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1.
Tanzania Journal of Health Research ; 23:2, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080698

ABSTRACT

Background: Building trust in the government and intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19 is as important as developing a safe vaccine to contain the pandemic. Purpose: The study aimed to examine the associations between the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 and the people's trust in the government, and compare both concepts based on the subject's characteristics.

2.
Journal of Henan Normal University Natural Science Edition ; 49(6):209-215, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040775

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the reality of distance learning in Moroccan universities in exceptional circumstances imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which forced the Moroccan government to suspend face-to-face study and compensate for it by distance learning for preserving the students' pedagogical continuity. The inclusion of interactive platforms for the benefit of students to ensure pedagogical communication with professors and the monitoring of lessons through them is among the most important decisions in Moroccan universities. However, this teaching style has defined several obstacles and problems, which we have tried to assess through a student opinion survey questionnaire to identify their opinions on the extent to which university distance learning has achieved the objectives set by the Moroccan education system. The importance of the study lies in the fact that the student is the center of the teaching-learning process, which makes knowing his attitudes towards distance education one of the things that must be studied and analyzed. This may enable officials to monitor realistic data and restructure the education system to achieve successful educational outcomes. First, the study concluded that the students encountered material and financial difficulties related to the logistical means and Internet connection, which negatively affected the students' motivation toward distance learning. Then, the study concluded that the digital content available to students was ineffective. Finally, the researchers concluded that the distance learning option could not compensate for face-to-face teaching in Moroccan universities.

3.
IDS Working Paper Institute for Development Studies ; 572:1-50, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040536

ABSTRACT

This study explored how measures to curtail the spread of the coronavirus (Covid-19) in Vietnam affected the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of internal migrant workers. While Vietnam has made impressive progress towards food security in the past decades, marginalised groups of people such as ethnic minorities and migrants continue to face significant challenges. The project team investigated how the pandemic affected the precarity of these groups' income-generating opportunities and how the level of income generated affected the quality, as well as the quantity, of food consumed by migrant workers in Hanoi, the capital, and the Bac Ninh province, which hosts large industrial zones. Our research shows that income for migrant workers significantly reduced as a result of Covid-19-related lockdown measures. Almost half of the respondents were considered to be either moderately or severely food insecure. Financial support provided by the government hardly reached migrant workers because of the registration system required to receive unemployment benefits. To reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers, we conclude that: Short-term crisis responses need to focus on providing nutritious, healthy, and ample food to migrant workers;Policies that impose minimum standards of living need to be effectively enforced;The coverage of existing social safety nets by the government needs to be expanded;and A radical reform of labour law is needed to improve labour rights for migrant workers.

4.
Entertainment and Sports Law Journal ; 20(1029):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040501

ABSTRACT

Professional sport has undoubtedly been hit hard by COVID-19. Clubs and governing bodies have had to adapt rapidly to the public health emergency and have come under great financial and regulatory strain. Some sports have weathered the storm better than others, though, and professional rugby union experienced significant off-field turbulence, with wages reductions seen across the English Premiership. This article will examine the conduct of Premiership Rugby and its clubs during the COVID-19 crisis from a competition law perspective and will argue that, by acting in concert, Premiership and the clubs may have breached UK competition law.

5.
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise ; 24(2):132-138, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040457

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to measure and construe the opinions of the parents of athletes who are actively participating in competitions in our country and who are licensed by the Turkish Fencing Federation for the 2019-2020 season, regarding the organizations to be planned and the issues to be paid attention, within the scope of the Covid-19 normalization steps. The study group comprises 410 parents in total who take place on the list of licensed athlete parents of the Turkish Fencing Federation in 2019-2020. An online data collection form was used as a data collection tool in this study, which was structured through the qualitative research method. The survey form, which was drawn up by the researcher by taking expert opinion, consisting of a total of nine questions, and devised to learn the opinions of the participants on the subject matter of the study, includes multiple-choice and open-ended question types. In this study conducted in collaboration with the Turkish Fencing Federation, the respondents answered the questionnaire online via the website of the respective federation and took part in the study voluntarily. Consent regarding the study was presented in the "Remarks'' section of the form to the participants for approval. In the analysis process of the data obtained, the data analysis program called MAXQDA Analytics Pro 2018 (Release 18.2.4) (Professional Data Analysis Software for Qualitative and Mixed Methods) was used. While closed-ended questions were summarized by indicating percentages, the content analysis method was used in the process of analyzing open-ended question and answer reports. The data obtained were visualized with the help of frequency tables and code maps. Finally, some of the opinions of the participants, which were coded, were directly conveyed by interpreting the findings obtained through the tables and code maps. For this study, an approval was received from the Ethics Committee for Non-Invasive Clinical Research of the School of Sport Sciences of Seljuk University. It was determined as a result of the study that the Covid-19 pandemic that poses impacts on the entire world affects the attitudes of parents of athletes to participate in organizations. In the activities planned to be organized, the sub-codes like attending without an audience, open-air competitions, provision of spaciousness and ventilation means in the selection of a competition hall, and risk approval notification are classified. In addition, arrangements for the priorities of the parents of athletes in the organizations to be held within the scope of the Covid-19 normalization steps of the respective federation were ensured by presenting the Turkish Fencing Federation with the report drawn up as a result of the study.

6.
PLoS Sustainability and Transformation ; 1(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039450

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted agriculture in India in many ways, yet no nationally representative survey has been conducted to quantify these impacts. The three objectives of this study were to evaluate how the pandemic has influenced: (1) cropping patterns and input use, (2) farmers' willingness to adopt sustainable agricultural practices, and (3) farmers' COVID-19 symptoms. Phone surveys were conducted between December 2020 and January 2021 with farmers who had previously participated in a nationally representative survey. Values are reported as weighted percent (95% confidence interval). A total of 3,637 farmers completed the survey;59% (56-61%) were small/marginal farmers;72% (69-74%) were male;and 52% (49-55%) had a below poverty line ration card. A majority of farmers (84% [82-86%]) reported cultivating the same crops in 2019 and 2020. Farmers who reported a change in their cropping patterns were more likely to be cultivating vegetables (p = 0.001) and soybean (p<0.001) and less likely to be cultivating rice (p<0.001). Concerning inputs, 66% (63-68%) of farmers reported no change in fertilizers;66% (64-69%) reported no change in pesticides;and 59% (56-62%) reported no change in labor. More than half of farmers (62% [59-65%]) were interested in trying sustainable farming, primarily because of government schemes or because their peers were practicing it. About one-fifth (18% [15-21%]) of farmers reported COVID-19 symptoms in the past month (cough, fever, or shortness of breath) and among those with symptoms, 37% (28-47%) reported it affected their ability to work. In conclusion, COVID-19 infections had started to impact farmers' productivity even during the first wave in India. Most farmers continued to grow the same crops with no change in input use. However, many expressed an interest in learning more about practicing sustainable farming. Findings will inform future directions for resilient agri-food systems.

7.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039226

ABSTRACT

The Joint External Evaluation (JEE) assesses national capacities to implement the International Health Regulations (IHR). Previous studies have found that higher JEE scores are associated with fewer communicable disease deaths. But given the impact of COVID-19 in many countries, including those believed to have developed IHR capacities, the validity of the JEE for pandemic preparedness has been questioned. We constructed univariable and multivariable linear regression models to investigate the relationship between JEE scores and (i) deaths from communicable diseases before the pandemic and (ii) deaths from COVID-19. We adjusted for country differences in age, health system access, national wealth, health expenditure, democratic governance, government restrictions, pre-pandemic tourist arrivals and testing capacity (estimated by test positivity rates). For COVID-19 deaths, we calculated cumulative deaths per 100,000 at 3, 6 and 12 months into the pandemic. A total of 91 countries were included, with a median JEE score of 50%. On multivariable linear regression the association between JEE scores and log COVID-19 deaths was significant and positive at 3 months (ss 0.05, p = 0.02), becoming statistically non-significant, at 6 (ss 0.02, p = 0.27) and 12 months (ss -0.03, p = 0.19), while the association with log communicable disease deaths was significant and negative (ss -0.03, p = 0.003). A higher Stringency Index was significantly associated with higher log COVID-19 deaths at 3 (ss 0.04, p = 0.003) and 6 (ss 0.04, p = 0.001) months, but not at 12 months (ss 0.02, p = 0.08). Higher test positivity rates were associated with higher log COVID-19 deaths at all time points, at least partially attenuating the positive association between Stringency Index and log COVID-19 deaths. While universal health coverage indices (ss -0.04 p<0.001) and international tourist arrivals were associated with log communicable disease deaths (ss 0.02, p = 0.002), they were not associated with log COVID-19 deaths. Although the same tool is used to assess capacities for both epidemics and pandemics, the JEE may be better suited to small outbreaks of known diseases, compared to pandemics of unknown pathogens.

8.
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics ; 43(1):51-71, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034247

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Covid-19 saw the loss of jobs which necessitates the need to embrace entrepreneurship, especially among women who are more economically marginalized in the labour market in Sub-Sahara Africa. The disease outbreak warrants the need to consume healthy food which many women especially those heading their households could not afford due to inactive economic engagement. This present study found the need to beam a searchlight on mediating role of entrepreneurship development on the economic growth of women in Nigeria. Data for the study came from a cross-section of Five hundred (500) women entrepreneurs, randomly selected to represent 71% of the total sample size. Structural equation modelling (SEM) technique was used to operationalize the study objectives and suppositions. Constructively, it was found that psychological indicators (PSYI) and knowledge of business practice indicator (KBPI) catalyzed entrepreneurship development in the area by 17.8% and 38.1% respectively. This strong affinity or association between the PSYI and KBPI indirectly resulted in over 100% growth in the economic status of women in the area. Hypothetically, PYSI and KBPI were mediated to economic growth through entrepreneurship development by 5% and 1% levels of probability which caused the rejection of the null hypotheses two and three. The study explicitly suggests that separating household and business income, and maintaining a separate business account, among others are the knowledge of business practice indicators;openness to change, and desire for self-independent among others are the psychological indicators, while the increase in the size of the inventory among others is the business performance indicator that stimulates entrepreneurship development;These led to higher formalization, and increases in capital investment as entrepreneurship development indices that stimulates economic growth. Thus, women entrepreneurs should be properly trained on the guiding principles of entrepreneurship development and practices. The study, therefore, recommends that government and non- governmental agencies should concentrate effort on training women to come near competence in their economic activities.

9.
Cattle Practice ; 29(1):12-12, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033861

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study are to determine if CAM use has potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and support the global efforts against antimicrobial resistance, and to ensure that antimicrobials and other conventional treatment approaches are used where appropriate. 20 farms with a range of management systems, herd sizes and production goals were recruited to this study. Interviews were conducted with 24 farmers through a mixture of face-to-face, telephone and videoconferencing modalities necessitated by movement restrictions during the Covid-19 pandemic. In addition, 16 farms were visited to collect ethnographic participant observational data using ethnographic fieldnotes and photographs. Interviews were conducted using a topic guide and explored participants' experience of CAM, including drivers/barriers to CAM use, experiences of CAM use and how CAM might influence the use of conventional medicine such as antibiotics. Early findings indicate several drivers for UK dairy farmers to use CAM approaches, including their own personal [or friends' and relations'] experiences, the views of influential people and advisors, networks within the farming community and the fact that CAM use allows a greater sense of autonomy in health-based decision making. Farmers often refer to milk buyers and organic guidelines as factors which influence their use of CAM. They further refer to a desire to 'do something' for the animal and to minimise animal welfare related concerns. A range of CAM information sources were also consulted by farmers including, holistic health management organisations/courses, online materials, and pharmacies. Participating farmers associate the use of CAM approaches with other holistic health management practices, human-animal interactions, the actual character and physical characteristics of an animal and animal welfare. This indicates that CAM use is seen by farmers as part of a wider ethos and belief about holistic farming practices and land use. Additionally, data implies that some farmers value their positive personal experiences of CAM use over scientific evidence. In contrast, barriers to CAM use were also identified including: the perception that CAM approaches are reserved specifically for organic systems, little access to CAM and related resources and some existing tensions between farmers and other stakeholders' views. Early findings suggest that farmers are influenced in their use of CAM by a range of individuals within the agriculture community, including veterinary surgeons (some of whom use homeopathic practices), mainstream farming press and pro-CAM organisations and advisors.

10.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55:41, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033648

ABSTRACT

This article is based on a recommendation from an ongoing pilot programme in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi that has reached more than 800,000 children since 2019, with key findings: (1) The vaccine introduction is feasible, improves health and saves lives, with good and equitable coverage of RTS,S seen through routine immunisation systems. This has occurred even in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) RTS,S has increased equity in access to malaria prevention, with data from the pilot programme showing that more than two-thirds of children in the three pilot programme countries, who do not sleep under a bednet, have benefitted from the RTS,S vaccine, (3) To date, more than 2.3 million doses of the vaccine have been administered in three African countries, with a favourable safety profile, (4) In areas where the vaccine has been introduced, there has been no decrease in the use of insecticide-treated nets, uptake of other childhood vaccinations, or health seeking behaviour for febrile illness, (5) A reduction of 30% in deadly severe malaria, even when introduced in areas where insecticide-treated nets are widely used and there is good access to diagnosis and treatment, and (6) Modelling estimates that the vaccine is cost-effective in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission. Therefore, this recommendation includes funding decisions from the global health community for broader rollout, and country decision-making on whether to adopt the vaccine as part of national malaria control strategies.

11.
Journal of Henan Normal University Natural Science Edition ; 49(4):151-163, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026895

ABSTRACT

Consumer behavior has changed during the Covid-19 pandemic in all spheres of life. In Malaysia, there was a surge in e-commerce, a preference to buy essential goods from trusted brands while being cautious with spending. During the pandemic, Malaysian consumers have been more careful about spending their money and where they spend their money. Based on the review of past literature, the study's goal was to examine the relationships of variables such as perceived severity, cyberchondria, self-efficacy, and self-isolation on consumer behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic in Malaysia. The aim of the study was also to highlight the implications of the study that will be beneficial to the Malaysian government, the consumer association, and retailers. The quantitative research method was used to conduct this study via online questionnaires. The target respondents were consumers from Selangor between the ages of 20 to 60, mainly those with jobs and who earned a monthly income. A total of 196 respondents answered the questionnaire. The reliability, linearity, normality, correlation, and multiple regression tests were conducted using SPSS. The study results revealed that only perceived severity and self-isolation had significant relationships with consumer behavior. The scientific novelty of the study was that both cyberchondria and self-efficacy were insignificant. These findings imply that both cyberchondria and self-efficacy do not affect the consumer behaviour of Malaysian during the pandemic. The implications of the research findings were discussed.

12.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021488

ABSTRACT

As with previous global public health emergencies, the COVID-19 pandemic has had distinct and disproportionate impacts on women and their health and livelihoods. As the leader in global public health, it is incumbent upon the World Health Organization (WHO) to ensure gender is prioritized in pandemic response. We conducted a policy analysis of 338 WHO COVID-19 documents and found that only 20% explicitly discuss gender and over half do not mention women, gender, or sex at all. Considering the well documented gendered effects of pandemics and the WHO's commitment to gender mainstreaming, this paper: (1) asks to what degree and how the WHO incorporates a gender inclusive approach;(2) maps where and how gender considerations are included;and (3) analyses what this suggests about WHO's commitment to gender mainstreaming within its COVID-19 response and beyond. We demonstrate that WHO should increase its gender mainstreaming efforts and incorporate gender considerations related to health emergencies more often and in more policy areas.

13.
Australasian Leisure Management ; 141:52-55, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011303

ABSTRACT

This article explains how local government aquatic and recreation facilities can stay viable through and beyond COVID-19. It first highlights some less documented impacts of the forced closure of aquatic, fitness and recreation facilities, including on the engagement of older people and those from the most deprived areas, as well as the health and wellbeing (social value) cost to local communities and government. The article then discusses how SportsEye Network can help venue operators to use market insight and predictive modelling to make evidence-based decisions and connect with government to share this evidence and the impacts.

14.
African Farming and Food Processing ; : 20-20, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010694

ABSTRACT

In this article, the IFA Strategic Forum, which was held by the International Fertilizer Association (IFA), facilitated the exchange of ideas among key stakeholders in Africa to develop new partnerships. The event explored how the fertiliser industry and its partners can help in supporting farmers and strengthen food systems to unlock Africa's huge potential to sustainably feed itself and others amid climate change and COVID-19. Improving fertiliser access on the continent was one of the focuses of the forum, which looked ahead to the crucial second Africa Fertilizer and Soil Health Summit planned for 2023. The Africa Fertilizer Map is the first-ever visualisation tool that contains the continent's fertiliser data provided by different associations - primarily AfricanFertilizer.org (AFO) and the International Fertilizer Association (IFA) - and inputs from others, the African Plant Nutrition Institute (APNI), International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), African Union (AUC), and Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA). As an alternative, in Kenya, farmers are looking at an organic fertiliser Bokashi, which is restoring depleted soils. It is made by fermenting organic material to quickly create a nutrient-rich compost.

15.
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio Economic Sciences ; 8(128):167-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012667

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus has a significant impact on both the poultry industry and individual households. The pandemic's rapid spread has a significant impact on the country, leading to a total lockdown. As a result, the study focused on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on egg production and income of marketers among poultry farmers in Ido Local Government, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 120 questionnaires were distributed. The respondents were chosen using a multi-stage randomization technique. The descriptive, budgetary technique was used to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on egg marketing, and the challenges faced by poultry farmers in egg marketing, while the budgetary technique was used to analyze the cost and return of egg marketing in the study area. Females had the highest percentage of respondents with the highest socioeconomic characteristics, according to the findings (80.8%). The majority of respondents (96.8%) were between the ages of 31 and 60, and the vast majority was married (94.2%). It was also revealed that the majority of poultry farmers (92.5%) had formal education and that the majority of them (67.5%) practiced Christianity. According to the budgetary analysis, the average variable cost incurred by the farmers polled was 33764.85. It also revealed that the total fixed cost was 388392.98 and the total production cost was 422157.83. The profitability index was 0.38, indicating that poultry egg farmers in the study area earned N0.38 for each naira invested in production. The presence of COVID 19 was statistically significant in determining the level of income of poultry farmers. High input costs, product marketing, a lack of storage facilities, disease outbreaks, insufficient feed formulation ingredients, a lack of extension services, and movement restrictions were some of the challenges faced by poultry farmers and egg marketers in Ido Local Government. To keep poultry production afloat during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, the government should provide expanded income support to affected farms, as well as tax deferment or waiver, and lower interest rates.

16.
Research Series - Economic Policy Research Centre 2022. (157):52 pp. 39 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011810

ABSTRACT

Background: Uganda's budget authority has faced increased fiscal pressure caused by a sudden drop in revenues from the economic slowdown and new expenditure pressures associated with COVID-19 impacts. Consequently, the country has responded by reprioritizing the budget towards 7 sectors, i.e., agriculture, health, education, trade and industry, social development, works and energy. These sectors respond to the government's objective of increasing household and firm production and productivity, providing jobs, reducing the health impacts of coronavirus, supporting poverty reduction efforts, promoting exports and enhancing economic growth. Methods and Data: This paper estimates public development budget allocative and technical efficiency for 7 priority sectors that address government policy objectives. Both allocative and technical efficiency are analysed using ratio calculation. However, for some cases, technical efficiency is analysed based on the difference between target and actual outcomes. We calculate the ratios for the 7 sectors based on the votes and outputs. Furthermore, we use a threshold of 80%, which we deem sufficient to determine whether a budget output is inefficient or not. Budget outputs below 80% are considered to be underperforming. Data on allocative efficiency was provided by MoFPED directorate of budget and that on technical efficiency from budget performance reports. The study period considered for this paper runs from 2016/17 to 2020/21. Findings: While we observe high allocative efficiency in a majority of the proposed reprioritisation sectors, there is much variation in budget funds and their utilisation due to: i. A missing link between policy objectives and budgets. Notably, there is a mismatch between wage and non-wage or capital expenditure (CAPEX) allocations, implying inadequate human resources are required to implement the policy objectives, consequently leading to poor outcomes despite the funding provided for CAPEX. This was endemic in the agriculture and health sectors. ii. Duplication of budget outputs reduces flexibility and accountability and increases monitoring costs. This calls for the consolidation of similar budget outputs, but this should be done with consultation from key stakeholders. iii. There are variations in utilisation of domestic relative to the external development financing with unmet outcomes. This could be a case of stringent donor monitoring requirements and delays in procurement. This calls for strict monitoring of the domestic development financing to ensure results. iv. Relatedly, health budgets exhibit an over-reliance on external financing. However, donor funds are largely not integrated into government budgets and may challenge any planned re-allocation. Hence, there is a need to open a discussion with the donors on the possibility of re-channelling financing to other key priority sectors/outputs in line with the country's short-term goals. v. Generally, as observed in the health and education sectors, budgeting is still based on the output/ institution-based system rather than service. This makes it complex to pool resources, spend and strategically purchase goods and services. There is a need to build stronger linkages between budget allocations and sector priorities. This can also enable the implementation of strategic purchasing and incentivize accountability for sector performance. vi. In addition, there is generally an absence of proper transition towards programme-based budgeting (PBB). For example, numerous budget outputs in the trade, tourism and industry sector do not have performance indicators that weaken the link between strategies, annual plans, sector policies and budgets. vii. Generally, we recommend that new road construction should be paused in the short term so that the available funds can be rechannelled to other urgent and critical areas.

17.
Journal of Tourismology ; 8(1):69-87, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002847

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many sectors have begun to be affected. The tourism sector is one such sector and has been heavily affected by restrictions on international movement of. Affected by this situation, hotels have decided to close their doors or have adopted a limited-service approach. For this reason, tourism employees have become unable to see their way in an uncertain process and have encountered different practices such as hourly paid work, being sent on unpaid leave, and being given a short-term employment allowance. The reflections of this negative impact on the employees are a matter of curiosity. In this context, this study aims to reveal the relationship between job insecurity, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in five-star hotels during the COVID-19. To enable this, data were collected using a questionnaire. The study results support the conceptual model that includes the variables of job insecurity, organizational commitment, turnover intention and organizational response to COVID-19. Organizational Response to COVID-19 was found to have a negative and significant effect on job insecurity and also to have a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment. Job insecurity has a negative and significant effect on organizational commitment. Organizational commitment has a negative and significant effect on turnover intention and job insecurity was found to have a positive and significant effect on turnover intention.

18.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (94):34 pp. 44 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965131

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the state of emergency implemented by the Government of Mozambique on household consumption poverty. To predict changes in income and the associated effects on poverty and inequality, we rely on macroeconomic impacts estimated by Betho et al. (2021) using a social accounting multiplier model. We assume two main impact channels are at work leading to higher consumption poverty: direct income/wage and employment losses. To estimate the direct income/wage losses, we use the information from Betho et al. (2021) on the impact on wages, on gross domestic product by industry, and on household income;to estimate the employment losses, we use the information on the impact on employment from Betho et al. (2021). The two impact channels are then combined to assess the final impact on consumption and poverty. Our simulations suggest that consumption decreased by between 7.1 and 14.4 per cent, and that poverty increased by between 4.3 and 9.9 percentage points in 2020, depending on the specification. This corresponds to about 2 million people entering poverty in less than a year and to a reversal of the positive poverty reduction trend observed during the period 2008/09-2014/15. While the COVID-19 shock affected urban areas the most, our results indicate that rural areas experienced a higher increase in poverty rates due to the already low levels of consumption. Poverty most certainly increased in the pre-COVID 2015-20 period due to other shocks, so Mozambique finds itself in an intense and deepening struggle against poverty.

19.
Business Inform ; 1:217-223, 2022.
Article in Ukrainian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965100

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic caused crushing damage to the economies of countries and the hospitality industry, as a branch of the world economy, experienced almost the greatest shocks and destruction. In view of this, Ukraine is no exception: the pandemic has dealt a powerful blow to the entire hospitality industry - hotel and restaurant business, tourism, recreational economy, etc. Thus, according to the results of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 alone, the number of collective accommodation facilities in Ukraine decreased by 15.2%, the number of places in collective accommodation facilities decreased by 15.8%. The same negative trend is observed with the dynamics of the indicator of the number of people who used collective means of accommodation this year - a decrease of 51.5% compared to the previous, left-pointing-double-angle precovid right-pointing-double-angle year. Even more radically - by 73.5% - in 2020, the number of foreigners who used Ukrainian collective means of accommodation decreased. Quarantine restrictions imposed by the government, a decrease in the purchasing power of the population and a general pessimistic mood of potential tourists encourage in these unfavorable conditions to find and quickly introduce new directions and contemporary concepts of development and maintenance of all branches of the domestic hospitality industry in the condition, able to function: clustering of tourism and related industries, including hotel and restaurant economy, development of domestic tourism, etc. In particular, the promotion and development of promising types of domestic tourism - wine, green, agricultural, historical and cultural - can be considered a powerful factor in the development of the hospitality industry of Ukraine, in particular its southern region, in the current unfavorable and changing conditions of the pandemic.

20.
Marketing & Tourism Review ; 7(1), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965042

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought the production process to a halt in the tourist chain, directly impacting the economic sphere and marketing communication between organizations in the segment and their interested public. The present work aims to identify whether the communication through the Instagram posts of the multinational hotel chain Accor was adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic scenario between December 2019 and June 2020 and the followers' level of engagement in its digital profile. The more-than-human netnography proposed by Lugosi & Quinton (2018) was adopted as a methodological approach, having as object of analysis the posts of the profile @all_latam (Accor America Latina) on Instagram and the behavior of the followers. We identified a follower appreciation regarding COVID-19 material. Therefore, hotel companies should produce crisis content related to increasing engagement on Social media posts.

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