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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110068

ABSTRACT

Optimizing the allocation of basic medical services and ensuring their equity are necessary to improve the ability to respond to public health emergencies and promote health equity in the context of COVID-19. This study aims to analyze the equity of Guangzhou's basic medical service and identify areas where health resources are relatively scarce. The spatial distribution and patterns of basic medical services were analyzed using kernel density analysis and standard deviation ellipse. The equity was analyzed using the Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve in terms of population and geographical area, respectively. Considering the medical demand and supply sides, the Gaussian two-step floating catchment area method was used to analyze the accessibility to different levels of medical institutions. The kernel density analysis and standard deviation ellipse showed that the spatial distribution of medical and health resources in Guangzhou is unevenly distributed, and high-level hospitals and medical resources are mainly concentrated in the centrum. From the perspective of population, Guangzhou's medical equity is generally reasonable. The accessibility of medical institutions differs with different levels, and the tertiary medical institutions have the best accessibility, while the unclassified, primary, and secondary medical institutions generally have lower accessibility. The accessibility of districts in Guangzhou varies greatly. Areas in the center are most accessible to basic medical services, while accessibility in outskirt areas has gradually decreased. Conclusion: The quantity of per capita medical and health resources in Guangzhou, as evidenced by basic medical services, is sufficient, but the spatial distribution is unequal. The developed city center enjoys more adequate healthcare resources than the distant suburbs. Primary healthcare should be built, especially in distant suburbs, to strengthen basic medical service equity in Guangzhou.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Catchment Area, Health , Health Resources
2.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 81, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109075

ABSTRACT

Face coverings have been key in reducing the spread of COVID-19. At the same time, they have hindered interpersonal communication, particularly for those who rely on speechreading to aid communication. The available research indicated that deaf/hard of hearing (HoH) people experienced great difficulty communicating with people wearing masks and negative effects on wellbeing. Here we extended these findings by exploring which factors predict deaf/HoH people's communication difficulties, loss of information, and wellbeing. We also explored the factors predicting perceived usefulness of transparent face coverings and alternative ways of communicating. We report the findings from an accessible survey study, released in two written and three signed languages. Responses from 395 deaf/HoH UK and Spanish residents were collected online at a time when masks were mandatory. We investigated whether onset and level of deafness, knowledge of sign language, speechreading fluency, and country of residence predicted communication difficulties, wellbeing, and degree to which transparent face coverings were considered useful. Overall, deaf/HoH people and their relatives used masks most of the time despite greater communication difficulties. Late-onset deaf people were the group that experienced more difficulties in communication, and also reported lower wellbeing. However, both early- and late-onset deaf people reported missing more information and feeling more disconnected from society than HoH people. Finally, signers valued transparent face shields more positively than non-signers. The latter suggests that, while seeing the lips is positive to everyone, signers appreciate seeing the whole facial expression. Importantly, our data also revealed the importance of visual communication other than speechreading to facilitate face-to-face interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deafness , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication , Humans , Masks , Sign Language
3.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1): 226, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108953

ABSTRACT

Secret shopper studies are particularly potent study designs that allow for the gathering of objective data for a variety of research hypotheses, including but not limited to, healthcare delivery, equity of healthcare, and potential barriers to care. Of particular interest during the COVID-19 pandemic, secret shopper study designs allow for the gathering of data over the phone. However, there is a dearth of literature available on appropriate methodological practices for these types of studies. To make these study designs more widely accessible, here we outline the case for using the secret shopper methodology and detail best practices for designing and implementing them.

4.
40th ACM International Conference on Design of Communication, SIGDOC 2022 ; : 186-187, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2108347

ABSTRACT

This project addresses the need for accessible classroom learning technologies that replicate the tools students have used in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. My research offers a concept for a communication app designed for use in in-person, hybrid, and hyflex classrooms. This app focuses on user experience (UX) research and universal design for learning (UDL) and is grounded in disability studies and principles of accessibility in higher education. © 2022 Owner/Author.

5.
Transp Res Part A Policy Pract ; 165: 419-438, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106063

ABSTRACT

We address the problem of the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on foreign trade transport by introducing a foreign trade intermodal transport accessibility (FTITA) index. First, we present the definition of FTITA, which combines the convenience of transporting domestic cargoes to overseas regions by an international intermodal transport network and the trade attractiveness of the domestic cargoes in the overseas regions. Second, we analyze the path choice behaviors of domestic shippers and propose the measurement method of the FTITA index. Finally, using the 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta region in mainland China as origins and eight overseas regions as destinations, we empirically analyze the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the FTITA. With the empirical study conducted in the prepandemic and postpandemic years, we analyzed the overall trends of the FTITAs from the YRD region to eight overseas regions, spatial patterns of the distributions of the FTITAs in the YRD region, rankings of average FTITA values for the top ten cities in the YRD region, and the FTITAs for different cargoes. The results indicate that the FTITAs of the YRD region in the prepandemic year are significantly higher than those in the postpandemic year. Moreover, in both the prepandemic and postpandemic years, the FTITAs to North America, Japan/South Korea, Europe, and Southeast Asia are significantly higher than those to Oceania, Middle East, South America, and Africa. Through analysis of the spatial patterns of the FTITAs across cities in the YRD region, we find that the cities with high FTITA are mainly close to Shanghai Port and Ningbo Port; the cities with middle-high FTITA are mainly located in southern Zhejiang and the regions along the Yangtze River; the cities with middle-low FTITA are mainly located in northern Jiangsu; and the cities with low FTITA are located in northern Anhui. Furthermore, comparing the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the FTITAs for different cargoes, we observe that COVID-19 has the least impact on foodstuffs and event cargoes. Our findings can guide decision makers in implementing policies for alleviating the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on foreign trade transport and further promoting the sustainable development of port and shipping industries.

6.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 83: 103443, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105063

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused online buying channels to flourish across the globe. However, the extent to which online channels in Pakistan assisted peoples in coping with the pandemic remains unknown. This study aims to examine peoples behavior and perceptions regarding online food purchasing and its impact on different aspects of food security. The data were collected through online surveys of 1067 respondents in Punjab and Sindh provinces during the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that peoples access to food was adversely affected by the pandemic. However, people are increasingly purchasing food online, which has improved their accessibility to food. According to the findings, 62.51% of respondents reported to have changed their perception and behavior regarding online food purchasing. In addition, almost 46.40% of peoples reported that online shopping increased their access to food during the pandemic. Using logit regression, economic analysis shows that education, monthly income, and access to basic necessities such as clean drinking water, better sanitation, and better employment are positively related to online buying behavior. For future disaster situations in Pakistan to mitigate the adverse effects on food security, strengthening and promoting the use of online purchasing channels could be an important policy instrument.

7.
Travel Behaviour and Society ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2106033

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which has spread since late 2019, has caused drastic changes in transportation use. A few studies have already addressed the relationships between COVID-19 and transportation mode choice. However, in most cases, the analysis has been based on transit ridership during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, few studies have focused on public bike use before and after COVID-19. This study examines the effect of COVID-19 on the ridership of public bikes and various determining factors of public bike use. An origin-destination (OD) analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used with public bike ridership data from Seoul, Korea. The findings of the analysis can be summarized as follows. First, this study confirms that public parks have significantly influenced the increase in public bike ridership since the COVID-19 outbreak. This finding indicates that outdoor spaces such as riverside parks have played important roles in public bike ridership during the pandemic period. Second, this study finds that accessibility to subway stations strongly impacts the increase in public bike ridership. This means that the demand for public bikes as a connected transportation mode has increased since COVID-19. Third, access to bike lanes has had a significant impact on the increase in public bike ridership. This finding indicates the importance of expanding the public bike infrastructure network. Finally, this study makes policy proposals to promote public bike ridership during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Cities ; 132:104093, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104567

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to present an overarching theoretical perspective on the paradox of inequalities and the paradigm shift in mobilities by reflecting on the challenges and opportunities in urban areas faced by the COVID-19 measures. The question of blurring boundaries between the human and the technological aspects and the ways in which they alter the form of communication and action is tackled reflecting on the digital divide and socio-spatial inequalities. In order to connect theory and practice, implications from different cases are provided for shedding light on the expected impacts and scenarios for the changing patterns of mobility and accessibility. The results indicate hybridization of the on-site and online forms of mobilities, as well as new approaches to make culture and leisure more inclusive and accessible. Promoting local integration, emerging forms of local tourism such as staycations, using digital tools to foster co-creation, co-curation, and audience engagement, developing new models of business and consumption reflect the changing patterns of mobility and accessibility. There are avenues for further research that revolve around the questions of inequalities, over-consumption, sociality and sustainability.

9.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 80, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to emergency medical communication centers (EMCCs) is pivotal to address potentially life-threatening conditions. Maintaining public access to EMCCs without delay is crucial in case of disease outbreak despite the significant increased activity and the difficulties to mobilize extra staff resources. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of two-level filtering on EMCC performance during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A before-after monocentric prospective study was conducted at the EMCC at the Nantes University Hospital. Using telephone activity data, we compared EMCC performance during 2 periods. In period one (February 27th to March 11th 2020), call takers managed calls as usual, gathering basic information from the caller and giving first aid instructions to a bystander on scene if needed. During period two (March 12th to March 25th 2020), calls were answered by a first-line call taker to identify potentially serious conditions that required immediate dispatch. When a serious condition was excluded, the call was immediately transferred to a second-line call taker who managed the call as usual so the first-line call taker could be rapidly available for other incoming calls. The primary outcome was the quality of service at 20 s (QS20), corresponding to the rate of calls answered within 20 s. We described activity and outcome measures by hourly range. We compared EMCC performance during periods one and two using an interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 45,451 incoming calls during the two study periods: 21,435 during period 1 and 24,016 during period 2. Between the two study periods, we observed a significant increase in the number of incoming calls per hour, the number of connected call takers and average call duration. A linear regression model, adjusted for these confounding variables, showed a significant increase in the QS20 slope (from - 0.4 to 1.4%, p = 0.01), highlighting the significant impact of two-level filtering on the quality of service. CONCLUSIONS: We found that rapid access to our EMCC was maintained during the COVID-19 pandemic via two-level filtering. This system helped reduce the time gap between call placement and first-line call-taker evaluation of a potentially life-threatening situation. We suggest implementing this system when an EMCC faces significantly increased activity with limited staff resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Triage/methods , COVID-19 , Controlled Before-After Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists across the United States has been described. However, these studies focused on reproductive-age patients and did not assess the growing demand for services to the advanced-age female population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists who serve the US Medicare population per 100,000 female Medicare beneficiaries, over time and by state and region. STUDY DESIGN: The supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists was extracted from the Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File database of Medicare Part B claims submitted to the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Data were only available from 2012 to 2019. The supply of providers was divided by the number of original female Medicare beneficiaries obtained from the Kaiser Family Foundation; all values reported are providers per 100,000 female beneficiaries by state. Trends over time were assessed as the difference in provider-to-beneficiary ratio and the percentage change from 2012 to 2019. All data were collected in 2021. All analyses were performed with SAS, version 9.4. This study was exempt from institutional review board approval. RESULTS: In 2019, the average number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries across all states was 121.32 (standard deviation±33.03). The 3 states with the highest obstetrician-gynecologist-to-beneficiary ratio were the District of Columbia (268.85), Connecticut (204.62), and Minnesota (171.60), and the 3 states with the lowest were Montana (78.37), West Virginia (82.28), and Iowa (83.92). The average number of gynecologic oncologists was 4.48 (standard deviation±2.08). The 3 states with the highest gynecologic oncologist-to-beneficiary ratio were the District of Columbia (11.30), Rhode Island (10.58), and Connecticut (9.24), and the 3 states with the lowest were Kansas (0.82), Vermont (1.41), and Mississippi (1.47). The number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries decreased nationally by 8.4% from 2012 to 2019; the difference in provider-to-beneficiary ratio from 2012 to 2019 ranged from +29.97 (CT) to -82.62 (AK). Regionally, the Northeast had the smallest decrease in the number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries (-3.8%) and the West had the largest (-18.2%). The number of gynecologic oncologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries increased by 7.0% nationally during the study period; this difference ranged from +8.96 (DC) to -3.39 (SD). Overall, the West had the smallest increase (4.7%) and the Midwest had the largest (15.4%). CONCLUSION: There is wide geographic variation in the supply and growth rate of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists for the female Medicare population. This analysis provides insight into areas of the country where the supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists may not meet current and future demand. The national decrease in the number of obstetrician-gynecologists is alarming, especially because population projections estimate that the proportion of elderly female patients will grow. Future work is needed to determine why fewer providers are available to see Medicare patients and what minimum provider-to-enrollee ratios are needed for gynecologic and cancer care. Once such ratios are established, our results can help determine whether specific states and regions are meeting demand. Additional research is needed to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the supply of women's health providers.

11.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 4(1): 182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094897

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to evaluate various online resources available for radiology education. An online search was conducted using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) and Google Scholar for publications discussing the applications of online learning in radiology. The search strategy employed a combination of the following terms: radiology, web-based conferencing, radiology education seminars, radiology education online, radiology education programs, online lectures, radiology residency, radiology degree, Radiology-Integrated Training Initiative (R-ITI) e-learning platform, UTAUT, Moodle, active image-based learning, Video conference platforms (VCPs), education, undergraduate, medical students, teaching, virtual learning, blended learning, e-learning, COVID-19, pandemic, OER, open education resources, online learning, course assets, accessibility, 5G Internet, game-based learning, radiology competition, and virtual world. The literature published was reviewed and consolidated. Data from the literature shows that radiology education online and radiology education seminars are undergoing a revolution due to advancements in computers, online software, and 5G Internet speed. The pace of this development has accelerated even further due to the COVID-19 pandemic and thus forced distance online education. Various technologies are available and are being implemented by residency programs across the world to improve radiology education, making it more interactive and safer in this pandemic. Online learning has become an integral part of education in radiology, with new facets being added to it.

13.
BJGP Open ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in primary care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic could have affected patient experience of primary care both positively and negatively. AIM: To assess the experiences of patients in primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN & SETTING: A qualitative study of patients from regions with high and low COVID-19 prevalence in the Netherlands. METHOD: A qualitative study using a phenomenological framework was performed among purposively sampled patients. Individual semi-structured interviews were performed and transcribed. Data were thematically analysed by means of an inductive approach. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were interviewed (13 men and 15 women, aged 27-91 years). After thematic analysis, two main themes emerged: accessibility and continuity of primary care. Changes considered positive during the pandemic regarding accessibility and continuity of primary care included having a quieter practice, having more time for consultations, and the use of remote care for problems with low complexity. However, patients also experienced decreases in both care accessibility and continuity, such as feeling unwelcome, the GP postponing chronic care, seeing unfamiliar doctors, and care being segregated. CONCLUSION: Despite bringing several benefits, patients indicated that the changes to primary care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic could have threatened care accessibility and continuity, which are core values of primary care. These insights can guide primary care provision not only in this and future pandemics, but also when implementing permanent changes to care provision in primary care.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090395

ABSTRACT

In the European Union, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines became available in December 2020. The vaccination campaign in Germany was initially implemented through mass vaccination centers and later joined by general practitioners (GPs) in spring 2021. This study compared population characteristics, perceived access barriers, and satisfaction with the vaccination procedure between vaccination centers and GP practices. A paper-based survey was distributed (07/2021-10/2021) among newly vaccinated individuals in ten GP practices (n = 364) and two vaccine centers (n = 474). Participants in vaccine centers were younger compared to participants in GP practices. GP preference was higher in older participants and those with pre-existing illnesses. Wait time at vaccination site was longer in GP practices, whereas travel distance to site was longer for participants in vaccine centers. However, satisfaction with patient education and recommendation of site were more likely with increasing comprehensibility of the vaccination procedure and physicians' information as well as perceived sufficiency of patient education duration, factors that can be easily modified by all vaccination sites. Our results demonstrate that both types of vaccination sites complement each other in terms of accessibility and target population and that satisfaction with the vaccination procedure can be promoted at all sites by an easy-to-understand process.

15.
Community Dent Health ; 39(4): 254-259, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089548

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A key aspect of the public health response to COVID-19 in Scotland was enhanced community surveillance, including testing in dental settings. Across Scotland, dental settings offered patients over 5-years-old the opportunity to participate in community surveillance of COVID-19. METHODS: A Health Inequalities Impact Assessment (HIIA) was conducted to understand the differential impacts the programme would have on the population and to improve the accessibility of the programme. HIIA is a tool to allow the assessment, understanding, and mitigation of impacts on people of a proposed policy or practice. It fulfils an organisational duty to meet the requirements of the Equality Act and Fairer Scotland Duty. The HIIA was conducted rapidly in parallel with the programme development. An action research approach included an online workshop, consultation, review of population data and a literature search. RESULTS: Adjustments were required to improve the programme's accessibility. Stakeholders, including dental teams from across Scotland were involved in the consultation and brought their front-line experience in different settings. Common issues identified included digital literacy and access, language and cultural barriers to participation, and issues relating to the implications of a positive COVID-19 result. Literature indicated limited evidence on the acceptability, accessibility, and equity of asymptomatic COVID-19 surveillance. CONCLUSION: This HIIA was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. As an example of good practice in tackling inequalities in access to programmes it should represent the benchmark for other similar initiatives.

16.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085474

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timely access and attachment to a primary healthcare provider is associated with better population health outcomes. In Canada, community pharmacists are highly accessible and patients struggling to access a family physician or nurse practitioner (i.e., "unattached") may seek care from a community pharmacist. Community pharmacists took on additional roles during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little is known about how community pharmacists managed the needs of attached and unattached patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: To describe Nova Scotian community pharmacists' roles in caring for unattached patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and identifying barriers and facilitators to optimizing patient access. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with community pharmacists (n = 11) across the province of Nova Scotia (Canada) were conducted. RESULTS: Five key themes were noted: (1) rising pressure on pharmacists to meet unique health needs of attached and unattached patients; (2) what pharmacists have to offer (e.g., accessibility, trustworthiness); (3) positioning pharmacists in the system (e.g., how pharmacists can address gaps in primary healthcare); (4) pharmacist wellbeing; and, (5) recommendations for practice post-pandemic (e.g., maintain some policy changes made during the COVID-19 pandemic). CONCLUSION: Before and during the pandemic, community pharmacists played a significant and increasing role providing care to patients, especially unattached patients. With growing numbers of unattached patients, it is vital that community pharmacists are supported to provide services to care for the health needs of patients.

17.
New Directions in Book History ; : 195-214, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2085236

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected children and their families. One of the many challenges families faced was limited or no access to age-appropriate reading material. On the one hand, sales data show that sales of children’s books, in particular activity books, increased markedly during lockdowns. On the other hand, spaces which grant children and families free access to books, such as daycare centers, schools, and public libraries, were closed for weeks at a time. This chapter sketches out the central role of books and reading in families as a pathway to literacy, education, and general well-being and draws on concepts such as book deserts and “book hunger” (Shaver 2020), before discussing the repercussions of limited book accessibility for families during the pandemic. Educational experts have hypothesized that children will experience a “COVID slide” in reading and that existing inequalities in reading progress will be exacerbated by prolonged shutdowns. The contribution also shows, however, how institutions and foundations, as well as individuals, have made books available to children and families in creative and pragmatic ways despite COVID-induced restrictions. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082225

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Understanding oral health needs and barriers is important to overcome the oral disease burden, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess oral health needs and barriers among Saudi children after the COVID-19 pandemic wave started. (2) Methods: Parents of healthy children aged 3-11 years from five regions of Saudi Arabia were surveyed using an electronically administered validated questionnaire from Febuary-2021 to July-2021. Oral lesions/manifestations during the last 12 months reported by parents included tooth discoloration, ulcers, abscess, swelling of the gingiva, halitosis, gingival bleeding, dry mouth, pain while eating, difficulty in speaking or eating, burning sensation, and white spots. Barriers were assessed according to the WHO Oral Health Questionnaire. (3) Results: Children experiencing toothaches were reported by 1098 (72.4%) respondents. When reported, oral manifestations and lesions were associated with a higher inability to visit a dentist (p < 0.001). Barriers to dental care were more frequent among parents with lower education (p < 0.001; adjusted-odds ratio (AOR), 1.815) and a greater number of children (p < 0.001; AOR, 1.197). (4) Conclusion: Parents reported a high frequency of unmet oral health needs. Education could play an important role in improving oral health care in children and as a predictor of public health concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oral Health , Child , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Journal of Transport and Land Use ; 15(1):587-612, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082767

ABSTRACT

During the spring and summer of 2020, cities across the world responded to the global COVID-19 pandemic by converting roadway facili-ties into open pedestrian spaces. These conversions improved access to public open space, but measuring the variation in that improvement among differ-ent populations requires clear definitions of access and methods for measur-ing it. In this study, we evaluate the change in a utility-based park accessibil-ity measure resulting from street conversions in Alameda County, Califor-nia. Our utility-based accessibility measure is constructed from a park activ-ity location choice model we estimate using mobile device data - supplied by StreetLight Data, Inc. - representing trips to parks in that county. The estimated model reveals heterogeneity in inferred affinity for park attributes among different sociodemographic groups. We find, for example, that neigh-borhoods with more lower-income residents and those with more residents of color show a greater preference for park proximity while neighborhoods with higher incomes and those with more white residents show a greater pref-erence for park size and amenities. We then apply this model to examine the accessibility benefits resulting from COVID-19 street conversions to create a set of small park-like open spaces;we find that this policy has improved eq-uity in that marginalized communities including Black, Hispanic, and low-income households receive a disproportionate share of the policy benefits, relative to the population distribution.

20.
Kidney360 ; 1(8): 834-836, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772605
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