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1.
EFSA Supporting Publications ; 19(12), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198370

ABSTRACT

According to its Founding Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was tasked to establish a system of networks of organisations operating in the fields within EFSA's remit, with the objective to facilitate a scientific cooperation framework by coordinating activities, exchanging information, developing and implementing joint projects, and exchanging expertise and best practices. The Scientific Network on Risk Assessment in Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) aims to build a mutual understanding of risk assessment principles in the areas of animal health and welfare, to promote harmonisation of animal health and welfare risk assessment practices and methodologies, and to reduce the duplication of activities by identifying and sharing current and upcoming priorities. The network organises an annual meeting dedicated to animal health‐related issues to discuss and exchange on all topics relevant and interesting to its member organisations. In 2022, this annual meeting took place on 27 and 28 June. Among all topics covered, special attention was paid to avian influenza, African swine fever and SARS‐CoV‐2. One Health surveillance and biosecurity were further highlights in 2022. This report summarises the activities presented by members and observers of the network as well as EFSA's contributions during the meeting.

2.
South Asian Journal of Management ; 29(1):166-180, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970478

ABSTRACT

Implementation of new impairment model of IFRS-9 needs to estimate Expected Credit Loss (ECL) for valuation of financial instruments. The whole process of estimating credit risk and calculating of impairment requires in developing of the internal IFRS-9 model and methodology. According to IFRS-9, reporting value of the financial instruments must be presented on the balance sheet only after considering the ECL. Under the general approach, ECL considers the forward looking scenario, along with the past and present records, which entails macro economic factors. The recent Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected the economy at the macro level in general and the individual business entities at the micro level in particular. Thus post impact of COVID-19 on ECL is unavoidable. The paper attempts to explore how in accounting the ECL deals with the impact of COVID-19 in respect of valuation of the financial instruments at the date of reporting and disclosure of a business entity. The study incorporates qualitative as well as quantitative analysis. The novelty of the study infers some major findings. The study suggests that the COVID-19 outbreak has a significant impact on the calculation of 'Expected Credit Loss' (ECL).

3.
POST-PANDEMIC SUSTAINABLE TOURISM MANAGEMENT: The New Reality of Managing Ethical and Responsible Tourism ; : 55-67, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935214
4.
Patterns (N Y) ; 3(9): 100562, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914886

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome data are essential for epidemiology, vaccine development, and tracking emerging variants. Millions of SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been sequenced during the pandemic. However, downloading SARS-CoV-2 genomes from databases is slow and unreliable, largely due to suboptimal choice of compression method. We evaluated the available compressors and found that Nucleotide Archival Format (NAF) would provide a drastic improvement compared with current methods. For Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Flu Data's (GISAID) pre-compressed datasets, NAF would increase efficiency 52.2 times for gzip-compressed data and 3.7 times for xz-compressed data. For DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ), NAF would improve throughput 40 times for gzip-compressed data. For GenBank and European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), NAF would accelerate data distribution by a factor of 29.3 times compared with uncompressed FASTA. This article provides a tutorial for installing and using NAF. Offering a NAF download option in sequence databases would provide a significant saving of time, bandwidth, and disk space and accelerate biological and medical research worldwide.

5.
International Conference on Tourism Research ; : 529-535,XIX, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1905316

ABSTRACT

The sustainable tourism concept has been evolving continually and respectively with modern society's views on sustainability. The tourism industry constantly faces new challenges showing weak points and providing opportunities for further concept development. With the focus on Japan as a case study, this empirical research discusses the insights of key stakeholders about managing sustainable tourism development during the crisis. This research takes the COVID-19 pandemic as an example of a crisis, which provides an opportunity for the sustainable tourism concept for further evolution. The results indicated that public and private sector stakeholders have different visions of sustainable tourism development. Japan's current public sector approach to it implies resolving the issue of overtourism in main tourism destinations and providing comfortable living for local communities. However, it does not have any implications for making tourism more resilient to external crises. The proposals of stakeholders for response measures for future sustainable tourism development and related policies included the establishment of a crisis management system in the tourism sphere, focus on the development of domestic tourism, creation of proper guidelines for the tourism industry for actions in case of crisis, revision of traditional tourism techniques, the establishment of "new lifestyle"/adaptation to "with Corona" era, focusing on online business/ tourism experience, focus on the development of small groups tours and individual tours, development of flexibility and adaptivity to changes in social conditions, incorporation of public health-related issues, non-contact content expansion, individual approach to different areas, and regional cooperation incorporation.

6.
Mathematics ; 10(7):1037, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785801

ABSTRACT

Due to the existence and variation of various viruses, an epidemic in which different strains spread at the same time will occur. here, an avian–human epidemic model with two strain viruses are established and analyzed. Both theoretical and simulation results reveal that the mixed infections intensify the epidemic and the dynamics become more complex and sensitive. There are six equilibria. The trivial equilibrium point is a high-order singular point and will undergo the transcritical bifurcations to bifurcate three equilibria. The existence and stability of equilibria mainly depend on five thresholds. A bifurcation portrait for the existence and stability of equilibria is presented. Simulations suggest that the key control measure is to develop the identification technology to eliminate the poultry infected with a high pathogenic virus preferentially, then the infected poultry with a low pathogenic virus in the recruitment and on farms. Controlling contact between human and poultry can effectively restrain the epidemic and controlling contagions in poultry can avoid great infection in humans.

7.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209967

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, influenza virus remains a major threat to public health due to its potential to cause epidemics and pandemics with significant human mortality. Cases of H7N9 human infections emerged in eastern China in 2013 and immediately raised pandemic concerns as historically, pandemics were caused by the introduction of new subtypes into immunologically naïve human populations. Highly pathogenic H7N9 cases with severe disease were reported recently, indicating the continuing public health threat and the need for a prophylactic vaccine. Here we review the development of recombinant influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) as vaccines against H7N9 virus. Several approaches to vaccine development are reviewed including the expression of VLPs in mammalian, plant and insect cell expression systems. Although considerable progress has been achieved, including demonstration of safety and immunogenicity of H7N9 VLPs in the human clinical trials, the remaining challenges need to be addressed. These challenges include improvements to the manufacturing processes, as well as enhancements to immunogenicity in order to elicit protective immunity to multiple variants and subtypes of influenza virus.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Epitopes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II , Humans
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