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1.
Journal of Materials Research and Technology-Jmr&T ; 16:1150-1164, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1814778

ABSTRACT

This investigation analyzes the main contributions that additive manufacturing (AM) technology provides to the world in fighting against the pandemic COVID-19 from a materials and applications perspective. With this aim, different sources, which include academic reports, initiatives, and industrial companies, have been systematically analyzed. The AM technology applications include protective masks, mechanical ventilator parts, social distancing signage, and parts for detection and disinfection equipment (Ju, 2020). There is a substantially increased number of contributions from AM technology to this global issue, which is expected to continuously increase until a sound solution is found. The materials and manufacturing technologies in addition to the current challenges and opportunities were analyzed as well. These contributions came from a lot of countries, which can be used as a future model to work in massive collaboration, technology networking, and adaptability, all lined up to provide potential solutions for some of the biggest challenges the human society might face in the future. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

2.
International Journal of Production Economics ; : 108516, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814548

ABSTRACT

Following the COVID-19 outbreak, a wide range of scholars and practitioners have come to recognize the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology in building supply chain resilience and efficiency. However, it remains unclear how AM technology might be able to simultaneously build supply chain efficiency and resilience, given the often conflicting nature of these qualities. This paper employs an ambidextrous perspective on dynamic capability theory to investigate the potential of AM technology to solve this resilience-efficiency dilemma at the supply chain level. The research design involves a hybrid approach, combining focus groups and multiple case studies, with particular attention paid to the African supply chain context. The findings indicate that AM technology presents the potential to develop ambidextrous dynamic capabilities, leading to the reconciliation of resilience and efficiency at the supply chain level. Some determinants, such as data-driven systems, supply chain collaboration, innovation agility and knowledge are found to be critical to enable the development of those capabilities around AM-enabled manufacturing systems. The study contributes to the preparation of the global supply chain for the post-COVID era, where digital technologies such as AM will be fundamental for both building resilience and efficiency simultaneously. Practitioners in emerging economies may benefit directly from the outcomes of this study. Furthermore, managers and policy-makers in developed countries may be made aware of the significance of using AM technology in emerging countries to enhance the performance of the global supply chain.

3.
Rapid Prototyping Journal ; 28(2):268-284, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1806873

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper aims to focus on developing a theoretical framework for the analysis of factors influencing additive manufacturing (AM) in the health-care domain.Design/methodology/approach>A total of 18 factors are considered through extensive literature review and the relationship between each factor is studied using total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) and the model is logically developed. TISM model is developed using appropriate expert inputs. In addition, cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) analysis is conducted to group the factors.Findings>It was found that “ease of design” and “research and development” are the two most important factors with the highest driving power and dependencies. Through MICMAC analysis, the significance of factors is studied.Practical implications>The study has been done based on inputs from academic experts and industry practitioners. The inferences from the study have practical relevance.Originality/value>The development of a structural model for the analysis of factors influencing AM in the health-care domain is the original contribution of the authors.

4.
Computers & Operations Research ; : 105847, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1803832

ABSTRACT

In the context of Industry 4.0 and COVID-19 pandemic, additive manufacturing (AM), the technology of rapid prototyping directly from digital models, has received rapid development and makes it possible to achieve the need of companies in terms of customized production and limited human resources. Consequently, the growing demands and potential applications necessitate the careful investigation on the associated AM machine scheduling problems to improve productivity. This paper is the first time to study a new AM scheduling problem, which considers unrelated parallel machines and two practical constraints, two-dimensional packing constraints and unequal part release times. Additionally, during the scheduling process, there exist multiple orientation candidates for each part, which potentially influences the processing time and increase the complexity of packing. To solve this problem, we first present a mixed integer linear programming model with the objective to minimize the makespan. Due to the NP-hard nature of the problem, we propose an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm for large instances where the skyline packing pattern is adopted for the packing procedure. Several destroy and repair operators are designed based on the characteristics of the AM scheduling problem. Finally, three types of datasets with different ranges of release times are generated to verify the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Some interesting insights on the effects of release times and orientation selection are also revealed and discussed.

5.
Biomimetics (Basel) ; 7(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779981

ABSTRACT

Metals, such as silver, gold, and copper are known for their biocidal properties, mimicking the host defense peptides (HDPs) of the immune system. Developing materials with such properties has great importance in medicine, especially when combined with 3D printing technology, which is an additional asset for various applications. In this work, copper nanoparticles were used as filler in stereolithography (SLA) ultraviolet (UV) cured commercial resin to induce such biocidal properties in the material. The nanocomposites developed featured enhanced mechanical responses when compared with the neat material. The prepared nanocomposites were employed to manufacture specimens with the SLA process, to be tested for their mechanical response according to international standards. The process followed was evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The antibacterial activity of the fabricated nanocomposites was evaluated using the agar-well diffusion method. Results showed enhanced mechanical performance of approximately 33.7% in the tensile tests for the nanocomposites filled with 1.0 wt.%. ratios, when compared to the neat matrix material, while this loading showed sufficient antibacterial performance when compared to lower filler loadings, providing an added value for the fabrication of effective nanocomposites in medical applications with the SLA process.

6.
Computers & Industrial Engineering ; : 108158, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1778038

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (also known as COVID-19), workforce downsizing needs, safety requirements, supply chain breaks and inventory shortages affected manufacturing systems’ and supply chain’s responsiveness and resilience. Companies wandered in a disrupted scenario because recommended actions/strategies to survive – and thrive – were not available an improvised actions to keep their operations up and running. This paper analyzes the COVID-19 impacts on the workforce and supply resilience in a holistic manner. The following research questions are discussed: (i) how can manufacturing firms cope with urgent staff deficiencies while sustaining at the same time a healthy and safe workforce in the perspective of socially sustainable and human-centric cyber-physical production systems?;(ii) is remote working (cf. smart working) applicable to shop-floor workers?;(iii) is it possible to overcome supply chain breaks without stopping production? In the first part, we propose three Industry 4.0-driven solutions that would increase the workforce resilience, namely: (i) the Plug-and-Play worker;(ii) the Remote Operator 4.0;(iii) the Predictive Health of the Operational Staff. In the second part, the concepts of (i) Digital & Unconventional Sourcing, i.e. Additive Manufacturing, and (ii) Product/Process Innovation are investigated from a novel business continuity and integration perspective. We ultimately argue that forward-looking manufacturing companies should turn a disruptive event like a pandemic in an opportunity for digital and technological innovation of the workplace inspired by the principles of harmonic digital innovation (that places the human well-being at the center). These aspects are discussed with use cases, system prototypes and results from research projects carried out by the authors and real-world examples arising lessons learned and insights useful for scientists, researchers and managers.

7.
JOM ; 74(4):1274-1276, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1767803

ABSTRACT

The explosive growth of additive manufacturing (AM) is matched by an equally strong push in research and development to support those applications. The relative complexity of these manufacturing processes and the materials they generate still elicit a great need for better understanding of the interactions between the fabrication parameters and the material development and evolution. Complex problems require complex tools, and with the boom in AM, the development of computational models and simulations to predict all aspects of these processes has grown in parallel. Incredible diversity exists in the types of models, the level of physical or computational complexity, the range of materials, and applications. But all require something similar: input of or reference to relevant physical values achieved through accurate measurements. Measurements are essential, not just in the development of AM models, but in the testing and validation of their predictions. To address this gap, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated the Additive Manufacturing Benchmark Test Series (AM-Bench), where metrologists and AM modelers compare computational predictions to an array of measurements designed and dedicated to advancing AM modeling.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760753

ABSTRACT

Additive manufacturing (AM) of spare parts is going to become more and more common. In the case of hydraulic solutions, there are also some applications of AM technology related to topological optimization, anti-cavitation improvements, etc. An examination of all available research results shows that authors are using specialized tools and machines to properly prepare AM spare parts. The main aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of quick repair of the damaged slipper-retainer from an axial piston pump by using an AM spare part. Hence, it was prepared with a 100-h test campaign of the AM spare part, which covers the time between damage and supply of the new pump. The material of the slipper-retainer has been identified and replaced by another material-available as a powder for AM, with similar properties as the original. The obtained spare part had been subjected to sandblasting only to simulate extremely rough conditions, directly after the AM process and an analysis of the influence of the high surface roughness of AM part on wear measurements. The whole test campaign has been divided into nine stages. After each stage, microscopic measurements of the pump parts' surface roughness were made. To determine roughness with proper measurements, a microscopical investigation was conducted. The final results revealed that it is possible to replace parts in hydraulic pumps with the use of AM. The whole test campaign caused a significant increase in the surface roughness of the pump's original parts, which was worked with the AM spare slipper-retainer: (1) from Ra = 0.54 µm to Ra = 3.84 µm in the case of two tested pistons; (2) from Ra = 0.33 µm to Ra = 1.98 µm in the case of the slipper-retainer. Despite significant increases in the surface roughness of the pump's parts, the whole test campaign has been successfully finished without any damages to the other important parts of the whole hydraulic test rig.

9.
Rapid Prototyping Journal ; 28(4):654-675, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1759008

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has a huge influence on the real world because of its ability to manufacture massively complicated geometrics. The purpose of this study is to use CiteSpace (CS) visual analysis to identify fused deposition modeling (FDM) research and development patterns to guide researchers to decide future research and provide a framework for corporations and organizations to prepare for the development in the rapid prototyping industry. Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is defined to budget minimize manufactured input and output for aviation and the medical product industrial sectors. 3DP has implemented its potential in the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) reaction.Design/methodology/approach>First, 396 original publications were extracted from the web of science (WOS) with the comprehensive list and did scientometrics analysis in CS software. The parameters are specified in CS including the span (from 2011 to 2019, one year slice for the co-authorship and the co-accordance analysis), visualization (show the merged networks), specific criteria for selection (top 20%), node form (author, organization, region, reference cited;cited author, journal and keywords) and pruning (pathfinder and slicing network). Finally, correlating data was studied and showed the results of the visualization study of FDM research were shown.Findings>The framework of FDM information is beginning to take shape. About hot research topics, there are “Morphology,” “Tensile Property by making Blends,” “Use of Carbon nanotube in 3DP” and “Topology optimization.” Regarding the latest research frontiers of FDM printing, there are “Fused Filament Fabrication,” “AM,” in FDM printing. Where “Post-processing” and “environmental impact” are the research hotspots in FDM printing. These research results can provide insight into FDM printing and useful information to consider the existing studies and developments in FDM researchers’ analysis.Research limitations/implications>Despite some important obtained results through FDM-related publications’ visualization, some deficiencies remain in this research. With >99% of articles written in English, the input data for CS was all downloaded from WOS databases, resulting in a language bias of papers in other languages and neglecting other data sources. Although, there are several challenges being faced by the FDM that limit its wide variety of applications. However, the significance of the current work concerning the technical and engineering prospects is discussed herein.Originality/value>First, the novelty of this work lies in describing the FDM approach in a Scientometric way. In Scientometric investigation, leading writers, organizations, keywords, hot research and emerging knowledge points were explained. Second, this research has thoroughly and comprehensively examined the useful sustainability effects, i.e. economic sustainability, energy-based sustainability, environmental sustainability, of 3DP in industrial development in qualitative and quantitative aspects by 2025 from a global viewpoint. Third, this work also described the practical significance of FDM based on 3DP since COVID-19. 3DP has stepped up as a vital technology to support improved healthcare and other general response to emergency situations.

10.
24th International Conference on Mechatronics Technology, ICMT 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752399

ABSTRACT

The panic buying during Covid-19 caused farmers to amped-up production. However, farm equipment is costly to purchase. Therefore, some farmers utilized Additive Manufacturing (AM) to manufacture farming tools at low cost. However, the lack of in-situ monitoring in AM to stop printing failed parts can waste materials and time. Thus, this research aims to deploy a low-cost smart remote monitoring system using OctoPrint and Node-red to integrate a 3D printer and Teachable Machine and train a model to pre-emptively detect print errors. The result was satisfactory as the 3D printer stopped when the camera detected a defect with 75% accuracy. Furthermore, the user can easily customize the model to enhance the system versatility via the developed code-free platform. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753734

ABSTRACT

Metal additive manufacturing (AM) has significant relevance to the missions of all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD) as it has the capability to bring parts to the warfighter more quickly and cost effectively However, DoD's goals of utilizing and deploying AM will not be achieved without substantial research and development to address the technology's current limitations, which exist at every facet of the AM value chain. The DURIP award, along with supplementary funding provided by Virginia Tech, enabled the acquisition of a reactive metal laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) AM system. The advanced AM system acquired through this program features open-access to all process parameters and features integrated in-situ monitoring technologies that enable research focused in increasing materials selection, creating new design for AM tools and methods, enhancing part quality through process-property-structure models, in-situ monitoring and post-processing techniques, and securing the platforms from cyber-physical vulnerabilities. The system is installed as a showcase piece in a newly created multidisciplinary educational and research space dedicated to preparing undergraduate and graduate students for future careers in Industry 4.0 technologies. As such, the new system will enable multi-disciplinary research and education across the entire value chain of AM.

12.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753538

ABSTRACT

The amount of information to analyze in the decision-making process for command and control is increasing past human cognitive limits. The effects of augmenting human information processing with machine-processing capability are not fully understood. This research examined the interdependence between machine and human teammates and its impact on the current command and control structure. The experiment (2X4 repeated measures analysis) was conducted online utilizing Qualtrics and Amazons Mechanical Turk. Each of the 119 participants was asked a set of questions about 34 faces. Participants were asked to identify the category of the face and what reaction they would have, friendly or defensive. This question order was reversed and each of the questions was asked individually. This process was repeated while adding the assistance of a machine teammate. The machine teammate displayed a suggested answer to the first question that the human had to acknowledge before continuing to answer. This research is preliminary. However, conceptually, the additional communication between a human and machine teammate adds time into the command and control process. This interaction may also affect the decision maker by priming the human to an action or through automation bias. Furthermore, reducing information to the human in a human-machine team has significant potential to reduce team situational awareness. Follow-on research is needed before any conclusions can be reached.

13.
European Research Studies ; 25(1):352-365, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1743554

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The article aims to discuss the authors ' own experiences and literature review on the topic of small communities of additive production in COVID-19 conditions and propose an improvement of emergency procedures in situations of global threat. Design/Methodology/Approach: Its object is organizing and analyzing the experience gained during the production of healthcare products in 3D technology during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings: Further objects include identifying problems, proposing solutions, signaling problems to be solved, improving the efficiency of managing the production and distribution of health protection products, and improving the energy efficiency of the production process. Practical Implications: Structured conclusions and the resulting proposals for activities in the production and distribution of health protection products in situations of global life threat formulated further research goals. Originality/Value: An in-depth analysis of the literature on the subject and the research results presented in the article indicate the need for further research on the concept of optimization of the production process in the context of the temporary market demand for specific products. The article presents a proposal for a model that allows the use of incremental techniques and cost optimization depending on the market demands.

14.
Am J Surg ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic revealed flaws in the stockpiling and distribution of ventilators. In this study, we assessed the durability, sterilizability, and performance of a 3D-printed ventilator. METHODS: SLS-printed devices were dropped from 1.83 m and autoclaved before evaluation on a COVID-19 simulated patient. The respiratory performance of an extrusion-printed device was studied using a variable compliance model. Ranges of sustainable respiratory rates were evaluated as a function of tidal volume. RESULTS: Autoclaving and dropping the device did not negatively impact minute ventilation or PIP for sustained ventilation. Equivalence was significant across all measures except for comparing the autoclaved and dropped with p = 0.06. Extrusion produced ventilators achieved minute ventilation ranging from 4.1 to 12.2 L/min for all simulated compliances; there was an inverse correlation between tidal volume and respiratory rate. CONCLUSION: The CRISIS ventilator is a durable, sterilizable, and reusable 3D-printed ventilator using off-the-shelf materials which could be employed variety of adult lung diseases. Further in-vivo testing is needed.

15.
151st Annual Meeting and Exhibition of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, TMS 2022 ; : 533-540, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1718544

ABSTRACT

This research shows results from additive manufacturing as an important strategy to produce multidisciplinary skills in engineering students. Case studies are presented with materials and mechanical engineering, and arts as well. Two animals and a natural fiber from Colombia were manufactured with the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique present at the University of Antioquia Museum and in classroom as well, aiming involve the students in a new learning and technological experience. Results reveal the potential of this technology in education and particularly in the motivation for learning and deep comprehension of details of nature only visible at the micro-scale. Moreover, the virtual models for the printing process also open new possibilities after the Covid new challenges for virtual education. © 2022, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

16.
Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1712411

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the effective utilisation of internet-based technologies in Additive Manufacturing (AM) through its practical implications in various areas. The key technologies that comprise the Industry 4.0 paradigm and have been previously implemented into the AM process possess immense potential to bring about miraculous manufacturing changes. The ongoing pandemic situation, too, has pushed the industries into the deployment of advanced technologies to deal effectively with the major challenges that followed COVID-19 and to keep up with customers' expectations. Therefore, manufacturing industries need to adopt the latest internet-based technologies into AM, especially for lean and optimised manufacturing and perceived proficiency of advanced printing technologies. This paper identifies goals of sustainable manufacturing that can be accomplished as a result of implementation of Internet of Things (IoT) in 3D printing technology. Also, since the Internet of Things-enabled AM process is an entirely new concept, limited sources are available in this field. Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases are used to conduct literature reviews. The study conducted is the most up-to-date information on Internet of Things-enabled AM and is rigorously analyzed to identify prospective application areas. Thus, IoT-enabled AM helps in producing sustainable solutions for humanity and in meeting customers' demands in the stipulated period, thereby contributing to mass personalisation, which is the ultimate goal of Industry 4.0. © 2021 Kingfa Scientific and Technological Co. Ltd.

17.
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management ; 33(2):399-422, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1705815

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to help in the establishment of the first fabrication laboratory (FabLab) in Tunisia. The FabLab movement offers many interesting opportunities through value creation, innovation, training and access to digital manufacturing technologies. A newly created FabLab should be well-positioned in terms of business model, purpose and management. The aim of this paper is to conduct a comparative analysis of FabLabs in developed countries (mainly in France and Luxembourg) and to provide recommendations on the possible development of a FabLab in Tunisia (FabLabENIT).Design/methodology/approachTwelve FabLabs were visited and experts from the makers movement were interviewed. Data from the visits and interviews were analysed using lexicometric tools. This methodology is based on three main steps: first, the identification and selection of panel of studied FabLabs interviews;second transcribing and coding for IRaMuTeQ software;and third, correspondence analysis.FindingsThe correspondence analysis determined five main factors of analysis that were interpreted using the most correlated words. The analysis of the correlation of the FabLabs and these five factors showed that FabLabENIT was strongly correlated with the third factor (interpreted as the organisation and structure factor). Recommendations for the purpose, local impact and methods were derived using the position of FabLabENIT in relation to the other factors.Practical implicationsThis study highlighted five main topics that characterise FabLabs in developing countries before and after their creation. A second practical contribution of this paper is that it provides a framework for FabLab managers and founders to anticipate possible trajectories of evolution for their organisations, especially in an emerging country. Another contribution, both practical and methodological, is the demonstration of the use of textual interview analysis tools (mainly correspondence analysis) to determine the main practices and characteristics of a creative organisation, such as a FabLab.Originality/valueOne original feature of this paper is the topic of the study, especially in the current context of the COVID-19 outbreak, in which the FabLab movement provided interesting solutions that were designed and manufactured using digital manufacturing technologies. A second originality resides in the use of lexicometric techniques to analyse the information that was discussed during the interviews.

18.
9th IEEE International Conference on E-Health and Bioengineering Conference, EHB 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1703822

ABSTRACT

The advent of metal-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes opened new perspectives in improving the treatment of acetabular bone defects by using patient-tailored implants. These implants have the advantage of better complying with severe and difficult cases as AM technology can produce topologically optimized geometries with complex-shaped supports for fixation, ingrowth surfaces and on-demand sizes, more easily than when using conventional manufacturing technologies. This paper reports a clinical case where such an implant was successfully used for the pelvis reconstruction of a male patient who had undergone a long series of revision surgeries at his left hip, following a car accident. The patient computer tomography (CT) data was used not only for designing the implant, but also in the preoperative planning stage for more clearly identifying the positions of the broken screws from a previous implant and investigating the quality of the bone for the new implant fixation. Moreover, 3D reconstructed pelvis models based on two series of CT scans at one-year difference (delay caused by covid-19 pandemic) were compared for evaluating if acetabular defect changes occurred from the time of the AM implant production to the time of the surgery. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
International Journal of Production Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1703133

ABSTRACT

As a disruptive digital technology, adopting additive manufacturing impacts the state and structural dynamics of supply chains, thus affecting their capability to be resilient. Supply chain resilience is essential for business continuity and dealing with unforeseen disruptions such as the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, no research has exclusively investigated the implications of adopting additive manufacturing technology for supply chain resilience, and this study aims to overcome this knowledge gap by using the existing literature and drawing on the dynamic capabilities view. Hence, a systematic search of the literature followed by a critical review of the gathered evidence from 87 peer-reviewed journal papers is performed, leading to the generation of propositions on how additive manufacturing adoption impacts the state of the supply chain, thus influencing certain supply chain capabilities and vulnerabilities that affect supply chain resilience. These propositions provide a research agenda to empirically examine how adopting different processes and applications of additive manufacturing technology can affect supply chain resilience in different industries. Additionally, this study puts forward a detailed framework that indicates how and to what extent adopting additive manufacturing can influence the supply chain capabilities and vulnerabilities that underlie supply chain resilience. While the results suggest that adopting additive manufacturing is expected to improve supply chain resilience by mainly enhancing the state of the supply chain and positively influencing certain supply chain capabilities, it can also cause certain supply chain vulnerabilities to arise, which seem to be interrelated with some of the present additive manufacturing adoption barriers. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.

20.
Advanced Materials Technologies ; n/a(n/a):2101121, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1680235

ABSTRACT

Additive manufacturing technology, referred as 3D printing technology, is a growing research field with broad applications from nanosensors fabrication to 3D printing of buildings. Nowadays, the world is dealing with a pandemic and requires the use of simple sensing systems. Here, the strengths of fast screening by a lab-on-a-chip device through electrochemical detection using 3D printing technology for SARS-CoV-2 sensing are combined. This system comprises a PDMS microfluidic channel integrated with an electrochemical cell fully 3D-printed by a 3D printing pen (3D-PP). The 3D-PP genosensor is modified with an ssDNA probe that targeted the N gene sequence of SARS-CoV-2. The sensing mechanism relies on the electro-oxidation of adenines present in ssDNA when in contact with SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The hybridization between ssDNA and target RNA takes a place and ssDNA is desorbed from the genosensor surface, causing a decrease of the sensor signal. The developed SARS-CoV-2/3D-PP genosensor shows high sensitivity and fast response.

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