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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1018961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109768

ABSTRACT

Synthetic mRNA technologies represent a versatile platform that can be used to develop advanced drug products. The remarkable speed with which vaccine development programs designed and manufactured safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines has rekindled interest in mRNA technology, particularly for future pandemic preparedness. Although recent R&D has focused largely on advancing mRNA vaccines and large-scale manufacturing capabilities, the technology has been used to develop various immunotherapies, gene editing strategies, and protein replacement therapies. Within the mRNA technologies toolbox lie several platforms, design principles, and components that can be adapted to modulate immunogenicity, stability, in situ expression, and delivery. For example, incorporating modified nucleotides into conventional mRNA transcripts can reduce innate immune responses and improve in situ translation. Alternatively, self-amplifying RNA may enhance vaccine-mediated immunity by increasing antigen expression. This review will highlight recent advances in the field of synthetic mRNA therapies and vaccines, and discuss the ongoing global efforts aimed at reducing vaccine inequity by establishing mRNA manufacturing capacity within Africa and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Technology
2.
Information Technology & People ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107758

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study explored whether the critical incident management systems (CIMS) model can predict the EMS performance in the COVID-19 context. Past research has established the significance of early detection and response (ER) in the context of Ebola virus disease (EVD), prompting a question of whether the model can also be helpful in the COVID-19 context. Consequently, the authors assessed whether ER influences the impact of communication capacity (CC), reliable information channel (RC) and environment (EN) on COVID-19 EMS performance. Assessing these relationships will advance emerging infectious disease (EID) preparedness. Design/methodology/approach The authors employed standardized measurement instruments of the CIMS model (CC, ER, RC and EN) to predict the performance of COVID-19 EMS using structural equation modeling (SEM) in a study of 313 participants from frontline responders. Findings The results show that the relationship of ER and EN with COVID-19 EMS performance is positive, while that of EN on CC is negative. The relationship between EN and COVID-19 EMS performance was insignificant. Contrary to the hypothesis, CC was negatively significant to COVID-19 EMS performance due to poor communication capacities. Research limitations/implications The authors acknowledge some limitations due to challenges faced in this study. First, Data collection was a significant limitation as these questionnaires were built and distributed in June 2020, but the response time was prolonged due to the recurring nature of the pandemic. The authors had wanted to implore the inputs of all stakeholders, and efforts were made to reach out to various Ministry of Health, the local CDC and related agencies in the region via repeated emails explaining the purpose of the study to no avail. The study finally used the frontline workers as the respondents. The authors used international students from various countries as the representatives to reach out to their countries' frontline workers. Second, since the study was only partially supported using the CIMS model, future studies may combine the CIMS model with other models or theories. Subsequent research reassesses this outcome in other contexts or regions. Consequently, further research can explore how CC can be improved with COVID-19 and another future EID in the region. This may improve the COVID-19 EMS performance, thereby expanding the lesson learned from the pandemic and sustaining public health EID response. Additionally, other authors may combine the CIMS model with other emergency management models or theories to establish a fully supported theoretical model in the context of COVID-19. Practical implications The findings have practical implications for incident managers, local CDCs, governments, international organizations and scholars. The outcome of the study might inform these stakeholders on future direction and contribution to EID preparedness. This study unfolds the impact of lessons learned in the region demonstrated by moderating early detection and responses with other constructs to achieve COVID-19 EMS performance. The findings reveal that countries that experienced the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak, were not necessarily more prepared for an epidemic or pandemic, judging by the negative moderating impact of early detection and response. However, these experiences provide a foundation for the fight against COVID-19. There is a need for localized plans tailored to each country's situation, resources, culture and lifestyle. The localized plan will be to mitigate and prevent an unsustainable EID management system, post-epidemic fund withdrawals and governance. This plan might be more adaptable and sustainable for the local health system when international interventions are withdrawn after an epidemic. Public health EID plans must be adapted to each country's unique situation to ensure sustainability and constantly improve EID management of epidemics and pandemics in emergency response. The high to moderate importation risk in African countries shows Africa's largest wind w of vulnerability to be West Africa (Gilbert et al., 2020). Therefore, they should be in the spotlight for heightened assistance towards the preparedness and response for a future pandemic like COVID-19. The West African region has a low capacity to manage the health emergency to match the population capacities. The COVID-19 outbreak in West Africa undoubtedly inflicted many disruptions in most countries' economic, social and environmental circumstances. The region's unique challenges observed in this study with CC and reliable information channels as being negatively significant highlight the poor maintenance culture and weak institutions due to brain drain and inadequate training and monitoring. This outcome practically informs West African stakeholders and governments on aspects to indulge when trying to improve emergency preparedness as the outcomes from other regions might not be applicable. Originality/value This study explored the relevance of the CIMS model in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, revealing different patterns of influence on COVID-19 EMS performance. In contrast to the extant literature on EVD, the authors found the moderating effects of ER in the COVID-19 context. Thus, the authors contribute to the COVID-19 EMS performance domain by developing a context-driven EMS model. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications.

3.
Cardiovascular Disease in Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations, 2 Edition ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102083
4.
Sci Afr ; 18: e01430, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096007

ABSTRACT

This study established segments among African countries to show the hierarchies of COVID-19 infection and death rates across the continent before the commencement of vaccination. Four clusters were extracted, each consisting of countries with a similar number of cumulative infections and deaths per 100 thousand population. When compared with the pre-vaccination figures from Europe, Americas, and Asia, it was observed that the African population exhibited a good level of rigidity and resilience to the pandemic, pre-vaccination. Majority of African countries - evaluating to 84% - were clustered into the segment with low infection and low death rates. Only 4% of the countries were clustered into the higher infection and highest death rates segment. This is an indication of the rigidity of a greater part of the African population to COVID-19 before vaccination. To forestall total business shutdown in the event of a similar pandemic in the future, multinational corporations could explore their workforce from the African population given the level of rigidity exhibited pre-vaccination.

5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 123: 106973, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095133

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a key risk factor for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Alarmingly, 87% of US adults have overweight or obesity, with non-Hispanic black adults having higher obesity and T2D prevalence than non-Hispanic white. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated the clinical benefits of lifestyle intervention (LI). While the DPP LI is effective, some participants don't achieve clinically significant weight loss in the current group-based translation paradigm. Black adults have the lowest adjusted weight loss (3.2%) among all racial/ethnic groups. Early intervention nonresponse defined as ≤1% weight loss at intervention week 4 is linked to lower probability of achieving weight loss goals. This paper describes the design and methods of a cluster randomized controlled trial among black weight loss nonresponders nested in 20 community sites (primarily churches). Descriptions of the adaptations made to transition the program to virtual format during the COVID-19 pandemic are also included. Trained community health workers deliver a group-based, 6-month long DPP over 18 sessions via Zoom. Additionally, nonresponders in the enhanced group receive weekly telephone support to provide individual-level intervention to help overcome weight loss barriers. Outcomes include weight, physical activity level, blood pressure, and dietary behaviors; these are compared between nonresponders in the enhanced intervention group and nonresponders in the active control group. Cost, mediators, and moderators are explored. If found to efficacious, these enhanced strategies could be standardized as a supplement for use with DPP nonresponders.

6.
Ethn Dis ; 32(4): 341-350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091257

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine decision-making among Black adults at high-risk for COVID-19 infection. Despite effective treatment and vaccination availability, Black Americans continue to be disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Design Setting and Participants: Using community-engaged qualitative methods, we conducted virtual, semi-structured focus groups with Black residents in Los Angeles County before widespread vaccine rollout. Recruitment occurred through local community partners. Main Outcome Measures: Themes and subthemes on factors for vaccine confidence and accessibility. Methods: As part of a larger study exploring COVID-19 vaccine decision-making factors among multiethnic groups, two-hour virtual focus groups were conducted between December 15, 2020 and January 27, 2021. Transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Three focus groups were conducted with 17 Black participants, who were primarily female (n=15), residents of high-poverty zip codes (n=11) and employed full-time (n=6). Black-specific considerations for vaccine confidence and accessibility include: 1) reduced confidence in COVID-19 vaccines due to historical government inaction and racism (existing health inequities and disparities are rooted in racism; historical unethical research practices); 2) misunderstanding of Black communities' vaccine concerns ("vaccine hesitancy" as an inaccurate label to describe vaccine skepticism; ignorance to root causes of vaccine skepticism); and 3) recognizing and building on resources (community agency to address COVID-19 vaccine needs adequately). Conclusions: Vaccination campaigns should improve understanding of underlying vaccination concerns to improve vaccine outreach effectiveness and should partner with, provide resources to, and invest in local, trusted Black community entities to improve COVID-19 vaccination disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination
7.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2130528, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the evolving epidemiological parameters of COVID-19 in Africa, the response actions and lessons learnt during the pandemic's past two years, SARS-COV 2 will certainly continue to circulate in African countries in 2022 and beyond. As countries in the African continent need to be more prepared and plan to 'live with the virus' for the upcoming two years and after and at the same time mitigate risks by protecting the future most vulnerable and those responsible for maintaining essential services, WHO AFRO is anticipating four interim scenarios of the evolution of the pandemic in 2022 and beyond in the region. OBJECTIVE: In preparation for the rollout of response actions given the predicted scenarios, WHO AFRO has identified ten strategic orientations and areas of focus for supporting member states and partners in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa in 2022 and beyond. METHODS: WHO analysed trends of the transmissions since the first case in the African continent and reviewed lessons learnt over the past months. RESULTS: Establishing a core and agile team solely dedicated to the COVID-19 response at the WHO AFRO, the emergency hubs, and WCOs will improve the effectiveness of the response and address identified challenges. The team will collaborate with the various clusters of the regional office, and other units and subunits in the WCOs supported with good epidemics intelligence. COVID-19 pandemic has afflicted global humanity at unprecedented levels. CONCLUSION: Two years later and while starting the third year of the COVID-19 response, we now need to change and adapt our strategies, tools and approaches in responding timely and effectively to the pandemic in Africa and save more lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization , Africa/epidemiology
8.
Journal of Religion in Africa ; 52(3-4):348-373, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2089010

ABSTRACT

`Continue to wash your hands, continue to wear your mask, continue to sanitize, con-tinue to maintain social distance, and lastly continue to pray. These were the closing remarks of a pastor who was preaching online to his congregants in the context of the second and third waves of COVID-19 variants. This article focuses on the church's utilisation (or lack) of both religion and science under the `wash' and `pray' theology. The article raises this fundamental question: to what extent is the church embracing scientific knowledge in its efforts to deal with COVID-19? Data was collected through an online questionnaire survey, review of available literature, listening to clerics on YouTube, follow-up WhatsApp interviews, as well as overt and covert observations. The article argues that religion and science differ on a number of issues but in the con-text of C OwD-19 and as indicated by this study, they must learn from each other and pool resources to combat covID-19. covID-19 calls for undivided attention, and when religion and science unify humanity vastly benefit. The article adds to the continuous debate on the relationship between science (wash) and religion (pray), arguing for the significance of religious ideas that make science effective in addressing the pandemic and vice versa.

9.
Phi Delta Kappan ; 104(2):17-21, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079204

ABSTRACT

The middle school years are important for social and emotional learning, and the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated social-emotional learning needs. At this age, young people are paying attention to the social world and exploring their identities and need learning environments that respond in kind. Jessica Shiller and Inte’a DeShields describe a model for middle school learning built on their need to connect with their peers, learn about their cultural identities, and receive social and emotional support. Pairing college students with middle schoolers, the model for literacy instruction produced positive results. © 2022 by Phi Delta Kappa International.

10.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; 61(10 Supplement):S7, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2076218

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The parent-child relationship is often the first and foundational relationship for a child that then sets up a framework of how he or she will relate to others. Much of what parents know and do is learned from the way they were parented. This presentation aims to explore the implementation challenges and opportunities of an attachment-based reflective group, the Circle of Security Parenting (COS-P), virtually within the general community and within primary care pediatrics during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a focus on the unique experience of facilitating within parents of Asian American and African American heritage. Method(s): The early childhood timeframe, including that of the perinatal stage and the first 3 to 5 years of life, is a critical brain development period. Efforts in exploring how to meet families where they are within the community and within primary care pediatrics, despite the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, will be discussed. Specifically, the session will reflect on the lessons learned in facilitating parent groups within: 1) the underinsured/government-insured African American families in the Washington, DC metropolitan area;2) Asian American parents who are either first- or second-generation immigrants;and 3) a group of community pediatric providers. Result(s): Lessons and stories derived from multiple iterations of the COS-P group in various communities and populations, as well as logistics of implementation, will be shared with attendees of the session. Conclusion(s): There are rich opportunities for healthcare professionals in prevention and early intervention in the domain of social-emotional developmental issues. Caregivers in the community and within primary care pediatrics are receptive to receiving support in parenting. The long-term impacts of the groups are an area for further research. ATTACH, PAT, DEI Copyright © 2022

11.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2073967

ABSTRACT

Despite long-held, traditional gender role expectations in our society, fathers are seeing their roles as more than breadwinners and are contributing to caregiving duties at increasing rates. As a result, fathers are actively balancing participation in their home and work environments. As scholars produce literature on working fathers, it is essential to consider how specific occupations affect the work-life balance efforts of these parents. Scholars who study the experiences of faculty parents have often studied the perspectives of mothers. Fathers have received less scholarly attention. Factors related to gender norms, racial socialization, and climate may influence the experiences of fathers who were faculty members. Additionally, the COVID-19 global pandemic may present issues that affect the lived experiences of African American fathers who were faculty members, related to their workload and increased Racial Battle Fatigue (RBF). This research could make contributions not only to the literature on work-life balance for faculty parents but also to the literature on working fathers in particular.Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of African American fathers who were faculty members. I used social role theory as a theoretical guide. Using 20 semi-structured interviews via Zoom, I sought to provide insights into these men's lives. This information could be useful to those who support African American fathers who were faculty members, including coparents, institutional and departmental administrators, policymakers, faculty colleagues as well as faculty members themselves.The results were grouped into four findings. The first finding, Environmental Contexts and the Roles of Father and Faculty Member, focused on the contexts that both the COVID-19 pandemic and the sociopolitical climate created for this group of fathers. The second finding, Interpreting the Narratives of Black Men and Absent Black Fathers showed that the participants were aware of stereotypes and narratives of African American men as absent Black fathers. An emergent third finding related to Social Support and Work-Life Balance, was that most study participants were members of Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs) and found instrumental, informational, and emotional social support from these relationships. Finally, through the fourth finding of this study, Microaggressions and Implicit Bias at Work, I revealed that experiences with microaggressions in the work environment, related to the participants being perceived as intimidating or characterized as the Angry Black Man, was a source of Mundane Extreme Environmental Stress (M.E.E.S.) for some participants. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

12.
Advances in Clinical Immunology, Medical Microbiology, COVID-19, and Big Data ; : 753-775, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2073493
13.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2072946

ABSTRACT

The COVID pandemic was a socionatural disaster that comprehensively disrupted the daily lives of individuals, families, and communities in unprecedented ways. Emerging evidence indicates that Black American men living in the rural South were distinctively impacted by the pandemic;however, to date, no research has investigated the proximal and distal effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural Black American men's health and wellbeing. The current study aimed to address this knowledge gap by exploring rural Black American men's lived experiences of the COVID pandemic. Specifically, this investigation focused on exploring how the COVID pandemic influenced men's (a) biological, psychological, and social functioning, (b) relational health (i. e. quality of relationships with family, children, intimate partners), and (c) socioeconomic mobility. Informed by the principles of critical ethnography and guided by van Manen's approach to hermeneutic phenomenology, seventeen men were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Eight of the original participants agreed to be interviewed a second time approximately one year later. Using NVIVO, interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a three-level (e. g. holistic, detailed, selective) iterative thematic reduction protocol. Ten essential themes emerged: (1) COVID Survivorship, (2) Agency vs. Altruism, (3) Persevere or Die, (4) Lifestyle Evolutions, (5) Familial Reorganization, (6) Adaptive Fatherhood, (7) Coupling During COVID, (8) Tertiary Support Systems, (9) Vocational Instability, and (10) That Little Stimulus Shit Ain't Nothing. Findings indicated that the COVID pandemic was a significant turning point in participants' lived experiences. For many participants, the pandemic evidence positive effects such as reductions in daily activity levels enabling them to enact changes in their contemporaneous living environments that improved their quality of life and enhanced their interpersonal relationships with family members, friends, and children. In consort with these positive changes, participants recounted how the pandemic eroded their socioeconomic stability, leading some to be unemployed or even homeless, and exacerbating pre-existing structural inequalities and health disparities. Key findings suggest that rural Black American men's differential experiences of the pandemic must be considered by all scholars, clinicians, or interventionists interested in developing efficacious pandemic-recovery interventions and policies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

14.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2072875

ABSTRACT

Background: Half of the population with cancer who are aged 20 to 54 years old will die from cancer with African Americans being 1.2 times more likely to die (NCI, 2019a;2021b). Parents with advanced cancer (PWAC) have concerns about their future and their remaining family's future, which causes suffering. Dying concerns are conscious/unconscious thoughts about death by a person facing a terminal illness or a family member coping with the impending death of a loved one (Arndt et al., 2006;Caparso et al., 2020;Kakuta et al., 2015). Purpose: Examine recruitment feasibility in PWAC and their co-parents.;and (2) Gain a shared understanding of the perspectives of the PWAC about the dying concerns family life before and after advanced cancer diagnosis and family resources to manage the crisis of advanced cancer for the co-parent following Gadamer's phenomenology and McCubbin and McCubbin's Family Resiliency Model.Methods: Four PWAC were recruited from Karmanos Cancer Center and Comprehensive Breast Care. Participants were diagnosed with advanced cancer, scored less than a 3 on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scale, had at least one dependent child 18 years old or younger, identified a co-parent involved in care of the patient and children, and spoke English. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio- video-recorded, and transcribed. The first interview was summarized and given to the participants for member-checking. Data analysis used the hermeneutic rule. All data was coded and verified between coders until consensus was reached.Results: Due to unforeseen circumstances and hospital restrictions of COVID-19, recruitment was challenging. Of 32 potential participants, 11 were approached and 4 consented. Completion of all study procedures for one participant took a little over a month. Completion of both interviews ranged about an hour and a half. Four themes regarding dying concerns emerged. Additional themes emerged which may have mediated the dying concern themes. Participants expressed co-parent concerns of "Uncertainty in End-of-Life Decisions", "Effectless Communication", "Parental Skepticism" and "Psychological Well-Being".Conclusions: PWAC have concerns for their co-parent in the event they die. Qualitatively understanding dying concerns from family members may improve communication between family members and healthcare providers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
ACS ES&T Water ; 2(10):1628-1638, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069856

ABSTRACT

Recent water sector safety concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic highlight the need for industry-focused reviews of emerging pathogens to support evidence-based utility decision-making. Between May 7 and August 20, 2022, more than 41 358 cases of human monkeypox were reported globally from over 87 countries in which the disease is not endemic. Given that the presence and persistence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in feces, water, and wastewater has not been investigated, we summarize the available evidence on MPXV and related orthopoxviruses to provide sector-wide recommendations and identify knowledge gaps. On the basis of the information available to date, this outbreak is unlikely to pose an exposure and transmission risk from wastewater, biosolids, or water due to the absence of any evidence to date that suggests that infectious MPXV is present in wastewater or biosolids or has caused human cases, clusters, or outbreaks from exposure to these sources. In addition, remaining smallpox vaccine immunity in the population, availability of vaccines and treatments, susceptibility of poxviruses to disinfection (e.g., UV and chlorine), and evidence from health care confirming the efficacy of infection control measures all suggest that current treatment and recommended wastewater worker protection practices are sufficient to protect public and occupational health.

16.
South African Journal of Higher Education ; 36(4):85-100, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072351

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has offered an opportune moment to assess the neoliberal tendencies in (South) African higher education. In critiquing neoliberal tendencies in higher education, this article proffers the thesis that university in (South) Africa perpetuates and entrenches neoliberalism as a Eurocentric canon, thereby shadowing the public good agenda of higher institutions of learning. The dawn of democracy in many African countries ushered in new thinking concerning higher education policy and practice. However, the Covid-19 pandemic has exposed the fact that African higher education has remained tethered to the former colonial powers' whims, thereby maintaining the dominator-dominated relationship. We argue that the imposed Western-style education has produced an educated elite with Western values and entrepreneurial attitudes that pilot their states on the path to modernity through the capitalisation of knowledge. Subsequently, the Covid-19 pandemic has exposed deep inequalities in relation to access to African higher education. To that end, we conceptualise the predominance of neoliberal philosophy in African higher education as an instrument of keeping the public good idea of the African universities under surveillance. We provide theoretical evidence of how African universities are still suffering from colonisation of the mind decades after the attainment of political independence through complicit or sometimes implicit imbibing and embracing of the Euro-centred neoliberal philosophy under the guise of globalisation. We make a case for (South) African higher education to turn the tide to encompass locally relevant teaching and research with an eye on local needs in the context of Covid-19 pandemic. On the understanding that Covid-19 pandemic affected places differently, we argue that the deep underlying inequalities in African higher education were exposed.

17.
South African Journal of Higher Education ; 36(4):205-224, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072350

ABSTRACT

The unexpected emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse effects on diverse students' epistemic access in the context of South African higher education. While this has seen an increasing urge for research to understand epistemic access and success of disadvantaged students, there has not been a specific focus on the issue as it specifically relates to students with disabilities, who are unique in their own way, thereby requiring an intervention that considers their differences. Using the decolonial analytical framework, the article explored the challenges in the pedagogic domain, and their implications for the epistemic access of students with disabilities during the pandemic. Data were collected through the synthesis of international and South African literature on the issue, as it specifically relates to students with disabilities during the pandemic. The key finding was that the pandemic exacerbated the pedagogic challenges already confronted by students with disabilities, thereby gravely affecting their access to learning. The objective of the article was to present the pedagogic challenges and how they have limited students with disabilities' epistemic access, as exacerbated by the pandemic. This was so that interventions that could assist their learning in the "new normal", could be thought about, in the South African context, in Africa and globally.

18.
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068556

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the payments made to minority producers, focused on African American producers, from the COVID-19 program, Coronavirus Food Assistance Program (CFAP), of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and compares it with one of the other more recent ad hoc program payments, the Market Facilitation Program (MFP). There were two rounds of the CFAP, and combinedly (as of March 2022), the program made direct payments of $31.0 billion ($11.8 billion from CFAP 1 and $19.2 billion from CFAP 2) starting in 2020. The MFP made a total payment of $23.5 billion (in two rounds, MFP 2018 and MFP 2019) to producers affected by the retaliatory tariffs placed on US producers by trade partners across multiple years. CFAP made almost $600 million in direct payments to minority producers, including Black or African American producers. Black or African American only producers received more than $52 million in CFAP payments. CFAP payments were proportional to the value of agricultural commodity sold for most minority producers. The 2017 Census of Agriculture showed that the majority of minority producers, including African American producers but excluding Asian producers, raised livestock. CFAP made the highest payments to livestock minority producers. The CFAP payment distribution pattern shows that payments reached minority producers who often did not receive Government payments. CFAP made more payments and as a share of total program outlays to minority producers compared to MFP. However, for Black or African American only producers, even though the magnitude increased (because CFAP disbursed more funds compared to MFP), the share of payment received did not increase.

19.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):6860-6870, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067308

ABSTRACT

The year 2019 is a outbreak year during which the whole globe has suffered from Covid19 pandemic which has been spotted initially in China and later spread to the whole world;as a result of this viral disease, the whole world had shut down affecting billions of people but till today the Covid battle is on and people are suffering not only from this disease but also in terms of economy, starving being jobless etc. This paper briefs about Corona virus, its types, and structure;the replication and spreading of this virus, Covid19 detection methods, research on vaccination developed across the world to curb this virus;virus impact on various sectors, precautions to be taken to stay away from this virus and Ayurvedic remedy for it. The waves of corona had taken many lives on the globe & have its effect on life style of people. To curb this virus, prevention vaccination has to be found and we people must change in a way so that we could avoid future consequences for the upcoming generation. Keywords.

20.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(19)2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066326

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has extensively spread worldwide with high mortality. Besides vaccination, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved only one oral medication as a treatment. Medicinal plants with antiviral and immunomodulatory properties could be explored as complementary treatments for COVID-19. Ogbomosho is home to such plants traditionally used to treat infectious diseases in Nigeria, making it relevant in complementary medicine. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to treat COVID-19 and related ailments, including cough and flu in Ogbomosho South and North Local Government Areas, Nigeria, was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Information was obtained from 56 participants, consisting of different groups of individuals with native knowledge of medicinal plants, and ethnobotanical indices, including the frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and fidelity level (FL) were computed. Twenty-six medicinal plants (17 families) were used to treat COVID-19, 31 (20 families) for cough, and 29 (19 families) for flu. The most cited plant was Zingiber officinale (FC = 10; RFC = 0.18; FL = 18%) for treating COVID-19, Citrus limon (FC = 13; RFC = 0.23; FL = 23%) for cough, and Zingiber officinale (FC = 9; RFC = 0.16; FL = 16%) for flu. Leaves were the most used plant part for treating COVID-19 and flu, while the bark was the most used for cough. Trees and herbs were the most cited plant growth forms. The herbal remedies were mostly prepared by decoction and infusion and were mainly administered orally. Further research should be conducted on the identified species for the scientific validation of their antiviral and immunomodulatory efficacies and safety for use.

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