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1.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; JOUR: 1-1,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2088063

ABSTRACT

Mask wearing has become critical for preventing the aerosolization and inhalation of virus-laden particles during the ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic. However, facial masks with effective filtration are either not readily accessible (e.g., N95) or have reduced filtration efficiency due to air gaps between the mask and wearer (e.g., cloth masks). We have developed a novel combination of a mask and shield named Mask And Shield Integrated (MASI) that provides nearly the same levels of protection as an N95 mask by addressing these issues. Magnetic latches reduce gaps between the mask and wearer, while a novel fin structure on the shield provides protection against floating particles. A series of experiments was performed to study MASI’s efficacy in both eliminating mask gaps and also providing N95-like filtration efficiency. MASI was found to solve both problems, thus providing a low-cost mask solution that can be applied to a broad range of environments to prevent inhalation of small air-borne particles. IEEE

2.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088279

ABSTRACT

AIM: Inhaled nitrous oxide is a common form of procedural sedation in paediatric care. During the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns about potential aerosol generation and associated viral transmission to health-care workers have led to controversy regarding its use. We aimed to measure the degree of aerosol generation during continuous flow nitrous oxide sedation to inform future guidelines. METHODS: Aerosol numbers in the respirable range were measured using a particle counter during 30 procedures undertaken in children under nitrous oxide sedation in the Emergency Department. RESULTS: Changes from baseline measurements were greatest in particles in the 0.3 µm range. The mean increase from baseline in 0.3 µm particles per cubic metre was 18 022 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5949-30 096) after the child entered the room, and 2931 (95% CI -4407 to 10 269) during nitrous oxide administration. CONCLUSION: Variation of respirable particle numbers from baseline levels was no greater during nitrous oxide administration than for breathing and talking asymptomatic children. These results suggest the additional risk of airborne viral transmission to staff during inhaled nitrous oxide sedation is low.

3.
Ieee Transactions on Molecular Biological and Multi-Scale Communications ; 8(3):202-206, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070479

ABSTRACT

Besides mimicking bio-chemical and multi-scale communication mechanisms, molecular communication forms a theoretical framework for virus infection processes. Towards this goal, aerosol and droplet transmission has recently been modeled as a multiuser scenario. In this letter, the "infection performance" is evaluated by means of a mutual information analysis, and by an even simpler probabilistic performance measure which is closely related to absorbed viruses. The so-called infection rate depends on the distribution of the channel input events as well as on the transition probabilities between channel input and output events. The infection rate is investigated analytically for five basic discrete memoryless channel models. Numerical results for the transition probabilities are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations for pathogen-laden particle transmission in four typical indoor environments: two-person office, corridor, classroom, and bus. Particle transfer contributed significantly to infectious diseases like SARS-CoV-2 and influenza.

4.
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances ; 8:100174, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069021

ABSTRACT

Several medical procedures for treatment or diagnosis of diseases have been identified as potentially aerosol generators. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential exposure of the health professionals to aerosols generation during different medical procedures in a hospital endoscopy unit, and to characterize the emitted aerosols in terms of airborne concentration and size. Aerosols number concentrations and sizes, were measured and indoor activity was collected and correlated with the emitting sources. Endoscopy, bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, and bidirectional endoscopy procedures were identified as the most important aerosol sources. During these procedures, the increases in mean aerosols concentration (< 5 µm) in relation to the reference concentration for colonoscopy, upper endoscopy, bronchoscopy and bidirectional endoscopy procedures were 12, 72, 39, and 141%, respectively. These results showed that, depending on the type of activity performed inside the room, the concentration of aerosols varied considerably in relation to the reference concentration. The results also demonstrated that aerosols generation events during medical procedures in an endoscopy unit are divided into two categories: the events that create and disperse aerosols mechanically and events that induce the patient to produce aerosols.In the SARS-CoV-2 context, the virus stability characteristics and modes of transmission make all sources analyzed as high risk for COVID-19 transmission.

5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):7320-7335, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067315

ABSTRACT

As the threat of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic subsides, governments throughout the world are dealing with epidemic concerns due to the occurrence of monkeypox cases in various areas. Previously limited to African countries, the majority of monkeypox cases associated with the 2022 epidemic have been recorded in countries throughout Europe and the Western Hemisphere. While multiple organisations are doing contact-tracing operations, it is still unclear how this outbreak began. Monkeypox virus is one of several zoonotic viruses in the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. Following the universal abolition of smallpox in the 1970s, monkeypox outbreaks drew international attention.The smallpox immunisation provided immunity against the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox cases rose when smallpox vaccine was halted. It wasn't until the 2003 US pandemic that monkeypox became well known. The virus did not originate in monkeys, despite the name "monkeypox." Although other rodents and small animals have been recognised as the virus's origins, the precise origin of monkeypox is uncertain. The viral infection was originally observed in macaque monkeys, thus the term monkeypox. Although human-to-human transmission of monkeypox is exceedingly rare, it is usually associated with respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected people's mucocutaneous sores. There is presently no treatment available for infected people;however, supportive therapies can be utilised to relieve symptoms;drugs such as tecovirimat may be used in severe cases. Many therapy are subjective since there are no unambiguous guidelines for symptom relief.

6.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(19):13183-13200, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067020

ABSTRACT

Emission inventories are essential for modelling studies and pollution control, but traditional emission inventories are usually updated after a few years based on the statistics of “bottom-up” approach from the energy consumption in provinces, cities, and counties. The latest emission inventories of multi-resolution emission inventory in China (MEIC) was compiled from the statistics for the year 2016 (MEIC_2016). However, the real emissions have varied yearly, due to national pollution control policies and accidental special events, such as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, a four-dimensional variational assimilation (4DVAR) system based on the “top-down” approach was developed to optimise sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by assimilating the data of SO2 concentrations from surface observational stations. The 4DVAR system was then applied to obtain the SO2 emissions during the early period of COVID-19 pandemic (from 17 January to 7 February 2020), and the same period in 2019 over China. The results showed that the average MEIC_2016, 2019, and 2020 emissions were42.2×106, 40.1×106, and 36.4×106 kg d-1. The emissions in 2020 decreased by 9.2 % in relation to the COVID-19 lockdown compared with those in 2019. For central China, where the lockdown measures were quite strict, the mean 2020 emission decreased by 21.0 % compared with 2019 emissions. Three forecast experiments were conducted using the emissions of MEIC_2016, 2019, and 2020 to demonstrate the effects of optimised emissions. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the experiments using 2019 and 2020 emissions decreased by 28.1 % and 50.7 %, and the correlation coefficient increased by 89.5 % and 205.9 % compared with the experiment using MEIC_2016. For central China, the average RMSE in the experiments with 2019 and 2020 emissions decreased by 48.8 % and 77.0 %, and the average correlation coefficient increased by 44.3 % and 238.7 %, compared with the experiment using MEIC_2016 emissions. The results demonstrated that the 4DVAR system effectively optimised emissions to describe the actual changes in SO2 emissions related to the COVID lockdown, and it can thus be used to improve the accuracy of forecasts.

7.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer, and Energy Technologies, ICECET 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063242

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a methodology in which an electromagnetic pulse can be isotropically radiated on those places where there is a huge accumulation of infected aerosols that have been exhaled. To accomplish this end, a network of Internet Protocols are simultaneously working either sensing through a transducer and on the other side a source of radiation at innocuous frequencies to living beings. While the 3C-like protease (protein) as part of Corona virus contains ions in their tails, then the interaction ion-field might to minimize capabilities of virus while it is in the aerosol and thus minimize capabilities to produce the public infection when the aerosols have been inhaled. Indeed, the prospective implementation of reconfigurable walls might to deplete in a large fraction the virus indoor particularly in those places where face-to-face activities are needed even at pandemic epochs. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):3378-A0165, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058212

ABSTRACT

Purpose : COVID-19 pandemic has become a major global public health challenge. The ophthalmology office setting involves close encounters between the patient and the health care workers increasing risk of viral transmission. Use of PPE decreases risk of person-to-person viral transmission. The purpose of the study was to evaluate breath-induced air currents in subjects without a facemask, with a procedure mask, with an improvised face, and in the setting of slit-lamp examination. Methods : Breath-induced air currents were studied in healthy volunteers utilizing a vape pod system and videography during gentle and heavy breathing simulation. Video frames at 2 seconds after the initiation of expiration were captured and analyzed. Results : A total of 210 recordings were made for 7 settings. Without a face mask, the aerosol moved forwards and spread vertically and horizontally reaching a mean distance of 23.1 inches for gentle, and 36.1 inches for heavy breathing at 2 seconds (P< 0.001). Using PPE the airflow patterns included: a) procedure mask- forward 0 cases, upward 19 (63%) cases, side 28 (93%) cases, downward 22 (73%) cases, and backward 22 (73%) cases. Adding a tape at the upper border of the mask eliminated upward flow in all cases. b) Improvised face mask- forward 0 cases, upward 0 cases, side 30 (100%) cases, downward 30 (100%) cases, and backward 17 (57%) cases. In 14 (47%) cases trace of aerosol was detected adjacent to the front surface of the mask. Adding a second layer eliminated the trace of aerosol in all cases. In the setting of simulated slit-lamp examination without the breath shield, the aerosol reached the chin rest in 9 (60%) cases during gentle breathing and in all cases during heavy breathing. The breath shield was effective in blocking forward airflow in all cases. Conclusions : Use of a procedure mask by patients, while effective in blocking forward breath-induced airflow, redirects the flow upwards, potentially increasing the risk of contamination during an office procedure. An improvised facemask alters breath-induced air currents favorably and partially absorbs respiratory droplets.

9.
2022 Annual Modeling and Simulation Conference, ANNSIM 2022 ; : 742-752, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056831

ABSTRACT

Understanding the role of architectural design in identifying the risk of disease transmission is essential for creating resilience in buildings. Here we used a Grasshopper simulation workflow to execute aerosol disease transmission risk estimation coupled with EnergyPlus simulation inputs to assess the impact of architectural factors on the risk of COVID-19 transmission. We simulated the risk for a simple geometry with different window configurations and geographic locations. We observed that increasing the fractional opening of a single window as well as cross ventilation design can increase the outdoor air exchange, which corresponds to substantially reduced risk of disease transmission. Furthermore, indoor relative humidity in cold climates can be significantly lower in winter due to the impacts of increased mechanical heating which translates to an increased risk of infection. We demonstrate that early architectural design decisions implicate the resultant risk of disease transmission indoors that should be prioritized in the future. © 2022 SCS.

10.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(18):12705-12726, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056005

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the spatiotemporal variabilities in nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3), and light-absorbing aerosols within the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan, which is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The analysis is based on total tropospheric column, partial tropospheric column (within the boundary layer), and in situ observations retrieved from multiple platforms as well as additional information obtained from reanalysis and box model simulations. This study mainly covers the 2013–2020 period, focusing on 2020 when air quality was influenced by the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although total and partial tropospheric NO2 columns were reduced by an average of about 10 % in 2020, reductions exceeding 40 % occurred in some areas during the pandemic state of emergency. Light-absorbing aerosol levels within the boundary layer were also reduced for most of 2020, while smaller fluctuations in HCHO and O3 were observed. The significantly enhanced degree of weekly cycling of NO2, HCHO, and light-absorbing aerosol found in urban areas during 2020 suggests that, in contrast to other countries, mobility in Japan also dropped on weekends. We conclude that, despite the lack of strict mobility restrictions in Japan, widespread adherence to recommendations designed to limit the COVID-19 spread resulted in unique air quality improvements.

11.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 20(4): 739-747, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052494

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to review cases of dental visits by patients who had confirmed COVID-19 infection in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. It analyses the patterns of infection transmission among dental healthcare professionals and dental clinic visitors. METHODS: This study obtained data from reports on disease trends and press releases published by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) on its COVID-19 website. RESULTS: After examining cases of patients with a confirmed COVID-19 infection, 24 people (10 in Seoul and 14 in Gyeonggi-do) visited the dental office 1-13 days prior to their case confirmation; however, the spread of the virus in the dental office was not confirmed. CONCLUSION: The WHO and KCDC guidelines must be followed to curb transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus among dental patients and professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Dental Clinics , Health Personnel , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
12.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114417, 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is spread primarily through droplets and aerosols. Exhaled aerosols are generated in the upper airways through shear stress and in the lung periphery by 'reopening of collapsed airways'. Aerosol measuring may detect highly contagious individuals ("super spreaders or super-emitters") and discriminate between SARS-CoV-2 infected and non-infected individuals. This is the first study comparing exhaled aerosols in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and healthy controls. DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study in 288 adults, comprising 64 patients testing positive by SARS CoV-2 PCR before enrollment, and 224 healthy adults testing negative (matched control sample) at the University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany, from February to June 2021. Study objective was to evaluate the concentration of exhaled aerosols during physiologic breathing in SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive and -negative subjects. Secondary outcome measures included correlation of aerosol concentration to SARS-CoV-2 PCR results, change in aerosol concentration due to confounders, and correlation between clinical symptoms and aerosol. RESULTS: There was a highly significant difference in respiratory aerosol concentrations between SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive (median 1490.5/L) and -negative subjects (median 252.0/L; p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences due to age, sex, smoking status, or body mass index. ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.8918. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of respiratory aerosols were significantly elevated in SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals, which helps to understand the spread and course of respiratory viral infections, as well as the detection of highly infectious individuals.

13.
Clim Dyn ; 59(9-10): 2965-2978, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048235

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic emissions decreased dramatically during the COVID-19 pandemic, but its possible effect on monsoon is unclear. Based on coupled models participating in the COVID Model Intercomparison Project (COVID-MIP), we show modeling evidence that the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is enhanced by 2.2% in terms of precipitation and by 5.4% in terms of the southerly wind at lower troposphere, and the amplitude of the forced response reaches about 1/3 of the standard deviation for interannual variability. The enhanced EASM during COVID-19 pandemic is a fast response to reduced aerosols, which is confirmed by the simulated response to the removal of all anthropogenic aerosols. The observational evidence, i.e., the anomalously strong EASM observed in 2020 and 2021, also supports the simulated enhancement of EASM. The essential mechanism for the enhanced EASM in response to COVID-19 is the enhanced zonal thermal contrast between Asian continent and the western North Pacific in the troposphere, due to the reduced aerosol concentration over Asian continent and the associated latent heating feedback. As the enhancement of EASM is a fast response to the reduction in aerosols, the effect of COVID-19 on EASM dampens soon after the rebound of emissions based on the models participating in COVID-MIP. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00382-022-06247-8.

14.
Kung Cheng Je Wu Li Hsueh Pao/Journal of Engineering Thermophysics ; 43(9):2404-2408, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2047122

ABSTRACT

Intense scientific interest in the mechanisms of aerosol transport has been aroused due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, a new droplet evaporation model considering solid components such as salt, has proposed to simulate the diffusion and evaporative flow behaviors of saliva-forming aerosols droplets, caused by human breathing, coughing and sneezing. The model considers the evaporation process on the surface of aerosols and couples the droplet kinetic equations, including the incorporation of influencing factors such as flow resistance, gravity, droplet-like size and initial velocity. Different ambient temperatures, relative humidity and wind speed have been simulated and the mechanisms of aerosols migration behaviors have been analyzed. For individual droplet, the results not only show that the larger the droplet size, the longer it remains suspended in airborne, but also the lower the humidity and the higher the temperature, the faster the evaporation rate. © 2022, Science Press. All right reserved.

15.
ASHRAE Journal ; 64(5):12-16,18-20,22,24-25, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046543

ABSTRACT

Significant emphasis has been placed on enhancing building HVAC systems to be more energy-efficient in recent decades. Often, these measures include reducing ventilation rates and overall airflows to achieve corresponding energy reduction. However, the COVID-19 pandemic caused an examination of how HVAC systems may help reduce the risk of airborne transmission of respiratory diseases via infectious aerosols. This new goal of infection risk mitigation often leads to the opposite recommendation-that outdoor air ventilation be increased,1 to the detriment of energy efficiency.2,3

16.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2043437

ABSTRACT

The high level of aerosol pollution in South Asia has a measurable impact on clouds, radiation, and precipitation. Here, exploring multiple observational data sets and simulations of the state-of-the-art ECHAM6-HAMMOZ chemistry-climate model, we report that the reduction in anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown period has enhanced precipitation by 5-25% over India. This precipitation enhancement is the result of the combined effect of an enhancement in cloud cover, a reduction in aerosol induced cloud invigoration and dynamical changes. We observed that the increase in cloud cover was associated with a reduction in cloud base height and an increase in the effective radius of cloud particles which led to an increase in cloud water content. In response to sudden emission reduction, an anomalous northward moisture transport was observed adding convection and precipitation over the Indian region. Importantly, we show that there is an advantage of anthropogenic pollution reduction for water availability in addition to benefits of air quality, human health, and crop yield.

17.
Indoor Air ; 32(9): e13109, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042835

ABSTRACT

Studies about the identification of SARS-CoV-2 in indoor aerosols have been conducted in hospital patient rooms and to a lesser extent in nonhealthcare environments. In these studies, people were already infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, in the present study, we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in HEPA filters housed in portable air cleaners (PACs) located in places with apparently healthy people to prevent possible outbreaks. A method for detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in HEPA filters was developed and validated. The study was conducted for 13 weeks in three indoor environments: school, nursery, and a household of a social health center, all in Ciudad Real, Spain. The environmental monitoring of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was conducted in HEPA filters and other surfaces of these indoor spaces for a selective screening in asymptomatic population groups. The objective was to limit outbreaks at an early stage. One HEPA filter tested positive in the social health center. After analysis by RT-PCR of SARS-CoV-2 in residents and healthcare workers, one worker tested positive. Therefore, this study provides direct evidence of virus-containing aerosols trapped in HEPA filters and the possibility of using these PACs for environmental monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 while they remove airborne aerosols and trap the virus.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Viral , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(18):12153-12166, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040263

ABSTRACT

A knowledge gap exists concerning how chemical composition and sources respond to implemented policy control measures for aerosols, particularly in a semi-arid region. To address this, a single year's offline measurement was conducted in Hohhot, a semi-arid city in northern China, to reveal the driving factors of severe air pollution in a semi-arid region and assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown measures on chemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5. Organic matter, mineral dust, sulfate and nitrate accounted for 31.5 %, 14.2 %, 13.4 % and 12.3 % of the total PM2.5 mass, respectively. Coal combustion, vehicular emission, crustal source and secondary inorganic aerosols were the main sources of PM2.5 in Hohhot, at 38.3 %, 35.0 %, 13.5 %, and 11.4 %, respectively. Due to the coupling effect of emission reduction and improved atmospheric conditions, the concentration of secondary inorganic components, organic matter and elemental carbon declined substantially from the pre-lockdown (pre-LD) period to the lockdown (LD) and post-lockdown (post-LD) periods. The source contribution of secondary inorganic aerosols increased (from 21.1 % to 37.8 %), whereas the contribution of vehicular emission reduced (from 35.5 % to 4.4 %) due to lockdown measures. The rapid generation of secondary inorganic components caused by unfavorable meteorological conditions during lockdown led to serious pollution. This study elucidates the complex relationship between air quality and environmental policy.

19.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; : 1-17, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037262

ABSTRACT

In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of protective measures against infectious aerosols has drastically increased, as the transmission of diseases via airborne particles is impacting many aspects of everyday life. The protective measures against such infections are determinant in the operation of schools and kindergartens, hygiene in hospitals and medical facilities, in offices, administrative and production facilities, hotels, and the event industry, among others. To test these protective measures, suitable test aerosols and processes are needed. These aerosols ought to be similar to aerosols exhaled by humans as those carry the pathogens and thus need to be removed from the air or inactivated. The exhaled aerosols of several healthy test subjects were characterized by their particle concentration and size distribution. In previous studies, it was found that exhaled particle concentration varies significantly from subject to subject and most of the particles can be found in the submicron size range. Aerosols technically generated through nebulization were emitted by the generators in particle concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than those exhaled by humans, independent of the aerosol generation method and nebulized fluid. The particle size distribution generated by the two nebulizers used, however, was quite similar to the measured size distributions of the human aerosols, with most of the particles below 1 µm in size. Consequently, the used aerosol generators are not suitable to mimic single individuals as active aerosol sources, but rather to provide a sufficient amount of aerosol similar to human aerosols in size distribution, which can be used in the testing of air purification technologies.

20.
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering ; 17(3), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2027649

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic remains ever prevalent and afflicting—partially because one of its transmission pathways is aerosol. With the widely used central air conditioning systems worldwide, indoor virus aerosols can rapidly migrate, thus resulting in rapid infection transmission. It is therefore important to install microbial aerosol treatment units in the air conditioning systems, and we herein investigated the possibility of combining such filtration with UV irradiation to address virus aerosols. Results showed that the removal efficiency of filtration towards f2 and MS2 phages depended on the type of commercial filter material and the filtration speed, with an optimal velocity of 5 cm/s for virus removal. Additionally, it was found that UV irradiation had a significant effect on inactivating viruses enriched on the surfaces of filter materials;MS2 phages had greater resistance to UV-C irradiation than f2 phages. The optimal inactivation time for UV-C irradiation was 30 min, with higher irradiation times presenting no substantial increase in inactivation rate. Moreover, excessive virus enrichment on the filters decreased the inactivation effect. Timely inactivation is therefore recommended. In general, the combined system involving filtration with UV-C irradiation demonstrated a significant removal effect on virus aerosols. Moreover, the system is simple and economical, making it convenient for widespread implementation in air-conditioning systems.

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