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1.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-8, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We attempted to investigate the change in mortality of intubated patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from first to subsequent waves across several countries. METHODS: We pre-registered our meta-analysis with PROSPERO [Anonymized]. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and gray literature for observational studies reporting data on all-cause mortality of intubated patients with COVID-19 recruited both during first and subsequent waves of the pandemic. We considered studies published after 31 August 2020 up to 12 July 2021. The primary outcome of the meta-analysis was all-cause mortality. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: By incorporating data of 363,660 patients from 43 countries included in 28 studies, we found that all-cause mortality of intubated patients with COVID-19 increased from first to subsequent waves (from 62.2% to 72.6%; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.94, p < 0.00001). This finding was independent of the geo-economic variation of the included studies and persisted in several pre-specified subgroup and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The robust finding of this meta-analysis suggests that mortality of intubated patients with COVID-19 did not improve over time. Future research should target this group of patients to further optimize their management.

2.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105500

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Refractory hypoxemia can occur in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19 despite support with venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Parallel ECMO circuits can be used to increase physiologic support. We report our clinical experience using ECMO circuits in parallel for select patients with persistent severe hypoxemia despite the use of a single ECMO circuit. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome who received VV-ECMO with an additional circuit in parallel at Vanderbilt University Medical Center between March 1, 2020, and March 1, 2022. We report demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics including ECMO settings, mechanical ventilator settings, use of adjunctive therapies, and arterial blood gas results after initial cannulation, before and after receipt of a second ECMO circuit in parallel, and before removal of the circuit in parallel, and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 84 patients with COVID-19 who received VV-ECMO during the study period, 22 patients (26.2%) received a circuit in parallel. The median duration of ECMO was 40.0 days (interquartile range, 31.6-53.1 days), of which 19.0 days (interquartile range, 13.0-33.0 days) were spent with a circuit in parallel. Of the 22 patients who received a circuit in parallel, 16 (72.7%) survived to hospital discharge and 6 (27.3%) died before discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In select patients, the additional use of an ECMO circuit in parallel can increase ECMO blood flow and improve oxygenation while allowing for lung-protective mechanical ventilation and excellent outcomes.

3.
Immunol Lett ; 2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105129

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) alveolar environment induced a pro-repair anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. However, patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ARDS frequently exhibit a huge lung inflammation and present pulmonary scars and fibrosis more frequently than patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS, suggesting that the COVID-19 ARDS alveolar environment may drives a more inflammatory or pro-fibrotic macrophage polarization. This study aimed to determine the effect of the COVID-19 ARDS alveolar environment on macrophage polarization. The main finding was that broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from patients with early COVID-19 ARDS drove an alternative anti-inflammatory polarization in normal monocyte-derived macrophages; characterized by increased expressions of CD163 and CD16 mRNA (3.4 [2.7-7.2] and 4.7 [2.6-5.8] fold saline control, respectively - p=0.02), and a secretory pattern close to that of macrophages stimulated with IL-10, with the specificity of an increased production of IL-6. This particular alternative pattern was specific to early ARDS (compared with late ARDS) and of COVID-19 ARDS (compared with moderate COVID-19). The early COVID-19 ARDS alveolar environment drives an alternative anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization with the specificity of inducing macrophage production of IL-6.

4.
JTCVS Open ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096151

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID -19 pandemic presents a high mortality rate amongst patients who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of venovenous ECMO in COVID-19-related ARDS and identify the patients that benefit the most from this procedure. Methods: Adult COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS requiring VV-ECMO support at four academic insititutions between March and October 2020 were included. Data were collected through retrospective chart reviews. Bivariate and multivariable analysis were performed with the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality. Results: Fifty-one consecutive patients underwent VV-ECMO with a mean age of 50.4 years; 64.7% were male. Survival to hospital discharge was 62.8%. Median ICU and hospitalization duration were 27.4 (IQR:17-37) and 34.5 days (IQR:23-43), respectively. Survivors and non-survivors had a median ECMO cannulation time of 11 days (IQR 8-18) and 17 days (IQR: 12-25). The average post decannulation length of stay was 17.5 days (IQR: 12.4-25) for survivors and 0 days for non-survivors (IQR 0-6 days). Only one non-survivor was able to be decannulated. Clinical characteristics associated with mortality between non-surviors and survivors included increasing age (p=0.0048), hemorrhagic stroke (p=0.0014), and post operative dialysis (p=0.0013)were associated with mortality in a bivariate model and retained statistical significance in a multivariable model. Conclusion: This multicenter study confirms the effectiveness of VV-ECMO in selected critically ill patients with COVID-19-related severe ARDS. The survival of these patients is comparable to non-COVID-19-related ARDS.

5.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 272, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089223

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: It is unknown how to titrate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Guidelines recommend the one-size-fits-all PEEP-FiO2 table. In this retrospective cohort study, an electrical impedance tomography (EIT)-guided PEEP trial was used to titrate PEEP. OBJECTIVES: To compare baseline PEEP according to the high PEEP-FiO2 table and personalized PEEP following an EIT-guided PEEP trial. METHODS: We performed an EIT-guided decremental PEEP trial in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19-related ARDS upon intensive care unit admission. PEEP was set at the lowest PEEP above the intersection of curves representing relative alveolar overdistention and collapse. Baseline PEEP was compared with PEEP set according to EIT. We identified patients in whom the EIT-guided PEEP trial resulted in a decrease or increase in PEEP of ≥ 2 cmH2O. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We performed a PEEP trial in 75 patients. In 23 (31%) patients, PEEP was decreased ≥ 2 cmH2O, and in 24 (32%) patients, PEEP was increased ≥ 2 cmH2O. Patients in whom PEEP was decreased had improved respiratory mechanics and more overdistention in the non-dependent lung region at higher PEEP levels. These patients also had a lower BMI, longer time between onset of symptoms and intubation, and higher incidence of pulmonary embolism. Oxygenation improved in patients in whom PEEP was increased. CONCLUSIONS: An EIT-guided PEEP trial resulted in a relevant change in PEEP in 63% of patients. These results support the hypothesis that PEEP should be personalized in patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Electric Impedance , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
6.
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica ; JOUR(1):5-14, 73.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2084138

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by an acute, diffuse inflammation leading to pulmonary edema and hypoxemia. The pathophysiology of the lung failure in COVID-19 ARDS is a combination of the viral infection and the immune response of the host. ARDS due to COVID-19 appears to be similar to the non-COVID-19 ARDS, with exception of hypercoagulability. The mortality due to ARDS remains high and the treatment focuses on supportive measures, such as lung-protective ventilation strategy with small tidal volumes, low driving pressures and PEEP-titration, early consideration of prone positioning and a restrictive fluid management. Oxygen should be titrated, and permissive hypercapnia might be necessary to achieve lung-protective ventilation. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in COVID-19 ARDS is restricted as a rescue therapy in patients who remain hypoxemic. ECMO should be reserved to experienced ECMO centers. Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy is indicated to reduce the formation of thrombi in the microcirculation of organs, especially in the pulmonary microvasculature. Steroids may reduce the host's immune response and improve mortality in patients requiring oxygen supplementation or invasive ventilation.

7.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084372

ABSTRACT

In severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to possibly reduce mortality. Transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) enables monitoring of the extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and cardiac preload parameters such as intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) in patients with ARDS, but it is not generally recommended during V-V ECMO. We hypothesized that the amount of extracorporeal blood flow (ECBF) influences the calculation of EVLWI and ITBVI due to recirculation of indicator, which affects the measurement of the mean transit time (MTt), the time between injection and passing of half the indicator, as well as downslope time (DSt), the exponential washout of the indicator. EVLWI and ITBVI were measured in 20 patients with severe ARDS managed with V-V ECMO at ECBF rates from 6 to 4 and 2 l/min with TPTD. MTt and DSt significantly decreased when ECBF was reduced, resulting in a decreased EVLWI (26.1 [22.8-33.8] ml/kg at 6 l/min ECBF vs 22.4 [15.3-31.6] ml/kg at 4 l/min ECBF, p < 0.001; and 13.2 [11.8-18.8] ml/kg at 2 l/min ECBF, p < 0.001) and increased ITBVI (840 [753-1062] ml/m2 at 6 l/min ECBF vs 886 [658-979] ml/m2 at 4 l/min ECBF, p < 0.001; and 955 [817-1140] ml/m2 at 2 l/min ECBF, p < 0.001). In patients with severe ARDS managed with V-V ECMO, increasing ECBF alters the thermodilution curve, resulting in unreliable measurements of EVLWI and ITBVI. German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00021050). Registered 14/08/2018. https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00021050.

8.
Inflamm Res ; 71(12): 1417-1432, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074066

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute and diffuse inflammatory lung injury in a short time, one of the common severe manifestations of the respiratory system that endangers human life and health. As an innate immune cell, macrophages play a key role in the inflammatory response. For a long time, the role of pulmonary macrophages in ARDS has tended to revolve around the polarization of M1/M2. However, with the development of single-cell RNA sequencing, fate mapping, metabolomics, and other new technologies, a deeper understanding of the development process, classification, and function of macrophages in the lung are acquired. Here, we discuss the function of pulmonary macrophages in ARDS from the two dimensions of anatomical location and cell origin and describe the effects of cell metabolism and intercellular interaction on the function of macrophages. Besides, we explore the treatments for targeting macrophages, such as enhancing macrophage phagocytosis, regulating macrophage recruitment, and macrophage death. Considering the differences in responsiveness of different research groups to these treatments and the tremendous dynamic changes in the gene expression of monocyte/macrophage, we discussed the possibility of characterizing the gene expression of monocyte/macrophage as the biomarkers. We hope that this review will provide new insight into pulmonary macrophage function and therapeutic targets of ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Macrophages , Lung/metabolism
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 994611, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058885
10.
Enferm Intensiva ; 2022 Oct 24.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082764

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify adverse events related to prone positioning in COVID-19 patients with severe disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, to analyze the risk factors associated with the development of anterior pressure ulcers, to determine whether the recommendation of prone positioning is associated with improved clinical outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective study performed in 63 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to intensive care unit on invasive mechanical ventilation and treated with prone positioning between March and April 2020. Association between prone-related pressure ulcers and selected variables was explored by the means of logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 139 proning cycles were performed. The mean number of cycles were 2 [1-3] and the mean duration per cycle was of 22 hours [15-24]. The prevalence of adverse events this population was 84.9 %, being the physiologic ones (i.e., hypo/hypertension) the most prevalent. 29 out of 63 patients (46%) developed prone-related pressure ulcers. The risk factors for prone-related pressure ulcers were older age, hypertension, levels of pre-albumin <21 mg/dl, the number of proning cycles and severe disease. We observed a significant increase in the PaO2/FiO2 at different time points during the prone positioning, and a significant decrease after it. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high incidence of adverse events due to PD, with the physiological type being the most frequent. The identification of the main risk factors for the development of prone-related pressure ulcers will help to prevent the occurrence of these lesions during the prone positioning. Prone positioning offered an improvement in the oxygenation in these patients.

11.
Recent Adv Antiinfect Drug Discov ; 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079948

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID19 causes significant pulmonary microthrombi in some individuals, which can lead to ARDS and death. Thrombolysis could be an effective approach in some patients with severe ARDS. We describe our experience with usage of thrombolytic agents in COVID19 critically ill patients, who were in worsening respiratory failure. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective chart analysis was done in patients who were thrombolysed between May 2020- Sept 2020. Analysis was done to find out factors associated with improvement in oxygenation and survival. RESULTS: Twenty seven patients with severe ARDS [all had respiratory rate >30, FiO2 >0.6(on NIV/HFNC) and PiO2/FiO2 ratio<120] were thrombolysed in our ICU for COVID19 causes. C.T. Pulmonary Angiography could not be done in any of the 27 patients due to poor general condition, but 2D echo was normal in most (5 had dilated RA,RV) and none of the patients was in shock. So there was no conventional indication of thrombolysis in these patients, yet after thrombolysis, we saw dramatic changes in oxygenation (defined by decrease in FiO2 by ≥0.2) in twenty patients. Five patients had major bleed. Eleven patients survived (survival rate of 40.7%) and survival rate was high { 66% (8/12)} in patients who were thrombolysed within 2 days of oxygen requirement. CONCLUSION: In this unprecedented pandemic with high mortality rates, efficacy of early thrombolysis needs to be further explored in randomised controlled trials.

12.
J Clin Med ; 11(12)2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080403

ABSTRACT

The sedation management of patients with severe COVID-19 is challenging. Processed electroencephalography (pEEG) has already been used for sedation management before COVID-19 in critical care, but its applicability in COVID-19 has not yet been investigated. We performed this prospective observational study to evaluate whether the patient sedation index (PSI) obtained via pEEG may adequately reflect sedation in ventilated COVID-19 patients. Statistical analysis was performed by linear regression analysis with mixed effects. We included data from 49 consecutive patients. None of the patients received neuromuscular blocking agents by the time of the measurement. The mean value of the PSI was 20 (±23). The suppression rate was determined to be 14% (±24%). A deep sedation equivalent to the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale of -3 to -4 (correlation expected PSI 25-50) in bedside examination was noted in 79.4% of the recordings. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the sedative dosages of propofol, midazolam, clonidine, and sufentanil (p < 0.01) and the sedation index. Our results showed a distinct discrepancy between the RASS and the determined PSI. However, it remains unclear to what extent any discrepancy is due to the electrophysiological effects of neuroinflammation in terms of pEEG alteration, to the misinterpretation of spinal or vegetative reflexes during bedside evaluation, or to other causes.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 979719, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080191

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has numerous risk factors leading to severe disease with high mortality rate. Oxidative stress with excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lower glutathione (GSH) levels seems to be a common pathway associated with the high COVID-19 mortality. GSH is a unique small but powerful molecule paramount for life. It sustains adequate redox cell signaling since a physiologic level of oxidative stress is fundamental for controlling life processes via redox signaling, but excessive oxidation causes cell and tissue damage. The water-soluble GSH tripeptide (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is present in the cytoplasm of all cells. GSH is at 1-10 mM concentrations in all mammalian tissues (highest concentration in liver) as the most abundant non-protein thiol that protects against excessive oxidative stress. Oxidative stress also activates the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) redox regulator pathway, releasing Nrf2 to regulate the expression of genes that control antioxidant, inflammatory and immune system responses, facilitating GSH activity. GSH exists in the thiol-reduced and disulfide-oxidized (GSSG) forms. Reduced GSH is the prevailing form accounting for >98% of total GSH. The concentrations of GSH and GSSG and their molar ratio are indicators of the functionality of the cell and its alteration is related to various human pathological processes including COVID-19. Oxidative stress plays a prominent role in SARS-CoV-2 infection following recognition of the viral S-protein by angiotensin converting enzyme-2 receptor and pattern recognition receptors like toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and activation of transcription factors like nuclear factor kappa B, that subsequently activate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) expression succeeded by ROS production. GSH depletion may have a fundamental role in COVID-19 pathophysiology, host immune response and disease severity and mortality. Therapies enhancing GSH could become a cornerstone to reduce severity and fatal outcomes of COVID-19 disease and increasing GSH levels may prevent and subdue the disease. The life value of GSH makes for a paramount research field in biology and medicine and may be key against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.

14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 99, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For mechanically ventilated critically ill COVID-19 patients, prone positioning has quickly become an important treatment strategy, however, prone positioning is labor intensive and comes with potential adverse effects. Therefore, identifying which critically ill intubated COVID-19 patients will benefit may help allocate labor resources. METHODS: From the multi-center Dutch Data Warehouse of COVID-19 ICU patients from 25 hospitals, we selected all 3619 episodes of prone positioning in 1142 invasively mechanically ventilated patients. We excluded episodes longer than 24 h. Berlin ARDS criteria were not formally documented. We used supervised machine learning algorithms Logistic Regression, Random Forest, Naive Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machine and Extreme Gradient Boosting on readily available and clinically relevant features to predict success of prone positioning after 4 h (window of 1 to 7 h) based on various possible outcomes. These outcomes were defined as improvements of at least 10% in PaO2/FiO2 ratio, ventilatory ratio, respiratory system compliance, or mechanical power. Separate models were created for each of these outcomes. Re-supination within 4 h after pronation was labeled as failure. We also developed models using a 20 mmHg improvement cut-off for PaO2/FiO2 ratio and using a combined outcome parameter. For all models, we evaluated feature importance expressed as contribution to predictive performance based on their relative ranking. RESULTS: The median duration of prone episodes was 17 h (11-20, median and IQR, N = 2632). Despite extensive modeling using a plethora of machine learning techniques and a large number of potentially clinically relevant features, discrimination between responders and non-responders remained poor with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.62 for PaO2/FiO2 ratio using Logistic Regression, Random Forest and XGBoost. Feature importance was inconsistent between models for different outcomes. Notably, not even being a previous responder to prone positioning, or PEEP-levels before prone positioning, provided any meaningful contribution to predicting a successful next proning episode. CONCLUSIONS: In mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, predicting the success of prone positioning using clinically relevant and readily available parameters from electronic health records is currently not feasible. Given the current evidence base, a liberal approach to proning in all patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS is therefore justified and in particular regardless of previous results of proning.

15.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077800

ABSTRACT

The brain of a 58-year-old woman was included as a civilian control in an ongoing autopsy study of military traumatic brain injury (TBI). The woman died due to a polysubstance drug overdose, with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) serving as a contributing factor. Immunohistochemical stains for ß-amyloid (Aß), routinely performed for the TBI study, revealed numerous, unusual neocortical Aß deposits. We investigated the autopsied brains of 10 additional young patients (<60 years old) who died of COVID-19, and found similar Aß deposits in all, using two different Aß antibodies across three different medical centers. The deposits failed to stain with Thioflavin-S. To investigate whether or not these deposits formed uniquely to COVID-19, we applied Aß immunostains to the autopsied brains of COVID-19-negative adults who died with acute respiratory distress syndrome and infants with severe cardiac anomalies, and also biopsy samples from patients with subacute cerebral infarcts. Cortical Aß deposits were also found in these cases, suggesting a link to hypoxia. The fate of these deposits and their effects on function are unknown, but it is possible that they contribute to the neurocognitive sequelae observed in some COVID-19 patients. Our findings may also have broader implications concerning hypoxia and its role in Aß deposition in the brain.

16.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 6(10): ytac317, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077723

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in December 2019 and is currently still a public health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. Heart failure patients are known to be at higher risk of morbidity and mortality in this case. Yet, few data exist concerning COVID-19 among patients with a left ventricular assistance device, and even less among those with a total artificial heart (TAH). Case summary: A 27-year-old man with Marfan syndrome underwent prophylactic ascending aorta replacement. Shortly after surgery completion, he developed refractory cardiogenic shock with biventricular dysfunction leading to veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) implantation. In the context of no appropriate eligible donor during the following 10 days while waiting on the heart transplantation list, the patient was scheduled for a TAH as a bridge to transplantation. Meanwhile, he developed an acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to SARS-CoV-2. The patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids, prone positioning and mechanical ventilation, and heart transplantation occurred 5 weeks after COVID-19 onset. Discussion: Here, we report the first case of a patient presenting with COVID-19 infection following TAH implantation in a bridge to transplantation. We highlight that (i) cardiogenic shock patients simultaneously infected by COVID-19 should be treated instantly with all-time available technology to ensure best outcomes, including TAH and prone positioning, (ii) heart transplantation safety 5 weeks after COVID-19 onset.

17.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 7(5): 582-590, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077548

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), was identified for the first time in late 2019 in China, resulting in a global pandemic of massive impact. Despite a fast development and implementation of vaccination strategies, and the scouting of several pharmacological treatments, alternative effective treatments are still needed. In this regard, cannabinoids represent a promising approach because they have been proven to exhibit several immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties in COVID-19 disease models and related pathological conditions. This mini-review aims at providing a practical brief overview of the potential applications of cannabinoids so far identified for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19, finally considering key aspects related to their technological and clinical implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
18.
Heart Lung ; 57: 243-249, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a boom in the use of V-V ECMO for ARDS secondary to COVID. Comparisons of outcomes of ECMO for COVID to ECMO for influenza have emerged. Very few comparisons of ECMO for COVID to ECMO for ARDS of all etiologies are available. OBJECTIVES: To compare clinically important outcome measures in recipients of ECMO for COVID to those observed in recipients of ECMO for ARDS of other etiologies. METHODS: V-V ECMO recipients between March 2020 and March 2022 consisted exclusively of COVID patients and formed the COVID ECMO group. All patients who underwent V-V ECMO for ARDS between January 2014 and March 2020 were eligible for analysis as the non-COVID ECMO comparator group. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included ECMO decannulation, ECMO duration >30 days, and serious complications. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients comprised the COVID ECMO group and were compared to 18 non-COVID ECMO patients. Survival to hospital discharge was not significantly different between the two groups (33% in COVID vs. 50% in non-COVID; p = 0.255) nor was there a significant difference in the rate of non-palliative ECMO decannulation. The proportion of patients connected to ECMO for >30 days was significantly higher in the COVID ECMO group: 69% vs. 17%; p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in serious complications. CONCLUSION: This study could not identify a statistically significant difference in hospital survival and rate of successful ECMO decannulation between COVID ECMO and non-COVID ECMO patients. Prolonged ECMO may be more common in COVID. Complications were not significantly different.

19.
Advances in Clinical Immunology, Medical Microbiology, COVID-19, and Big Data ; : 847-855, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2073463
20.
Cureus ; 14(9): e29539, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072219

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) affects all three branches of Virchow's triad. It increases the risk of thrombosis and thromboembolic events. Pulmonary embolism and stroke are most commonly reported. However, there is an increasing number of cases demonstrating thrombosis in otherwise uncommon anatomical areas. In this presentation, we will explore the potential causes of pulmonary vein thrombosis secondary to COVID-19.

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