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1.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448

ABSTRACT

Throughout the course of civilization, epidemics and pandemics have ravaged humanity, destroyed animal breeding and horticulture, and has also changed the course of history. It has been estimated that Justinian plague has affected half of the population of Europe and killed in three pandemics 50 million people, the avian-borne flu (Spanish flu), resulted in 50 million deaths worldwide in the years 1918-1919, and recently the COVID-19 is officially a pandemic, after barreling through 114 countries in just three months. In the past, rinderpest has hit Europe with three long panzootics, African swine fever (ASF), is still a threat to both the swine production industry and the health of wild boar populations. Several molecular changes occur in the pathogen that may trigger an epidemic or even pandemic. These include increase of virulence, introduction into a novel host, and changes in host susceptibility to the pathogen. Once the infectious disease threat reaches an epidemic or pandemic level, the goal of the response is to mitigate its impact and reduce its incidence, morbidity and mortality as well as disruptions to economic, political, and social systems. An epidemic curve shows progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time and the SIR, SI, SIRD and SEIR represent the simplest compartmental models that enable simplify the mathematical modelling of epidemics. This article throws a light on changing ideas in epidemiology of infectious diseases.

2.
Frontiers in Veterinary Science ; 9:10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979080

ABSTRACT

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a leading cause of worldwide agricultural loss. ASFV is a highly contagious and lethal disease for both domestic and wild pigs, which has brought enormous economic losses to a number of countries. Conventional methods, such as general polymerase chain reaction and isothermal amplification, are time-consuming, instrument-dependent, and unsatisfactorily accurate. Therefore, rapid, sensitive, and field-deployable detection of ASFV is important for disease surveillance and control. Herein, we created a one-pot visual detection system for ASFV with CRISPR/Cas12a technology combined with LAMP or RPA. A mineral oil sealing strategy was adopted to mitigate sample cross-contamination between parallel vials during high-throughput testing. Furthermore, the blue fluorescence signal produced by ssDNA reporter could be observed by the naked eye without any dedicated instrument. For CRISPR-RPA system, detection could be completed within 40 min with advantageous sensitivity. While CRISPR-LAMP system could complete it within 60 min with a high sensitivity of 5.8 x 10(2) copies/mu l. Furthermore, we verified such detection platforms display no cross-reactivity with other porcine DNA or RNA viruses. Both CRISPR-RPA and CRISPR-LAMP systems permit highly rapid, sensitive, specific, and low-cost Cas12a-mediated visual diagnostic of ASFV for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications.

3.
Farmers Weekly ; 2022(May 6):19-19, 2022.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1970139
4.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 867631, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924194

ABSTRACT

Stringent COVID-19 public health and social measures (PHSMs) have challenged the work of animal health professionals, especially in the early phase of the pandemic. We aimed to qualitatively describe how COVID-19 PHSMs have affected the surveillance and control of African swine fever (ASF) in Europe, assess how professionals engaged in these activities perceived the impact of the COVID-19 crisis, and identify potential areas of improvement. An online questionnaire was proposed via email between 9 December 2020 and 22 January 2021 to professionals engaged in ASF-related activities in Europe and Eastern neighboring countries. The questionnaire contained questions pertaining to ASF surveillance and control activities between March and May 2020, respondent's perception of the impact of COVID-19 PHSMs on these activities, and respondent's opinion on potential improvements to prepare for future crises. Economic and sanitary variables were used to describe the national contexts over the study period. Twenty-seven respondents from 24 countries participated to the study. Essential activities related to surveillance and management of ASF were reduced and/or adapted but maintained in most surveyed countries. Communication was mentioned as the first area of improvement during crisis while maintenance of efficient veterinary services and surveillance activities were cited second and third top priorities. The need for the development of remote procedures was also recognized. Some respondents highlighted difficulties in ensuring biosecurity and biosafety of the field actors due to shortage in protective equipment. Only a small majority (52%) of the survey participants agreed that their institution/working group is better prepared to future lockdown-type situations. Our study emphasizes that short-term measures were globally successful to tackle the immediate impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on the routine duties of professionals involved in ASF surveillance and control. Our findings suggest that country-specific improvements are necessary to support and advance the preparedness of the actors involved in infectious animal disease surveillance and control in case lockdown-like measures are implemented. Overall, our results highlight the crucial importance of recognizing animal health services as essential activities during crisis.

6.
Pacific Conservation Biology ; 28(3):6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886259

ABSTRACT

The pandemic resulting from COVID-19 infections had short-term positive impacts on the environment such as improvement in air and water quality. However, long term changes still have disastrous effects in terms of loosening of conservation policies and an increase in 'post-COVID-19' development subsidies to boost the economy at the expense of the environment. The prevention of habitat loss and zoonoses will avert future pandemics and measures to protect the local environment should be taken. The Republic of Korea follows the global trend in the weakness of long-term environmental answer to the pandemic and other on-going zoonoses, such as the avian influenza and African swine fever. Some of the current activities may even increase the risks of pandemic as mass culling of animals is widespread despite known risks. Instead, environmental protection and decreased encroachment may be the only safe way to proactively prevent the emergence of further pandemics.

7.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869803

ABSTRACT

From 29 November to 1 December 2021, an "emerging animal infectious disease conference (EAIDC)" was held at the Pennsylvania State University. This conference brought together distinguished thought leaders in animal health, veterinary diagnostics, epidemiology and disease surveillance, and agricultural economics. The conference's primary objective was to review the lessons learned from past experiences in dealing with high-consequence animal infectious diseases to inform an action plan to prepare for future epizootics and panzootics. Invited speakers and panel members comprised world-leading experts in animal infectious diseases from federal state agencies, academia, professional societies, and the private sector. The conference concluded that the biosecurity of livestock operations is critical for minimizing the devastating impact of emerging animal infectious diseases. The panel also highlighted the need to develop and benchmark cutting-edge diagnostics for rapidly detecting pathogens in clinical samples and the environment. Developing next-generation pathogen agnostic diagnostics will help detect variants of known pathogens and unknown novel pathogens. The conference also highlighted the importance of the One Health approach in dealing with emerging animal and human infectious diseases. The recommendations of the conference may be used to inform policy discussions focused on developing strategies for monitoring and preventing emerging infectious disease threats to the livestock industry.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Communicable Diseases , Agriculture , Animals , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Humans
8.
Springer Protocol. Handb. ; : 363-377, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1858946

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease outbreaks keep challenging human and veterinary health worldwide since decades. Disease outbreaks such as smallpox, influenza, polio, SARS, Ebola, foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, and the most recent and devastating COVID-19, all point to the need for a more proactive approach to developing diagnostics and treatment methods for these deadly diseases. Because the pathogenic agents that cause these diseases are highly transmissible, careful containment of these agents within the laboratories is necessary, with little or no exposure to working personnel. Different regulatory authorities across the world provide guidelines and procedures to ensure that research and diagnostic laboratories operate safely. This chapter delves into the many events that occur as a result of lab-mediated disease spread, as well as the need for, importance of, and guidelines for good lab practices and biosafety.

9.
FAPRI-MU Report - Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri|2021. (08-21):unpaginated. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837130

ABSTRACT

In 2021 the markets for the commodities in this update have continued to be disrupted by COVID-19. All levels of the markets in many countries have been impacted from the supply of inputs, to processing capability and logistics. African Swine Fever (ASF), particularly in China, has disrupted meat markets. Volatility in these markets in the near term is to be expected and it is important to note that the path these markets take will be more volatile than what is projected here. Furthermore, the numbers presented in this report should not be interpreted as forecasts but as projections. They are estimates of the average values that would prevail under normal weather, current policy and macroeconomic parameters assumed herein. This update was prepared the weeks of August 23 and August 30, 2021 using data available at that time. Current policies are assumed to remain in place. The update uses data for international dairy and livestock from USDA's Production, Supply and Distribution database, with updates from the latest USDA's GAIN reports and other sources. Biofuels data comes primarily from F.O. Licht supplemented by GAIN reports and some country sources. The macroeconomy is assumed to evolve as forecast by IHS Markit in July 2021. Additionally no further assumptions have been made with regards to any other markets impacts associated with COVID-19.

10.
Traditional Medicine Research ; 7(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822800
11.
Science ; 373(6558):977.21-979, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769814
12.
Science ; 373(6558):977.19-979, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769813
13.
Science ; 373(6558):977.13-979, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769812
14.
Science ; 373(6558):977.7-978, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769810
15.
Science ; 373(6558):977.6-978, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769809
16.
Science ; 373(6558):977.4-978, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769808
17.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715743

ABSTRACT

The African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a dsDNA virus that can cause serious, highly infectious, and fatal diseases in wild boars and domestic pigs. The ASFV has brought enormous economic loss to many countries, and no effective vaccine or treatment for the ASFV is currently available. Therefore, the on-site rapid and accurate detection of the ASFV is key to the timely implementation of control. The RNA-guided, RNA-targeting CRISPR effector CRISPR-associated 13 (Cas13a; previously known as C2c2) exhibits a "collateral effect" of promiscuous RNase activity upon the target recognition. The collateral cleavage activity of LwCas13a is activated to degrade the non-targeted RNA, when the crRNA of LwCas13a binds to the target RNA. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive ASFV detection method based on the collateral cleavage activity of LwCas13a, which combines recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) and a lateral flow strip (named CRISPR/Cas13a-LFD). The method was an isothermal detection at 37 °C, and the detection can be used for visual readout. The detection limit of the CRISPR/Cas13a-LFD was 101 copies/µL of p72 gene per reaction, and the detection process can be completed within an hour. The assay showed no cross-reactivity to eight other swine viruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and has a 100% coincidence rate with real-time PCR detection of the ASFV in 83 clinical samples. Overall, this method is sensitive, specific, and practicable onsite for the ASFV detection, showing a great application potential for monitoring the ASFV in the field.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus/isolation & purification , African Swine Fever/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , African Swine Fever/virology , African Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Animals , Genotype , Reagent Strips , Recombinases/genetics , Recombinases/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sus scrofa , Swine , Time Factors
18.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 734236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715089

ABSTRACT

The impacts of African Swine Fever (ASF) have most frequently been described quantitatively though it is increasingly acknowledged these impacts extend well beyond numbers. During 2020, a multidisciplinary team of researchers developed a framework for Socioeconomic and Livelihood Impact Assessment (SELIA) of livestock diseases in smallholder communities. Two key innovations within this SELIA framework are the integration of sustainable livelihoods concepts to capture rich information beyond financial impacts, and the inclusion of stakeholders across the value chain, beyond farmers. This paper focuses on the findings from one of the first applications of the SELIA framework. In late 2020 the research team applied participatory tools from the SELIA Framework (8 focus group discussions, 14 key informant interviews, and 2 network mapping activities) to gather data to describe the impact of ASF in backyard pig-farming communities and value chains. This was undertaken across two locations in the Philippines, in turn highlighting potential leverage points for intervention. Owing to COVID-19 travel restrictions and risks, modifications to training and field activities were made. Findings from focus groups and interviews revealed the deep, emotional impacts of ASF and the associated control measures. Pigs were considered pets by many farmers and some women described them as being like their children. Animal health-workers (AHWs) also recognised the emotional toll on farmers and were sometimes strongly criticised by community members due to their involvement in depopulation campaigns. Misinformation early in the epidemic also led farmers to hide their animals from AHWs, and to dispose of them inappropriately. While the overall impact of ASF on society was negative, the impacts across different communities, scales of production and different value chain actors varied. The losses experienced by backyard farmers resulted in significant losses to linked value chain actors, such as input suppliers. This trial application of the SELIA framework revealed some complex and varied impacts of ASF. This included significant differences in livelihood and socio-economic impacts amongst different actors within value chains and also among different categories of actors (for example small, medium and large-scale traders). Repeated themes and triangulated findings suggest two leverage points for further consideration. Firstly, it is recommended a One Welfare approach to ASF control in the Philippines is explored. Emphasising careful communication between animal health-workers and farmers, and humane and sensitive pig depopulation practices. Secondly, consideration of ASF support programs tailored to sectoral and specific communities is recommended.

19.
Geography and Sustainability ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1664943

ABSTRACT

China is the world's largest consumer of pork and grains. However, African swine fever (ASF) and the COVID-19 outbreak have greatly impacted the pork supply and food security in China. How can food security and the pork supply be ensured under the dual impacts of COVID-19 and ASF? This is a major problem to be urgently solved by the Chinese government. This study indicated that the main pork production and sales areas in China were separated, which reflected the spatial imbalance between the supply and demand. The total area of suitable selected sites for pig farms in China is 21.5 million ha. If only the areas with levels of high and moderate suitability are considered as potential sites for pig farms, the potential pork production can reach 56.1 million tons in China, which is slightly lower than demand. Due to the impact of the ASF epidemic, the food consumed by pigs has been reduced by 34.7 million tons. However, with increasing pork productivity in the future, the self-sufficiency rate of grains may further decline. On the premise that the quality of people's life is not affected, the diversification of meat supply channels should be realized in an orderly and sustainable way, which might conductive to alleviate the pressure on food supply. This study provides a theoretical reference for the spatiotemporal layout of the swine industry and addresses the issue of food security in China under the influence of ASF and the COVID-19 outbreak.

20.
Information & Control Systems ; 115(6):31-41, 2021.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1599999

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic which began in 2020 and has taken more than five million lives has become a threat to the very existence of mankind. Therefore, predicting the spread of COVID-19 in each individual country is a very urgent task. The complexity of its solution is due to the requirement for fast processing of large amounts of data and the fact that the data are mostly inaccurate and do not have the statistical properties necessary for the successful application of statistical methods. Therefore, it seems important to develop simple forecasting methods based on classical simple models of epidemiology which are only weakly sensitive to data inaccuracies. It is also important to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach in relation to the incidence data in Russia. Purpose: Obtaining forecast data based on classical simple models of epidemics, namely SIR and SEIR. Methods: For discrete versions of SIR and SEIR models, it is proposed to estimate the parameters of the models using a reduced version of the least squares method, and apply a scenario approach to the forecasting. The simplicity and a small number of parameters are the advantages of SIR and SEIR models, which is very important in the context of a lack of numerical input data and structural incompleteness of the models. Results: A forecast of the spread of COVID-19 in Russia has been built based on published data on the incidence from March 10 to April 20, 2020, and then, selectively, according to October 2020 data and October 2021 data. The results of the comparison between SIR and SEIR forecasts are presented. The same method was used to construct and present forecasts based on morbidity data in the fall of 2020 and in the fall of 2021 for Russia and for St. Petersburg. To set the parameters of the models which are difficult to determine from the official data, a scenario approach is used: the dynamics of the epidemic is analyzed for several possible values of the parameters. Practical relevance: The results obtained show that the proposed method predicts well the time of the onset of the peak incidence, despite the inaccuracy of the initial data. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Постановка проблемы: пандемия нового коронавируса COVID-19, начавшаяся в 2020 г. и унесшая уже более пяти миллионов жизней, стала угрозой самому существованию человечества. Поэтому прогнозирование распространения COVID-19 в каждой отдельной стране является весьма актуальной задачей. Сложность ее решения обусловливается требованием быстрой обработки больших объемов данных и тем, что данные в большинстве своем неточны и не обладают статистическими свойствами, необходимыми для успешного применения статистических методов. Необходимо разработать простые методики прогнозирования на основе классических простых моделей эпидемиологии, слабо чувствительных к неточности данных. Важно также продемонстрировать работоспособность подхода применительно к данным о заболеваемости в России. Цель: получение прогнозных данных на основе классических простых моделей эпидемий — SIR и SEIR. Методы: для дискретных версий моделей SIR и SEIR предлагается оценивать параметры моделей с использованием редуцированной версии метода наименьших квадратов и применять сценарный подход к прогнозированию. Простота и небольшое число параметров являются преимуществами моделей SIR и SEIR, весьма существенными в условиях недостатка численных исходных данных и структурной неполноты моделей. Результаты: построен прогноз распространения COVID-19 в России на основе опубликованных данных по заболеваемости с 10 марта по 20 апреля 2020 г., а затем выборочно, по данным октября 2020 г. и данным октября 2021 г. Приводятся результаты сравнения прогноза по моделям SIR и SEIR. Тем же методом построены и представлены прогнозы на основе данных по заболеваемости осенью 2020 г. и осенью 2021 г. для России и для Санкт-Петербурга. Для задания параметров моделей, которые затруднительно определить из официальных данных, используется сценарный подход: анализируется динамика эпидемии при нескольких возможных значениях параметров. Практическая значимость: полученные результаты показывают, что предложенная методика хорошо предсказывает время наступления пика заболеваемости, несмотря на неточность исходных данных. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Information & Control Systems / Informazionno-Upravlyaushie Sistemy is the property of LLC Information & Control Systems and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

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