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1.
Central European Journal of Immunology ; 47(1):95-101, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837685

ABSTRACT

In the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, the questions about specific activity of this virus in induction and/or inhibition of the innate and adaptive immune response are still open. Clinical observations of the severe and critical course of infection showed the hyperinflammation and cytokine storm. In organs and tissues that are a target for viral entry the lymphocytes and monocytes are dominant cells in tissue infiltration. There are different ways and different mechanisms leading to immune response disorders. In peripheral blood in the severe and fatal course of disease lymphopenia is frequent as a poor prognosis factor. Reduced numbers of lymphocytes, mainly T cells and NK cells, are noted in the majority of these patients. The NK cells belonging to the innate immunity system are dedicated to the antiviral response due to production of interferon (IFN) and direct lysis of virus infected cells. In SARS-CoV-2 infection NK cells’ activity against this pathogen is impaired based on inhibition of IFN production and functional exhaustion. The restoration of NK cell number and function might support elimination of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, increasing chances of recovery. The use of activated NK cells in SARS-CoV-2 therapy is under clinical trials.

2.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(7):3649-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1834806

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is currently raging around the world at a rapid speed. Among COVID-19 patients, SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the main contribution to the high ratio of morbidity and mortality. However, clinical manifestations between SARS-CoV-2-associated ARDS and non-SARS-CoV-2-associated ARDS are quite common, and their therapeutic treatments are limited because the intricated pathophysiology having been not fully understood. In this study, to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-associated ARDS and non-SARS-CoV-2-associated ARDS, first, we constructed a candidate host-pathogen interspecies genome-wide genetic and epigenetic network (HPI-GWGEN) via database mining. With the help of host-pathogen RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data, real HPI-GWGEN of COVID-19-associated ARDS and non-viral ARDS were obtained by system modeling, system identification, and Akaike information criterion (AIC) model order selection method to delete the false positives in candidate HPI-GWGEN. For the convenience of mitigation, the principal network projection (PNP) approach is utilized to extract core HPI-GWGEN, and then the corresponding core signaling pathways of COVID-19-associated ARDS and non-viral ARDS are annotated via their core HPI-GWGEN by KEGG pathways. In order to design multiple-molecule drugs of COVID-19-associated ARDS and non-viral ARDS, we identified essential biomarkers as drug targets of pathogenesis by comparing the core signal pathways between COVID-19-associated ARDS and non-viral ARDS. The deep neural network of the drug–target interaction (DNN-DTI) model could be trained by drug–target interaction databases in advance to predict candidate drugs for the identified biomarkers. We further narrowed down these predicted drug candidates to repurpose potential multiple-molecule drugs by the filters of drug design specifications, including regulation ability, sensitivity, excretion, toxicity, and drug-likeness. Taken together, we not only enlighten the etiologic mechanisms under COVID-19-associated ARDS and non-viral ARDS but also provide novel therapeutic options for COVID-19-associated ARDS and non-viral ARDS. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Molecular Sciences is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Chest ; 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no pharmacologic treatment for ARDS. Platelets play an important role in the pathophysiology of ARDS. Preclinical, observational, and clinically relevant models of ARDS indicate aspirin as a potential therapeutic option. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is enteral aspirin (75 mg, once daily) safe and effective in improving surrogate outcomes in adult patients with ARDS? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind (patient and investigator), allocation-concealed, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial was conducted in five UK ICUs. Patients fulfilling the Berlin definition of ARDS were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive enteral aspirin (75 mg) or placebo, for a maximum of 14 days, using a computer-generated randomization schedule, with variable block size, stratified by vasopressor requirement. The primary end point was oxygenation index (OI) on day 7. Secondary outcomes included safety parameters and other respiratory physiological markers. Analyses were by intention to treat. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early, due to slow recruitment, after 49 of a planned 60 patients were recruited. Twenty-four patients were allocated to aspirin and 25 to placebo. There was no significant difference in day 7 OI [aspirin group: unadjusted mean, 54.4 (SD 26.8); placebo group: 42.4 (SD 25); mean difference, 12.0; 95% CI, -6.1 to 30.1; P = .19]. Aspirin did not significantly impact the secondary outcomes. There was no difference in the number of adverse events between the groups (13 in each; OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.56-1.94; P = .56). INTERPRETATION: Aspirin was well tolerated but did not improve OI or other physiological outcomes; a larger trial is not feasible in its current design. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02326350; URL: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.

4.
Nitric Oxide ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821426

ABSTRACT

Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a potent vasodilator approved for use in term and near-term neonates, but with broad off-label use in settings including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As an inhaled therapy, iNO reaches well ventilated portions of the lung and selectively vasodilates the pulmonary vascular bed, with little systemic effect due to its rapid inactivation in the bloodstream. iNO is well documented to improve oxygenation in a variety of pathological conditions, but in ARDS, these transient improvements in oxygenation have not translated into meaningful clinical outcomes. In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related ARDS, iNO has been proposed as a potential treatment due to a variety of mechanisms, including its vasodilatory effect, antiviral properties, as well as anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory actions. Presently however, no randomized controlled data are available evaluating iNO in COVID-19, and published data are largely derived from retrospective and cohort studies. It is therefore important to interpret these limited findings with caution, as many questions remain around factors such as patient selection, optimal dosing, timing of administration, duration of administration, and delivery method. Each of these factors may influence whether iNO is indeed an efficacious therapy - or not - in this context. As such, until randomized controlled trial data are available, use of iNO in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 related ARDS should be considered on an individual basis with sound clinical judgement from the attending physician.

5.
Pulmonary Circulation ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819392

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2), was the third leading cause of death in the US in 2020 and has caused more than 6 million deaths worldwide in the last two years This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(4):528-530, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818519
7.
Journal of Cardiac Surgery ; : 2, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1816600

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a selectively available therapeutic option, generally available in a large-size referral healthcare system. In a single-center experience of the use of venovenous ECMO for COVID-19 ARDS in a medium-size healthcare system during the pandemic, West et al. in their study have convincingly demonstrated that ECMO can become a broadly available therapeutic option without compromising quality.

8.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814788

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by the novel betacoronavirus SARS-COV-2, has become a global pandemic threat. SARS- COV-2 is structurally similar to SARS-COV, and both bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to enter human cells. While patients typically present with fever, shortness of breath, sore throat, and cough, in some cases neurologic manifestations occur due to both direct and indirect involvement of the nervous system. Case reports include anosmia, ageusia, central respiratory failure, stroke, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, headache, myalgia, myelitis, ataxia, and various neuropsychiatric manifestations. Some patients with COVID-19 may present with concurrent acute neuromuscular syndromes such as myasthenic crisis (MC), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM);these conditions coupled with respiratory failure could trigger a life-threatening condition. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on acute neuromuscular syndromes with respiratory failure related to COVID-19 infection in an attempt to clarify and to manage the muscle dysfunction overlapping SARS-COV-2 infection.

9.
Iubmb Life ; : 11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1813517

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, a newly emerging serious infectious disease, has spread worldwide. To date, effective drugs against the disease are limited. Traditional Chinese medicine was commonly used in treating COVID-19 patients in China. Here we tried to identify herbal effective lipid compounds from the lipid library of 92 heat-clearing and detoxication Chinese herbs. Through virtual screening, enzymatic activity and inhibition assays, and surface plasmon resonance tests, we identified lipid compounds targeting the main protease (M-pro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and verified their functions. Here, we found that natural lipid compounds LPC (14:0/0:0) and LPC (16:0/0:0) could target SARS-CoV-2 M-pro, recover cell death induced by SARS-CoV-2, and ameliorate acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and virus poly (I:C) mimics in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that LPC (14:0/0:0) and LPC (16:0/0:0) might be potential pan remedy against ARDS.

10.
Drugs Context ; 11, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been studied in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 when it may be too late to impact disease course. This article aims to describe real-world iNO use and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 with mild-to-moderate ARDS in the United States. METHODS: This was a retrospective medical chart review study that included patients who were ≥18 years old, hospitalized for COVID-19, met the Berlin ARDS definition, received iNO for ≥24 hours continuously during hospitalization, and had a partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2))/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) ratio (P/F ratio) of >100 to ≤300 mmHg at iNO initiation. Outcomes included oxygenation parameters, physician-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale scores, and adverse events. Response to iNO was defined as >20% improvement in P/F ratio. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients at six sites were included. A P/F ratio of ≤100 was the most common reason for exclusion (n=146;83% of excluded patients). The mean P/F ratio (SD) increased from 136.7 (34.4) at baseline to 140.3 (53.2) at 48 hours and 151.8 (50.0) at 72 hours after iNO initiation. The response rate was 62% (n=23). During hospitalization, no patient experienced adverse events, including methemoglobinaemia, airway injury, or worsening pulmonary oedema associated with iNO. At discharge, 54.0% (n=20) of patients improved or remained stable according to the CGI-I. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and mild-to-moderate ARDS, iNO was associated with improvement in the P/F ratio with no reported toxicity. This study provides additional evidence supporting a favourable benefit-risk profile for iNO in the treatment of mild-to-moderate ARDS in patients with COVID-19 infection.

11.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 16(1): 759, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19, higher than expected level of intrapulmonary shunt has been described, in association with a discrepancy between the initial relatively preserved lung mechanics and the hypoxia severity. This study aim was to measure the shunt fraction and variations of PaO2/FiO2 ratio and oxygen alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a O2) at different FiO2. METHODS: Shunt was measured by a non-invasive system during spontaneous breathing in 12 patients hospitalized at COVID-19 Semi-Intensive Care Unit of Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy, between October 22 and November 23, 2020. RESULTS: Nine patients were men, mean age (±SD) 62±15 years, mean BMI 27.5±4.8 Kg/m2. Systemic hypertension, diabetes type 2 and previous myocardial infarction were referred in 33%, 17%, and 7%, respectively. Mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 234±66 and 11 patients presented a bilateral chest X-ray involvement. Mean shunt was 21±6%. Mainly in patients with a more severe respiratory failure, we found a progressive decrease of PaO2/FiO2 ratio with higher FiO2. Considering (A-a O2), we found a uniform tendency to increase with FiO2 increasing. Even in this case, the more severe were the patients, the higher was the slope, suggesting FiO2 insensitiveness due to a shunt effect, as strengthened by our measurements. CONCLUSION: Relying on a single evaluation of PaO2/FiO2 ratio, especially at high FiO2, could be misleading in COVID-19. We propose a two steps evaluation, the first at low SpO2 value (e.g., 92-94%) and the second one at high FiO2 (i.e., >0.7), allowing to characterize both the amendable (ventilation/perfusion mismatch), and the fixed (shunt) contribution quote of respiratory impairment, respectively.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 13:690726, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809487

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of remdesivir and tocilizumab combination therapy against dexamethasone for the management of severe COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a multicenter study. Cases were randomly chosen and divided into two groups using an odd-even ratio of 1:1 applied to the hospital registration number. Group A received remdesivir [5 mg/kg (<40 kg) or 200 mg (>40 kg) on day 1 and then 2.5 mg/kg (<40 kg) or 100 mg (>40 kg) daily] + tocilizumab [8 mg/kg up to 800 mg highest 12 h apart], and group B was the control and received dexamethasone 6 mg/day. In addition, a broad-spectrum antibiotic and other essential treatments were received by all patients. To evaluate the mortality risk, the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was calculated on day-1. Treatment outcomes were measured as time to clinical improvement;mortality rate;duration of ICU stay;total period of hospitalization;the rate of (Supplementary Material) oxygen use;time to clinical failure;National Early Warning Score-2 (NEWS), and the percentage of lung recovery on CT of chest on discharge. Clinical trial registration ID: NCT04678739. Results: Remdesivir-Tocilizumab group had a lower mortality rate (25.49%) than the control (30.77%). The time to clinical improvement (Group A-9.41;B-14.21 days), NEWS-2 on discharge (Group A-0.89;B-1.2), duration of ICU stay (Group A-7.68;B-10.58), and duration of hospitalization (Group A-9.91;B-14.68) were less in the treatment group. Group A had a better percentage of lung recovery on chest CT than the control (Group A-22.13;B-11.74). All these differences were statistically significant (p= <0.05) in a t-test. However, no significant survival benefit was found among the study groups in Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p = 0.739. Conclusion: The remdesivir-tocilizumab combination had preferable outcomes compared to the dexamethasone therapy for the treatment of severe COVID-19 concerning mortality rate and clinical and pulmonary improvement, although it did not demonstrate a significant survival benefit. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04678739.

13.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10:23247096221095426, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808265

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presented in December 2019 and has persisted since. The global pandemic has given rise to a novel acute disease process with a continually rapidly increasing prevalence of chronic disease and associated complications. There is minimal information on the long-term pulmonary complications of this disease. We present a series of 9 patient case reports and their respective imaging admitted with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to highlight the cystic lung disease complications which may arise due to severity and disease progression. Our aim is to raise awareness of the sequela of COVID-19 ARDS, including its potentially catastrophic long-term consequences to the respiratory tract involving cystic lung disease.

14.
Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants ; 35(4):29-33, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1806587

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, often fatal, lung condition frequently seen in patients in the ICU. ARDS is triggered by an inciting event such as pneumonia or sepsis, which is followed by an inappropriate host inflammatory response that results in pulmonary edema and impaired gas exchange, and may progress to fibrosis. With the increased spotlight and discussion focused on ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers must be able to identify and manage symptoms based on evidence-based research. © 2022 American Academy of Physician Associates.

15.
Respiratory Medicine ; : 106858, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1805102

ABSTRACT

Background We aimed to assess whether asymptomatic (“happy”) hypoxia was an identifiable physiological phenotype of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and associated with need for ICU admission. Methods We performed an observational cohort study of all adult patients admitted with hypoxaemic respiratory failure to a large acute hospital Trust serving the East Midlands, UK. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were compared to those without. Physiological response to hypoxaemia was modelled using a linear mixed effects model. Results Of 1,586 patients included, 75% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The ROX index was 2.08 min−1 lower (1.56–2.61, p < 0.001) in the COVID-19 cohort when adjusted for age and ethnicity, suggesting an enhanced respiratory response to hypoxia compared to the non-Covid-19 patients. There was substantial residual inter- and intra-patient variability in the respiratory response to hypoxaemia. 33% of the infected cohort required ICU, and of these 31% died within 60 days. ICU admission and mortality were both associated with an enhanced respiratory response for all degrees of hypoxaemia. Conclusions Patients with COVID-19 display a more symptomatic phenotype in response to hypoxaemia than those with other causes of hypoxaemic respiratory failure, however individual patients exhibit a wide range of responses. As such although asymptomatic hypoxaemia may be a phenomenon in any individual patient with hypoxaemic respiratory failure, it is no more frequently observed in those with SARS-CoV-2 infection than without.

16.
Tanaffos ; 19(4): 291-299, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators are an important component in the pathophysiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to assess the effects of reducing inflammatory mediators using hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on the mortality of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. All patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients were divided into three groups, namely, HP, CRRT and HP+CRRT. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were oxygenation and reduction in inflammatory mediators at the end of the study. RESULTS: Patients were not different at baseline in demographics, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the level of acute phase reactants. Half of the patients (3 out of 6) in the HP+CRRT group survived along with the survival of one patient (1 out of 2) in the HP group. All four patients in the CRRT group died. Serum creatinine (SCr), Interleukin-1 (IL1), Interleukin-6 (IL6), Interleukin-8 (IL8), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), O2 saturation (O2 sat), and hemodynamic parameters improved over time in HP+CRRT and CRRT groups, but no significant difference was observed in the HP group (All Ps > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined HP and CRRT demonstrated the best result in terms of mortality, reduction of inflammatory mediators and oxygenation. Further investigations are needed to explore the role of HP+CRRT in COVID-19 patients.

17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1803082

ABSTRACT

Some patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) experience acute hypoxemic respiratory failure progressing toward atypical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of the study is to evaluate whether a correlation between ratio of peripheral saturation of oxygen (SpO(2)) and fraction of inspired oxygen (S/F) and ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) exists in COVID-19-related ARDS as already known in classical ARDS. In this multicenter, retrospective, observational study, consecutive, adult (≥ 18 years) patients with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to different COVID-19 divisions in Italy between March and December 2020 were included. Patients with SpO(2) > 97% or missing information were excluded. We included 1,028 patients (median age 72 years, prevalence of males [62.2%]). A positive correlation was found between P/F and S/F (r = 0.938, p < 0.0001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that S/F accurately recognizes the presence of ARDS (P/F ≤ 300 mmHg) in COVID-19 patients, with a cut-off of ≤ 433% showing good sensitivity and specificity. S/F was also tested against P/F values ≤ 200 and ≤ 100 mmHg (suggestive for moderate and severe ARDS, respectively), the latter showing great accuracy for S/F ≤ 178%. S/F was accurate in predicting ARDS for SpO(2) ≥ 92%. In conclusion, our findings support the routine use of S/F as a reliable surrogate of P/F in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS.

18.
Journal of Thoracic Disease ; 0(0):6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798612

ABSTRACT

Background: During COVID-19 pandemic, people who developed pneumonia and needed supplemental oxygen, where treated with low-flow oxygen therapy systems and non-invasive methods, including oxygen therapy using high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and the application of bi-level or continuous positive airway pressure (BiPAP or CPAP). We aimed to investigate the outcomes of critical COVID-19 patients treated with HFNC and unveil predictors of HFNC failure. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients admitted to COVID-19 wards and treated with HFNC for COVID-19-related severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. The primary outcome of this study was treatment failure, such as the composite of intubation or death during hospital stay. The association between treatment failure and clinical features was evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: One hundred thirty-two patients with a median (IQR) PaO2/FiO(2) ratio 96 (63-173) mmHg at HFNC initiation were studied. Overall, 45.4% of the patients were intubated. Hospital mortality was 31.8%. Treatment failure (intubation or death) occurred in 50.75% and after adjustment for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) score and National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) score on admission and PaO2/FiO(2) ratio and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity at the time of HFNO initiation, it was significantly associated with the presence of dyspnea [adjusted OR 2.48 (95% CI: 1.01-6.12)], and higher Urea serum levels [adjusted OR 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51) mg/dL]. Conclusions: HFNC treatment was successful in almost half of the patients with severe COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). The presence of dyspnea and high serum Urea levels on admission are closely related to HFNC failure.

19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 305(5): 1135-1142, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797645

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have a higher risk of hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and invasive ventilation, and of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In case of ARDS and critical severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is recommended when other respiratory support strategies (oxygen insufflation, non-invasive ventilation [NIV], invasive ventilation through an endotracheal tube) are insufficient. However, available data on ECMO in pregnant and postpartum women with critical COVID-19 are very limited. METHODS: A case series of three critically ill pregnant women who required ECMO support for COVID-19 in pregnancy and/or in the postpartum period. RESULTS: The first patient tested positive for COVID-19 during the second trimester, she developed ARDS and required ECMO for 38 days. She was discharged in good general conditions and a cesarean-section [CS] at term was performed for obstetric indication. The second patient developed COVID-19-related ARDS at 28 weeks of gestation. During ECMO, she experienced a precipitous vaginal delivery at 31 weeks and 6 days of gestation. She was discharged 1 month later in good general conditions. The third patient, an obese 43-year-old woman, tested positive at 38 weeks and 2 days of gestation. Because of the worsening of clinical condition, a CS was performed, and she underwent ECMO. 143 days after the CS, she died because of sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). Thrombosis, hemorrhage and infections were the main complications among our patients. Neonatal outcomes have been positive. CONCLUSION: ECMO should be considered a life-saving therapy for pregnant women with severe COVID-19.

20.
Pulm Ther ; 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797375

ABSTRACT

A 27-year-old woman at 17 weeks gestation was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a history of fever, dyspnea, and dry cough for 3 days. She was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on her nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that was positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the ICU, the patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and increased levels of inflammatory markers. She was then intubated for mechanical ventilation and had a treatment for critical COVID-19 illness during pregnancy. She also received three cycles on alternating days of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) since she was failing to respond to conventional medical treatment. During hospitalization, the patient's fetus was closely monitored by repetitive ultrasound. After 27 days of hospitalization and 10 days of mechanical ventilation weaning, the patient's respiratory condition improved and her inflammatory biomarkers normalized. She was discharged from the hospital with an apparently healthy 20th week fetus. This case report highlights the role of TPE for treatment of ARDS due to cytokine storm in pregnant women with severe COVID-19 infection. This case emphasizes that careful evaluation of clinical and biological progression of the patient's status is very important and when conventional therapies are failing, alternative therapies such as TPE should be considered.

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