Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.445
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2109896

ABSTRACT

The disruptions wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic on food systems worldwide have endangered food and nutrition security for many consumers. The resource-poor, especially those in urban areas, are more susceptible to pandemic-related disturbances. This study uses primary data collected from 2,465 households located in and outside of informal settlements (slums) in Nairobi, Kenya to assess how COVID-19 and related public-health measures have influenced diets of urban consumers, their purchasing patterns and overall food security. Questions about food security and consumption behavior, including household dietary diversity scores, were used to capture the pre- and mid-pandemic situation. The data show that low-income households in the informal settlements were more affected than middle-income households. About 90% of slum households reported dire food insecurity situations, including being unable to eat preferred kinds of food, eating a limited variety of foods, consuming smaller portions than they felt they needed, and eating fewer meals in a day. With a score of four food groups out of nine, household in the informal settlements have lower dietary diversity than middle-income households, whose score is five out of nine. The consumption of nutritious foods, including fruits, vegetables, and animal products, fell among people living in slums during the pandemic. In addition to assessing dietary changes, this study highlights the factors associated with quality food consumption during the pandemic period such as household income levels and male-vs-female headed households. Our research demonstrates the need to attend to slums and vulnerable, poor consumers when enacting mitigation measures or designing and implementing policy.

2.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107793

ABSTRACT

Purpose This paper aims to address the following questions: What is the impact of the pandemic on the hospitality industry in South Africa? Which innovations and strategies are in place to rebuild hospitality in South Africa? Design/methodology/approach This article emanates from the resent pandemic situation, and it is structured to include conceptual information drawn from the literature, empirical study and industry observation. These were conducted in 2020 and 2021 using, concepts from the literature, online questionnaires and observation to gather data about the impact of COVID-19 on hospitality operations across South Africa. Findings Historically literature shows that the hospitality industry positively impacts the economy and employment However, the pandemic greatly affected these contributions. The findings reported in the empirical study revealed that the pandemic affected business operations and employment and caused financial hardship for the industry. Originality/value There are relatively few studies that report on the issues relating to the pandemic and the hospitality industry in South Africa. This paper contributes to the literature regarding a pre-COVID-19 overview, the impact of the pandemic and the innovations and strategies in place to rebuild the hospitality industry.

3.
Vaccine X ; 12: 100234, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105508

ABSTRACT

With a population of 1.3 billion people, of which 56% reside in rural settings, Africa seemed ill-prepared to handle the distribution of a COVID-19 vaccine. In addition, the capacity needed for a successful COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Africa surpassed the available resources in local and state health agencies. As a result, African governments were advised to coordinate resources, health officials, and vaccinators, including local health practitioners, medical technicians, and pharmacists for the largest-ever vaccination campaign in Africa. Although the rolling out of the SARS-COV-2 vaccine was, as expected, slow in many African countries, and not yet enough to cover the entire population in Africa, the mass vaccination campaign in Africa must continue to ensure that priority for vaccination is extended beyond front-liners (healthcare workers) and specific high-risk populations, which has largely been the case in some African countries. This article highlights the overarching areas that we believe need to be prioritized to enhance Africa's effectiveness and coverage in the mass COVID-19 vaccination program.

4.
Administrative Theory & Praxis (Taylor & Francis Ltd) ; : 1-20, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2106997

ABSTRACT

As the fight against COVID-19 marked its second anniversary in March, collaboration gained attention as a tool for preparedness and response. Most collaborative models derive from industrialized countries, and coverage in outlets remains focused on the Global North. To complement existing studies, the article asks how collaboration looks like in a development setting. It analyzes the policies of Global South countries, focusing on Africa, where the pandemic is shifting. By exploring responses there and highlighting complexities that familiar governing paths struggle to resolve, it posits whether the pandemic could spur change. It concludes by discussing lessons and suggesting ways to improve collaboration. [ FROM AUTHOR]

5.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-12, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107125

ABSTRACT

We explore how organisations working on parenting programmes and other types of family support and violence prevention in low-resource settings experienced the pandemic. In August 2020-May 2021, we interviewed (1) staff from three community-based organisations delivering evidence-informed parenting interventions and other psychosocial services for families in Cape Town, South Africa, (2) staff from a parenting programme training organisation and (3) staff from two international organisations supporting psychosocial services in South Africa. Interviews (22) were thematically analysed, with findings in three areas. First, respondents noted changes in the context, including the job losses, food insecurity, and stress experienced by local communities, and reductions in organisational funding. Second, we found that in response to these context changes, the organisations shifted their focus to food provision and COVID prevention. Parenting and psychosocial programmes were adapted - e.g. by changing the physical delivery settings, reducing group sizes, and taking up digital and phone implementation. Participants reported improved perceptions of remote delivery as a feasible approach for working with families - but internet and phone access remained challenging. Third, the pandemic brought new responsibilities for staff, and both the challenges of working from home and the health risks of in-person work.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 2016-2026, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103284

ABSTRACT

Data on social contact patterns are widely used to parameterize age-mixing matrices in mathematical models of infectious diseases. Most studies focus on close contacts only (i.e., persons spoken with face-to-face). This focus may be appropriate for studies of droplet and short-range aerosol transmission but neglects casual or shared air contacts, who may be at risk from airborne transmission. Using data from 2 provinces in South Africa, we estimated age mixing patterns relevant for droplet transmission, nonsaturating airborne transmission, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, an airborne infection where saturation of household contacts occurs. Estimated contact patterns by age did not vary greatly between the infection types, indicating that widespread use of close contact data may not be resulting in major inaccuracies. However, contact in persons >50 years of age was lower when we considered casual contacts, and therefore the contribution of older age groups to airborne transmission may be overestimated.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Aerosols , Models, Theoretical , South Africa/epidemiology
7.
Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development ; : 555-561, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2103741

ABSTRACT

This chapter discusses the special significance of localized aid during the COVID-19 pandemic, and demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the localization of aid and community governance through decentralized NGOs by examining the example of the actions taken by Nanjing University (the UNESCO Chair on Peace Studies), Nanjing, China, and the International Cities of Peace in assisting Africa’s Cities of Peace in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

8.
J Public Health Afr ; 13(3): 1931, 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099990

ABSTRACT

In Africa, the treatment of COVID-19 depends on each country. Several protocols are observed with real results that we described in this study. The objective of this review was to describe the treatment of COVID-19 and the case fatality rate in African countries, by reviewing the literature on treatment and case fatality in African countries whose data was available through the internet during the writing period until February 7, 2021. The majority of African countries had a treatment based on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine + azithromycin, used in varying doses depending on the country. The lethality in Africa remains low compared to European and American countries. The same treatment being used in some northern countries does not fully explain the low case fatality.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099909

ABSTRACT

Vaccination protects people from serious illness and associated complications.Conspiracy theories and misinformation on vaccines have been rampant during the COVID-19 pandemic and are considered significant drivers of vaccine hesitancy. Since vaccine hesitancy can undermine efforts to immunize the population against COVID-19 and interferes with the vaccination rate, this study aimed to ascertain the COVID-19-vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs, vaccine hesitancy, views regarding vaccine mandates, and willingness to pay for vaccines among the general population. A web-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted (April-August 2021) among the adult population in six countries (Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, India, Malaysia, Sudan, and Egypt). Participants were recruited using an exponential, non-discriminate snowball sampling method. A validated self-completed electronic questionnaire was used for the data collection. All the participants responded to questions on various domains of the study instrument, including conspiracy beliefs, vaccine hesitancy, and willingness to pay. The responses were scored according to predefined criteria and stratified into various groups. All data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. A total of 2481 responses were included in the study (Pakistan 24.1%, Saudi Arabia 19.5%, India 11.6%, Malaysia 8.1%, Sudan 19.3%, and Egypt 17.3%). There was a preponderance of participants ≤40 years old (18-25 years: 55.8%, 26-40 years: 28.5%) and females (57.1%). The average score of the COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy belief scale (C19V-CBS) was 2.30 ± 2.12 (median 2; range 0-7). Our analysis showed that 30% of the respondents were found to achieve the ideal score of zero, indicating no conspiracy belief. The mean score of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale (C19V-HS) was 25.93 ± 8.11 (range: 10-50). The majority (45.7%) had C19V-HA scores of 21-30 and nearly 28% achieved a score greater than 30, indicating a higher degree of hesitancy. There was a significant positive correlation between conspiracy beliefs and vaccine hesitancy (Spearman's rho = 0.547, p < 0.001). Half of the study population were against the vaccine mandate. Respondents in favor of governmental enforcement of COVID-19 vaccines had significantly (p < 0.001) lower scores on the C19V-CBS and C19V-HS scale. Nearly 52% reported that they would only take vaccine if it were free, and only 24% were willing to pay for COVID-19 vaccines. A high prevalence of conspiracy beliefs and vaccine hesitancy was observed in the targeted countries. Our findings highlight the dire need for aggressive measures to counter the conspiracy beliefs and factors underlying this vaccine hesitancy.

10.
Front Psychol ; 13: 949914, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099226

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world of work. Stemming from this, new forms of work arrangements are proposed. One such arrangement concerns the use of remote working. Scholars appeal for more empirical inquiry into such work arrangements as an unintended consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study narrows its focus to investigating remote working experiences from the lens of female middle managers operating within the South African public service. A qualitative research approach utilizing narrative inquiry of 23 female middle managers was used. Based on the analyzed data, remote working is illustrated from the participant experience as having intended and unintended consequences. In illustrating these dual consequences is a nexus between opportunities and challenges. Based on the identified intended and unintended consequences as findings, interventions have been proposed that impact not just the experience of being a middle manager in the public service but also strategies in dealing with remote working. At the core are strategies for individuals and organizations. These strategies potentially allow for middle manager contributions to be enhanced while also enhancing organizational outputs while working from home.

11.
OMICS ; 26(11): 594-607, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097271

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, emanated from the Wuhan Province in China and rapidly spread across the globe causing extensive morbidity and mortality rate, and affecting the global economy and livelihoods. Contrary to early predictions of "body bags" across Africa, the African COVID-19 pandemic was marked by apparent low case numbers and an overall mortality rate when compared with the other geographical regions. Factors used to describe this unexpected pattern included a younger population, a swifter and more effective national health policy, limited testing capacities, and the possibility of inadequate reporting of the cases, among others. However, despite genomics contributing to interindividual variations in many diseases across the world, there are inadequate genomic and multiomics data on COVID-19 in Africa that prevent richer transdisciplinary discussions on the contribution of genomics to the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. To invite future debates on comparative studies of COVID-19 genomics and the pandemic spread around the world regions, this expert review evaluates the reported frequency distribution of genetic variants in candidate genes that are likely to affect COVID-19 infection dynamics/disease outcomes. We propose here that genomic variation should be considered among the many factors determining the COVID-19 infection and its outcomes in African populations and across the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Health Policy , Genomics
12.
Sci Afr ; 18: e01408, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096006

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is currently causing several damages to the world, especially in the public health sector. Due to identifiability problems in parameters' estimation of complex compartmental models, this study considered a simple deterministic susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR)-type model to characterize the first wave and predict the future course of the pandemic in the West African countries. We estimated some specific characteristics of the disease's dynamics, such as its initial conditions, reproduction numbers, true peak and peak of the reported cases, with their corresponding times, final epidemic size and time-varying attack ratio. Our findings revealed a relatively low proportion of susceptible individuals in the region and the different countries ( 1.2 % across West Africa). The detection rate of the disease was also relatively low ( 0.9 % for West Africa as a whole) and < 2 % for most countries, except for Gambia (12.5 %), Cape-Verde ( 9.5 % ), Mauritania ( 5.9 % ) and Ghana ( 4.4 % ). The reproduction number varied between 1.15 (Burkina-Faso) and 4.45 (Niger), and most countries' peak time of the first wave of the pandemic was between June and July. Generally, the peak time of the reported cases came a week (7-8 days) after the true peak time. The model predicted for the first wave, 222,100 actual active cases in the region at the peak time, while the final epidemic size accounted for 0.6 % of the West African population (2,526,700 individuals). The results showed that COVID-19 has not severely affected West Africa as in other regions. However, current control measures and standard operating procedures should be maintained over time to accelerate a decline in the observed trends of the pandemic.

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 125: 241-249, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095476

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: After South Africa's second wave of COVID-19, this study estimated the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, 500 pregnant women who were non-COVID-19-vaccinated (aged ≥12 years) were enrolled, and demographic and clinical data were collected. Serum samples were tested using the Wantai SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Roche Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody assays. Seropositivity was defined as SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on either (primary) or both (secondary) assays. Univariate Poisson regression assessed risk factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: The median age was 27.4 years, and HIV prevalence was 26.7%. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 64.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.6-68.2%) on the primary and 54% (95% CI: 49.5-58.4%) on the secondary measure. Most (96.6%) women who were SARS-CoV-2-seropositive reported no symptoms. On the Roche assay, we detected lower seroprevalence among women living with HIV than women without HIV (48.9% vs 61.7%, P-value = 0.018), and especially low levels among women living with HIV with a clusters of differentiation 4 <350 cells/ml compared with women without immune suppression (22.2% vs 56.4%, prevalence rate ratio = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9; P-value = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Pregnant women attending routine antenatal care had a high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence after the second wave in South Africa, and most had asymptomatic infections. Seroprevalence surveys in pregnant women present a feasible method of monitoring the course of the pandemic over time.

14.
Prospects (Paris) ; 51(4): 563-572, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094723

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the largest social and economic shock of our lifetimes. As governments grapple with their responses to the virus, more than half the world's countries have closed their schools and severely limited almost all forms of public life. This will have a profound impact on children, both now and in the decade to come. As many countries start to send children back to school, a question arises: who should go back to school first? This Viewpoint addresses that question in the context of a middle-income country, South Africa. Based on a review of much of the evidence available at the time of publication, it concludes that the youngest children are least susceptible to harm from COVID-19, are less likely to spread the virus than adults, and also have the most to lose by being out of school. Hence, they should be the ones to return to school first.

15.
Non-conventional in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-2093019

ABSTRACT

"""South Africa was born in war, has been cursed by crises and ruptures, and today stands on a precipice once again. This book explores the country’s tumultuous journey from the Second Anglo-Boer War to 2021. Drawing on diaries, letters, oral testimony and diplomatic reports, Thula Simpson follows the South African people through the battles, elections, repression, resistance, strikes, insurrections, massacres, crashes and epidemics that have shaped the nation. Tracking South Africa’s path from colony to Union and from apartheid to democracy, Simpson documents the influence of key figures including Jan Smuts, Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, P.W. Botha, Thabo Mbeki and Cyril Ramaphosa. He offers detailed accounts of watershed events like the 1922 Rand Revolt, the Defiance Campaign, Sharpeville, the Soweto uprising and the Marikana massacre. He sheds light on the roles of Gandhi, Churchill, Castro and Thatcher, and explores the impact of the World Wars, the armed struggle and the Border War. Simpson’s history charts the post-apartheid transition and the phases of ANC rule, from Rainbow Nation to transformation;state capture to ‘New Dawn’. Along the way, it reveals the divisions and solidarities of sport;the nation’s economic travails;and painful pandemics, from the Spanish flu to AIDS and Covid-19."" From book cover"

16.
Non-conventional in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-2092760

ABSTRACT

Just transitions towards sustainability, in which the equity and wellbeing of all South Africans and the environmental sustainability of the country’s valuable natural systems is prioritised, need to be commensurate with the scale of the challenge. They should deepen and pick up pace. And they must shift from managerialist approaches towards structural and transformative just transition ones, which add meaning to the mantra of ‘leaving no one behind’.The COVID-19 pandemic has unmasked (once more) the full extent of the inequalities between and within countries, and reinforced the need to carve a safe and just space for all of humankind. It has opened, in some places, the political moment to question the purpose of our economies. It is possible to build societies and economies that are more just, equal and inclusive;are better integrated with nature;that offer social protection for all and that are more informed by science, but only if we act now. A just transition is imperative to achieve the policy frameworks and processes that will deliver development pathways leading to a fair and sustainable world

17.
Non-conventional in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-2092716

ABSTRACT

As jobs disappear and wages flatline, paid work is an increasingly fragile basis for dignified life. This predicament, deepened by the COVID-19 pandemic, is sparking urgent debates about alternatives such as a universal basic income (UBI). In this incisive new book, Hein Marais casts the debate about a UBI in the wider context of the dispossessing pressures of capitalism and the turmoil of global warming, pandemics and social upheaval. Marais surveys the meaning, history and appeal of a UBI before even-handedly weighing the case for and against it. The book explores the vexing questions a UBI raises about the relationship of paid work to social rights, about prevailing notions of entitlement and dependency, and about the role of the state in contemporary capitalism. Along with cost estimates for different versions of a basic income in South Africa, it discusses financing options and lays out the social, economic and political implications. Highly topical and distinctive in its approach, In the Balance: The Case for a Universal Basic Income in South Africa and Beyond is the most rounded and up-to-date examination yet of the need and prospects for a UBI in a global South setting such as South Africa

18.
Non-conventional in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-2092592

ABSTRACT

"""According to the Academic Freedom Monitoring Project, the percentage of attacks on higher education is higher in Africa than in any other region. And with Covid lockdowns, the academic freedom at African universities has been challenged even further. Given the strong links between academic freedom and democracy, organisations working with democratic development in Africa should take action to support and protect scholars at risk."""

19.
Non-conventional in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-2092226

ABSTRACT

"""This book explores the impact of Covid-19, and the associated state lockdown, on rural lives in a former homeland in South Africa. The 2020 Disaster Management Act saw the state sweep through rural areas, targeting funerals and other customary practices as potential 'super-spreader' events. This unprecedented clampdown produced widespread disruption, fear and anxiety. The authors build on path-breaking work concerning local responses to West Africa's Ebola epidemic, and examine the HIV/AIDS pandemic, to understand the impact of the Covid crisis on these communities, and on rural Africa more broadly. To shed light on the role of custom and ritual in rural social change during the pandemic, Covid and Custom in Rural South Africa applies long-term historical and ethnographic research;theories of people's science, local knowledge and the human economy;and fieldwork conducted in ten rural South African communities during lockdown. The volume highlights differences between developments in Southern Africa and elsewhere on the continent, while exploring how the former apartheid homelands-commonly, yet problematically, represented as former 'labour reserves'-have since been reconstituted as new home-spaces. In short, it explains why rural people have been so angered by the state's assault on their cultural practices and institutions in the time of Covid."""

20.
Non-conventional in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-2092153

ABSTRACT

"""Intellectual property, trade, human rights and access to medicines in Africa: A reader by Atangcho N Akonumbo explores the current debates and conflicts pertaining to intellectual property (IP), trade and access to medicines in Africa as a public health issue, in a public health context. The Reader has a broad focus running across fourteen chapters. It examines the complex web of access to medicines, while introducing major concepts pertaining to access to medicines such as IP, trade, medicine and human rights, and provides a historical overview of the nexus between IP and human rights. It establishes the link between human rights, IP and access to medicines within the context of developing countries broadly and Africa in particular. The Reader discusses key flexibilities within the international IP framework championed by the TRIPS Agreement to enhance access to medicines, including compulsory licensing and parallel importation, while addressing impediments therein which provoked the Doha Declaration and arrangements thereafter. Also, it examines issues such as the implications of data exclusivity and linkage techniques;the role of anti-counterfeiting and competition laws in checking the effect of IP regimes;current threats to access to medicines at the international, regional and national levels such as the influence of regional or bilateral trade agreements;and research and development in respect of medicines for neglected and (re)emerging infectious diseases. It discusses the contributions of naturopathic and traditional medicines as parallel and complementary systems to modern medicine in the access to medicines landscape in the African context. The Reader further addresses the implications of the difficulty of access to medicines for women, children and other social minorities such as disabled persons and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) persons. This Reader comes at a critical time, and potentially, a turning point in the history of public health crisis in Africa – when concerns about access to medicines have been heightened in the face of (re)emerging diseases and today the Covid-19 pandemic – a situation which has revealed gross lapses in public health governance. It is written in a simple language, making its content accessible to a wide audience. It contains informative and useful graphs, text boxes and illustrative excerpts from various primary and secondary sources. The Reader is likely to become an invaluable tool for a wide range of persons and institutions, including academics, students, legal practitioners, health professionals, drug procurement agencies, civil society organisations and the public at large, involved or interested in the access to medicines discourse."""

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL