factor predictivo de la mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados con enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19). MÉTODOS: Se incluyó un total de 100 pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI), clasificándose como grupos moderado (n = 17), grave (n = 40) y crítico (n = 43). Se recopiló la información clínica y de laboratorio, comparándose los niveles de ferritina entre los diferentes grupos. Se evaluó la asociación entre ferritina y mortalidad mediante un análisis de regresión logística. Además, se evaluó la eficacia del valor predictivo utilizando la curva ROC (receiver operating characteristic). RESULTADOS: La cantidad de ferritina fue significativamente superior en el grupo de pacientes críticos en comparación con el grupo de pacientes graves. La media de concentración de ferritina fue cerca de 3 veces superior en el grupo de muerte que en el grupo de supervivientes (1.722,25 µg/L vs. 501,90 µg/L, p < 0,01). La concentración de ferritina guardó una correlación positiva con otras citoquinas inflamatorias tales como interleucina (IL)-8, IL-10, proteína C reactiva (PRC) y factor de necrosis tumoral (TNF)-α. El análisis de regresión logística demostró que la ferritina era un factor predictivo independiente de la mortalidad intrahospitalaria. En especial, el grupo de ferritina alta estuvo asociado a una mayor incidencia de la mortalidad, con un valor de odds ratio ajustado de 104,97 [intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% 2,63-4.185,89; p = 0,013]. Además, el valor de ferritina tuvo una ventaja de capacidad discriminativa en el área bajo la curva ROC (AUC) de 0,822 (IC 95% 0,737-0,907] superior al de procalcitonina y PRC. CONCLUSIÓN: El valor de ferritina medido durante el ingreso puede servir de factor independiente para prevenir la mortalidad intrahospitalaria en los pacientes de COVID-19 en la UCI.

17.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 32: 101359, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057293

ABSTRACT

Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a sub-acute process of pulmonary tissue repair secondary to lung injury, defined histopathologically by intra-alveolar buds of granulation tissue within the lumen of distal pulmonary airspaces. It can be either cryptogenic or secondary (SOP) to different clinical conditions, namely infections. Despite being nonspecific, its diagnosis can be made by the association of clinical and imaging criteria. We report two cases of OP associated to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, admitted at a Portuguese tertiary hospital unit dedicated to COVID-19. Both patients presented with severe respiratory failure with need of invasive mechanical ventilation. After initial recovery, there was worsening of dyspnea and hypoxemic respiratory failure with increase in inflammatory markers. Chest CT revealed an OP pattern. Other conditions such as superinfection, auto-immune disease and iatrogenic etiology, were excluded and corticotherapy at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day was administered. Chest CT follow up of both our patients showed complete resolution of OP pattern, with mild to moderate residual pulmonary fibrosis without honeycombing. There is no OP to SARS-CoV-2 case series yet published describing the progress of patients after corticotherapy, although the association between systemic corticosteroids and lower all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19 has been recently established. It is possible that, as has been described with other viruses, OP secondary to SARS-CoV-2 represents an immunological process after initial infection, presenting with elevation of inflammatory markers and cytokines storm in the bloodstream and lung tissue, which may explain the favorable response to corticosteroids.

18.
J Transl Autoimmun ; 4: 100083, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009707

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The number of confirmed cases of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19 continues to escalate with over 70 million confirmed cases and over 1.6 million confirmed deaths. Severe-to-critical COVID-19 is associated with a dysregulated host immune response to the virus, which is thought to lead to pathogenic immune dysregulation and end-organ damage. Presently few effective treatment options are available to treat COVID-19. Leronlimab is a humanized IgG4, kappa monoclonal antibody that blocks C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). It has been shown that in patients with severe COVID-19 treatment with leronlimab reduces elevated plasma IL-6 and chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), and normalized CD4/CD8 ratios. We administered leronlimab to 4 critically ill COVID-19 patients in intensive care. All 4 of these patients improved clinically as measured by vasopressor support, and discontinuation of hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation. Following administration of leronlimab there was a statistically significant decrease in IL-6 observed in patient A (p=0.034) from day 0-7 and patient D (p=0.027) from day 0-14. This corresponds to restoration of the immune function as measured by CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio. Although two of the patients went on to survive the other two subsequently died of surgical complications after an initial recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
Genes Dis ; 8(4): 484-492, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933100

ABSTRACT

To date, it remains unclear if severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infection exacerbates liver injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, we present a retrospective study of 133 hospitalized confirmed mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, including 116 patients with COVID-19 with negative serum hepatitis B antigen and 17 HBV inactive carriers with COVID-19. We found that there were no significant differences for the discharge rate or duration of hospitalization between the two groups. However, inactive HBV carriers with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection are at a higher risk of abnormal liver function tests. The enhanced liver injury induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HBV co-infection was identified as the hepatocyte type rather than the cholangiocyte type. Moreover, the inflammatory response, including abnormal lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and interleukin-6 production, may contribute to this injury following SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Collectively, SARS-CoV-2 and HBV co-infection exacerbates liver function of the patients with COVID-19.

20.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 52(4): 313-323, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-881413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Being protease inhibitors and owing to their efficacy in SARS-CoV, lopinavir + ritonavir (L/R) combination is being used in the management of COVID-19. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we have evaluated the comparative safety and efficacy of L/R combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparative, observational studies and controlled clinical trials comparing L/R combination to standard of care (SOC)/control or any other antiviral agent/combinations were included. A total of 10 databases were searched to identify 13 studies that fulfilled the predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. RESULTS: No discernible beneficial effect was seen in the L/R group in comparison to SOC/control in terms of "progression to more severe state" (4 studies, odds ratio [OR]: 1.446 [0.722-2.895]), "mortality" (3 studies, OR: 1.208 [0.563-2.592]), and "virological cure on days 7-10" (3 studies, OR: 0.777 [0.371-1.630]), while the L/R combination arm performed better than the SOC/control arm in terms of "duration of hospital stay" (3 studies, mean difference (MD): -1.466 [-2.403 to - 0.529]) and "time to virological cure" (3 studies, MD: -3.272 [-6.090 to - 0.454]). No difference in efficacy was found between L/R versus hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and L/R versus arbidol. However, in a single randomized controlled trail (open label), chloroquine (CQ) performed better than L/R. The combination L/R with arbidol may be beneficial (in terms of virological clearance and radiological improvement); however, we need more dedicated studies. Single studies report efficacy of L/R + interferon (IFN, either alpha or 1-beta) combination. We need more studies to delineate the proper effect size. Regarding adverse effects, except occurrence of diarrhea (higher in the L/R group), safety was comparable to SOC. CONCLUSION: In our study, no difference was seen between the L/R combination and the SOC arm in terms of "progression to more severe state," "mortality," and virological cure on days 7-10;" however, some benefits in terms of "duration of hospital stay" and "time to virological cure" were seen. No significant difference in efficacy was seen when L/R was compared to arbidol and HCQ monotherapy. Except for the occurrence of diarrhea, which was higher in the L/R group, safety profile of L/R is comparable to SOC. Compared to L/R combination, CQ, L/R + arbidol, L/R + IFN-α, and L/R + IFN-1ß showed better efficacy, but the external validity of these findings is limited by limited number of studies (1 study each).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Drug Combinations , Humans , Negative Results , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
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