Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.244
Filter
1.
Journal of Cardiac Surgery ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819915

ABSTRACT

Background Adaptive mutations of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virus have emerged throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The characterization of outcomes in patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe respiratory distress from COVID-19 during the peak prevalence of different variants is not well known. Methods There were 131 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection supported by ECMO at two referral centers within a large healthcare system. Three predominant variant phase time windows (Pre-Alpha, Alpha, and Delta) were determined by a change-point analyzer based on random population sampling and viral genome sequencing. Patient demographics and outcomes were compared. Results The average age of patients was 46.9?±?10.5 years and 70.2% (92/131) were male. Patients cannulated for ECMO during the Delta variant wave were younger compared to earlier Pre-Alpha (39.3?±?7.8 vs. 48.0?±?11.1 years) and Alpha phases (39.3?±?7.8 vs. 47.2?±?7.7 years) (p?<?.01). The predominantly affected race in the Pre-Alpha phase was Hispanic (52.2%;47/90), while in Alpha (61.5%;16/26) and Delta (40%;6/15) variant waves, most patients were White (p?<?.01). Most patients received a tracheostomy (82.4%;108/131) with a trend toward early intervention in later phases compared to Pre-Alpha (p?<?.01). There was no significant difference between the duration of ECMO, mechanical support, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), or hospital LOS over the three variant phases. The in-hospital mortality was overall 41.5% (54/131) and was also similar. Six-month survival of patients who survived to discharge was 92.2% (71/77). Conclusions There was no significant difference in survival or time on ECMO support in patients during the peak prevalence of the three variants.

2.
Life Sciences ; : 120602, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814923

ABSTRACT

Megakaryocytes (MKs) are typical cellular components in the circulating blood flowing from the heart into the lungs. Physiologically, MKs function as an important regulator of platelet production and immunoregulation. However, dysfunction in MKs is considered a trigger in various diseases. It has been described that the lung is an important site of platelet biogenesis from extramedullary MKs, which may play an essential role in various pulmonary diseases. With detailed studies, there are different degrees of numerical changes of MKs in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis (PF), and other pulmonary diseases. Also, MKs inhibit or promote the development of pulmonary diseases through various pathways. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of MKs in pulmonary diseases, highlighting the physiological functions and integrated molecular mechanisms. We aim to shine new light on not only the subsequent study of MKs but also the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases.

3.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814788

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by the novel betacoronavirus SARS-COV-2, has become a global pandemic threat. SARS- COV-2 is structurally similar to SARS-COV, and both bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to enter human cells. While patients typically present with fever, shortness of breath, sore throat, and cough, in some cases neurologic manifestations occur due to both direct and indirect involvement of the nervous system. Case reports include anosmia, ageusia, central respiratory failure, stroke, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, headache, myalgia, myelitis, ataxia, and various neuropsychiatric manifestations. Some patients with COVID-19 may present with concurrent acute neuromuscular syndromes such as myasthenic crisis (MC), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM);these conditions coupled with respiratory failure could trigger a life-threatening condition. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on acute neuromuscular syndromes with respiratory failure related to COVID-19 infection in an attempt to clarify and to manage the muscle dysfunction overlapping SARS-COV-2 infection.

4.
International Immunopharmacology ; 109:108805, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814595

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key pathogenic mechanism in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), resulting in fibrosis in lung tissues, including in the context of COVID-19. Pirfenidone (PFD) has become a novel therapeutic agent for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and can improve lung function, inhibit fibrosis and inhibit inflammation. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was shown to play a crucial role in various respiratory diseases. However, the role of PFD in the course of EndMT in LPS-induced ARDS remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the anti-EndMT effects of PFD on pulmonary fibrosis after LPS-induced ARDS. First, we determined that PFD significantly reduced LPS-induced ARDS, as shown by significant pathological alterations, and alleviated the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, PFD decreased pulmonary fibrosis in LPS-induced ARDS by inhibiting EndMT and reduced the expression levels of Hedgehog (HH) pathway target genes, such as Gli1 and α-SMA, after LPS induction. In summary, this study confirmed that inhibiting the HH pathway by PFD could decrease pulmonary fibrosis by downregulating EndMT in LPS-induced ARDS. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PFD is a promising agent to attenuate pulmonary fibrosis following ARDS in the future.

5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814524

ABSTRACT

We report the first case with COVID-19-like acute respiratory distress syndrome following mRNA-1273 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. An 88-year-old woman developed dyspnea several hours after vaccination with the second dose of mRNA-1273. She was hospitalized on day 9 due to worsening dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidations, mainly in the peripheral lung areas. Repeat polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative though serum level of antibodies against spike protein was elevated extremely. Her condition did not improve with high-dose corticosteroids and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy;she died on day 18. Autopsy findings revealed very early-phase diffuse alveolar damage in the whole lung without other lung diseases. The clinical and pathological findings suggested vaccine-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Serological and pathological tests might be useful to differentiate the disease from COVID-19.

6.
Drugs Context ; 11, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been studied in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 when it may be too late to impact disease course. This article aims to describe real-world iNO use and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 with mild-to-moderate ARDS in the United States. METHODS: This was a retrospective medical chart review study that included patients who were ≥18 years old, hospitalized for COVID-19, met the Berlin ARDS definition, received iNO for ≥24 hours continuously during hospitalization, and had a partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2))/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) ratio (P/F ratio) of >100 to ≤300 mmHg at iNO initiation. Outcomes included oxygenation parameters, physician-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale scores, and adverse events. Response to iNO was defined as >20% improvement in P/F ratio. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients at six sites were included. A P/F ratio of ≤100 was the most common reason for exclusion (n=146;83% of excluded patients). The mean P/F ratio (SD) increased from 136.7 (34.4) at baseline to 140.3 (53.2) at 48 hours and 151.8 (50.0) at 72 hours after iNO initiation. The response rate was 62% (n=23). During hospitalization, no patient experienced adverse events, including methemoglobinaemia, airway injury, or worsening pulmonary oedema associated with iNO. At discharge, 54.0% (n=20) of patients improved or remained stable according to the CGI-I. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and mild-to-moderate ARDS, iNO was associated with improvement in the P/F ratio with no reported toxicity. This study provides additional evidence supporting a favourable benefit-risk profile for iNO in the treatment of mild-to-moderate ARDS in patients with COVID-19 infection.

7.
Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology ; 50(2):1-12, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1811127

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated infection leads to a pathology of yet unknown clinical behavior, confronting the clinician with various challenges. An extensive search was conducted based on review articles on SARS-CoV-2 infection and studies including mechanical ventilation management strategies in order to complete this narrative review. Evidenced-based treatment for SARS-CoV2 infection is still in the works. We have some tools from our knowledge from past experiences indicating that a step-wise management approach should be used, without neglecting other joint therapeutic measures for improved clinical outcomes of a condition with a high mortality. The current recommendations indicate that patients with severe acute respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 should be managed with protective mechanical ventilation measures. No strong evidence is yet available on the individualization of mechanical ventilation therapy according to phenotypes. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] La infección asociada a COVID-19 produce una patología de comportamiento aún desconocido, planteándole diversos desafíos al clínico. Para esta revisión narrativa se llevó a cabo una extensa búsqueda basada en artículos de revisión sobre la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y estudios que incluían estrategias de manejo con ventilación mecánica. El tratamiento basado en evidencia para la infección por SARS-CoV2 todavía está en desarrollo. Tenemos algunas herramientas basadas en nuestros conocimientos de experiencias en el pasado que indican que se debe usar un abordaje escalonado, sin descuidar otras medidas terapéuticas conjuntas para mejorar los desenlaces clínicos de una condición con una elevada mortalidad. Las actuales recomendaciones indican que los pacientes con falla respiratoria aguda por SARS-CoV-2 deben manejarse con medidas de protección con ventilación mecánica. Aún no tenemos una sólida evidencia sobre la individualización del tratamiento con ventilación mecánica, de acuerdo a los distintos fenotipos. (Spanish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology / Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología is the property of Sociedad Colombiana de Anestesiologia y Reanimacion and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Lung India ; 39(3):292-300, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810865

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old man presented with fever and breathlessness during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. He was diagnosed to have severe COVID-19 pneumonia. He was treated with oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, and glucocorticoids. He improved over 5 weeks and was shifted out of the intensive care unit. Subsequently, he experienced worsening during hospitalization with refractory hypoxemia and shock and finally succumbed to his illness. An autopsy was performed. Herein, we have presented a clinical discussion on the possible causes of the patient's fatal outcome followed by the autopsy findings.

9.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(5): 493-498, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) (CARDS) pneumonitis presents a clinical challenge as regards to the timing of intubation and ambiguity of outcome. There is a lack of clear consensus on when to switch patients from trials of noninvasive therapies to invasive mechanical ventilation. We investigated the effect of the timing of intubation from the time of admission on the clinical outcome of CARDS. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective was to analyze the effect of timing of intubation early (within 48 hours of admission to critical care unit) versus delayed (after 48 hours of admission to critical care unit) on mortality in severe CARDS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study performed in a 28-bedded COVID-19 intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India. All patients admitted between April 1, 2020, and October 15, 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 (RT-PCR positive) requiring mechanical ventilation were included in the study. RESULTS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among 2,230 patients that were admitted to the hospital, 525 required critical care (23.5%), invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 162 patients and 147 (28%) of critical care admission were included in the study cohort after exclusion. Seventy-five patients (51%) were intubated within 48 hours of critical care admission (early group) and 72 (48.9%) were intubated after 48 hours of critical care admission (delayed group). With regards to the total of 147 included patients; male patients were 74.1% with a median age of 59 years (interquartile range, 51-68 years). Diabetes (44.9%) and hypertension (43.5%) were the most common comorbidities. Higher admission acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II scores and lower absolute lymphocyte count were observed in patients intubated within 48 hours. The early intubated group had a mortality of 60% whereas the same was observed as 77.7% in delayed intubation group, and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Current study concludes that early intubation is associated with improved survival rates in severe CARDS patients. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Zirpe KG, Tiwari AM, Gurav SK, Deshmukh AM, Suryawanshi PB, Wankhede PP, et al. Timing of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and Mortality among Patients with Severe COVID-19-associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(5):493-498.

10.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10:23247096221095426, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808265

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presented in December 2019 and has persisted since. The global pandemic has given rise to a novel acute disease process with a continually rapidly increasing prevalence of chronic disease and associated complications. There is minimal information on the long-term pulmonary complications of this disease. We present a series of 9 patient case reports and their respective imaging admitted with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to highlight the cystic lung disease complications which may arise due to severity and disease progression. Our aim is to raise awareness of the sequela of COVID-19 ARDS, including its potentially catastrophic long-term consequences to the respiratory tract involving cystic lung disease.

11.
Perfusion ; : 2676591221097642, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808004

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the increased demand for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) during the COVID-19 pandemic, guidelines for patient candidacy have often limited this modality for patients with a body mass index (BMI) less than 40 kg/m(2). We hypothesize that COVID-19 VV ECMO patients with at least class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40) have decreased in-hospital mortality when compared to non-COVID-19 and non-class III obese COVID-19 VV ECMO populations. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective study of COVID-19 VV ECMO patients from January 1, 2014, to November 30, 2021. Our institution used BMI ≥ 40 as part of a multi-disciplinary VV ECMO candidate screening process in COVID-19 patients. BMI criteria were not considered for exclusion criteria in non-COVID-19 patients. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess in-hospital mortality differences. RESULTS: A total of 380 patients were included in our analysis: The COVID-19 group had a lower survival rate that was not statistically significant (65.7% vs.74.9%, p = .07). The median BMI between BMI ≥ 40 COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients was not different (44.5 vs 45.5, p = .2). There was no difference in survival between the groups (73.3% vs. 78.5%, p = .58), nor was there a difference in survival between the COVID-19 BMI ≥ 40 and BMI < 40 patients (73.3, 62.7, p= .29). Multivariable logistic regression with the outcome of in-hospital mortality was performed and BMI was not found to be significant (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89, 1.01;p = .92). CONCLUSION: BMI ≥ 40 was not an independent risk factor for decreased in-hospital survival in this cohort of VV ECMO patients at a high-volume center. BMI should not be the sole factor when deciding VV ECMO candidacy in patients with COVID-19.

12.
Exp Physiol ; 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807292

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? Lactate is considered an important substrate for mitochondria in the muscles, heart and brain during exercise and is the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys. In this light, we review the (patho)physiology of lactate metabolism in sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). What advances does it highlight? Elevated blood lactate is strongly associated with mortality in septic patients. Lactate seems unrelated to tissue hypoxia but is likely to reflect mitochondrial dysfunction and high adrenergic stimulation. Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit near-normal blood lactate, indicating preserved mitochondrial function, despite a systemic hyperinflammatory state similar to sepsis. ABSTRACT: In critically ill patients, elevated plasma lactate is often interpreted as a sign of organ hypoperfusion and/or tissue hypoxia. This view on lactate is likely to have been influenced by the pioneering exercise physiologists around 1920. August Krogh identified an oxygen deficit at the onset of exercise that was later related to an oxygen 'debt' and lactate accumulation by A. V. Hill. Lactate is considered to be the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys during submaximal exercise, but hepatic elimination is attenuated by splanchnic vasoconstriction during high-intensity exercise, causing an exponential increase in blood lactate. With the development of stable isotope tracers, lactate has become established as an important energy source for muscle, brain and heart tissue, where it is used for mitochondrial respiration. Plasma lactate > 4 mM is strongly associated with mortality in septic shock, with no direct link between lactate release and tissue hypoxia. Herein, we provide evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction and adrenergic stimulation as explanations for the sepsis-induced hyperlactataemia. Despite profound hypoxaemia and intense work of breathing, patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rarely exhibit hyperlactataemia (> 2.5 mM), while presenting a systemic hyperinflammatory state much like sepsis. However, lactate dehydrogenase, which controls the formation of lactate, is markedly elevated in plasma and strongly associated with mortality in severe COVID-19. We briefly review the potential mechanisms of the lactate dehydrogenase elevation in COVID-19 and its relationship to lactate metabolism based on mechanisms established in contracting skeletal muscle and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

13.
Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants ; 35(4):29-33, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1806587

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, often fatal, lung condition frequently seen in patients in the ICU. ARDS is triggered by an inciting event such as pneumonia or sepsis, which is followed by an inappropriate host inflammatory response that results in pulmonary edema and impaired gas exchange, and may progress to fibrosis. With the increased spotlight and discussion focused on ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers must be able to identify and manage symptoms based on evidence-based research. © 2022 American Academy of Physician Associates.

14.
Journal of Critical Care ; 70:154048, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804459

ABSTRACT

Purpose To examine critical Covid-19-acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS) patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV), using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) coupled with bubble test (BT), in order to search a right/left shunt. Methods A Cross-sectional and comparative study comparing several parameters according to the presence or not of shunt. Results 75 patients were included. Twenty-three shunts (31%) were detected: patent foramen oval (PFO) type [n=11 (15%)] and trans-pulmonary transit of bubbles (TPBT) [n = 12 (16%)]. The shunt did not affect P/F ratio (P/F=77 vs 81, p=0.97), nor mortality. Conclusion A right/left shunt was detected in a third of studied patients similarly between PFO and TPBT without significant impact on P/F ratio or outcome.

15.
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine ; : 101092, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1803333

ABSTRACT

Introduction Switzerland experienced two waves of COVID-19 in 2020, but with a different ICU admission and treatment management strategy. The timing of ICU admission and intubation remains a matter of debate in severe patients. The aim of our study was to describe the characteristics of ICU patients between two subsequent waves of COVID-19 who underwent a different management strategy and to assess whether the timing of intubation was associated with differences in mortality. Patients and methods We conducted a prospective observational study of all adult patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 who required intubation between the 9th of March 2020 and the 9th of January 2021 in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland. Results Two hundred twenty-four patients were intubated during the study period;124 during the first wave, and 99 during the second wave. Patients admitted to the ICU during the second wave had a higher SAPS II severity score (52.5 vs. 60;p = 0.01). The time from hospital admission to intubation was significantly longer during the second compared to the first wave (4 days [IQR, 1-7] vs. 2 days [IQR, 0-4];p < 0.01). All-cause ICU mortality was significantly higher during the second wave (42% vs. 23%;p < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, the delay between hospital admission and intubation was significantly associated with ICU mortality (OR 3.25 [95% CI, 1.38-7.67];p < 0.05). Conclusions In this observational study, delayed intubation was associated with increased mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. Further randomised controlled trials are needed.

16.
Health Science Reports ; 5(3):e595, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1802278

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread worldwide in 2020, the number of patients requiring intensive care and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) has increased rapidly. During the pandemic, early recommendations suggested that tracheostomy should be postponed, as the potential benefits were not certain to exceed the risk of viral transmission to healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome, in terms of patient and clinical characteristics, outcomes, and complications, by comparing between early and late tracheostomy. Methods A multicenter, retrospective observational study was conducted in Jönköping County, Sweden. Between 14 March 2020 and 13 March 2021, 117 patients were included. All patients ≥18 years of age with confirmed COVID-19, who underwent tracheostomy were divided into two groups based on the timing of the procedure (≤/>7 days). Outcomes including the time on IMV, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and mortality 30 days after ICU admission, as well as complications due to tracheostomy were compared between the groups. Results Early tracheostomy (<7 days, n?=?56) was associated with a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation (7 [12], p?=?0.001) as well as a shorter median ICU stay (8 [14], p?=?0.001). The most frequent complication of tracheostomy was minor bleeding. With the exception of a higher rate of obesity in the group receiving late tracheostomy, the patient characteristics were similar between the groups. Conclusion This study showed that early tracheostomy was safe and associated with a shorter time on IMV as well as a shorter ICU length of stay, implicating possible clinical benefits in critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, it is necessary to verify these findings in a randomized controlled trial.

17.
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar ; 50(4), 2021.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1801645

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation has become widespread in the world, with widespread use even in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Objective: To identify what is known about the use of non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome and to analyze its application in this complication in COVID-19. Development: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation could appear as one more resource to give respiratory support in patients with COVID-19 infection, however, the scant scientific evidence on its effectiveness in acute respiratory distress syndrome and the risk of contagion by the particle scattering, generates controversy over its use. Conclusions: In adults with COVID-19 and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, the use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation should be contraindicated, only assessing its use in very specific and justified cases. © 2021, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

18.
Tanaffos ; 19(4): 291-299, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators are an important component in the pathophysiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to assess the effects of reducing inflammatory mediators using hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on the mortality of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. All patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients were divided into three groups, namely, HP, CRRT and HP+CRRT. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were oxygenation and reduction in inflammatory mediators at the end of the study. RESULTS: Patients were not different at baseline in demographics, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the level of acute phase reactants. Half of the patients (3 out of 6) in the HP+CRRT group survived along with the survival of one patient (1 out of 2) in the HP group. All four patients in the CRRT group died. Serum creatinine (SCr), Interleukin-1 (IL1), Interleukin-6 (IL6), Interleukin-8 (IL8), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), O2 saturation (O2 sat), and hemodynamic parameters improved over time in HP+CRRT and CRRT groups, but no significant difference was observed in the HP group (All Ps > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined HP and CRRT demonstrated the best result in terms of mortality, reduction of inflammatory mediators and oxygenation. Further investigations are needed to explore the role of HP+CRRT in COVID-19 patients.

19.
Journal of Thoracic Disease ; 0(0):6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798612

ABSTRACT

Background: During COVID-19 pandemic, people who developed pneumonia and needed supplemental oxygen, where treated with low-flow oxygen therapy systems and non-invasive methods, including oxygen therapy using high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and the application of bi-level or continuous positive airway pressure (BiPAP or CPAP). We aimed to investigate the outcomes of critical COVID-19 patients treated with HFNC and unveil predictors of HFNC failure. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients admitted to COVID-19 wards and treated with HFNC for COVID-19-related severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. The primary outcome of this study was treatment failure, such as the composite of intubation or death during hospital stay. The association between treatment failure and clinical features was evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: One hundred thirty-two patients with a median (IQR) PaO2/FiO(2) ratio 96 (63-173) mmHg at HFNC initiation were studied. Overall, 45.4% of the patients were intubated. Hospital mortality was 31.8%. Treatment failure (intubation or death) occurred in 50.75% and after adjustment for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) score and National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) score on admission and PaO2/FiO(2) ratio and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity at the time of HFNO initiation, it was significantly associated with the presence of dyspnea [adjusted OR 2.48 (95% CI: 1.01-6.12)], and higher Urea serum levels [adjusted OR 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51) mg/dL]. Conclusions: HFNC treatment was successful in almost half of the patients with severe COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). The presence of dyspnea and high serum Urea levels on admission are closely related to HFNC failure.

20.
Inflamm Res ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1797665

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The existing biological models of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in mice have many shortcomings. To offset these shortcomings, we have proposed a simple, nonsurgical, and reproducible method of unilateral total damage of the left lung in ICR mice. This model is based on the intrabronchial administration of a mixture of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the cell wall of S. enterica and α-galactosylceramide (inducing substances) to the left lung. METHODS: Using computer tomography of the lungs with endobronchial administration of contrast material, we have been able to perform an operative intravital verification of the targeted delivery of the inducer. The model presented is characterized by more serious and homogeneous damage of the affected lung compared to the existing models of focal pneumonia;at the same time, our model is characterized by longer animal survival since the right lung remains intact. RESULTS: The model is also characterized by diffuse alveolar damage of the left lung, animal survival of 100%, abrupt increases in plasma levels of TNFa, INFg, and IL-6, and significant myocardial overload in the right heart. It can be used to assess the efficacy of innovative drugs for the treatment of DAD and ARDS as the clinical manifestations that are developed in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Morphological patterns of lungs in the noninfectious ("sterile") model of DAD induced by LPS simultaneously with α-galactosylceramide (presented here) and in the infectious model of DAD induced by SARS-CoV-2 have been compared. CONCLUSION: The DAD model we have proposed can be widely used for studying the efficacy of candidate molecules for the treatment of infectious respiratory diseases, such as viral pneumonias of different etiology, including SARS-CoV-2.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL