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1.
Rajagiri Journal of Social Development ; 14(1):32-37, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2156855

ABSTRACT

As the most significant contributor to the worlds migrant population, India witnessed a massive reverse migration during the COVID-19 pandemic. The unprecedented return of international and internal migrants to their domicile challenged the Indian economy. Integration of returnees was a colossal task for the government. Against this backdrop, this study analysed the extent of reverse migration, the socioeconomic challenges faced by migrants during the repatriation, the government response to reverse migration and the economic integration of returnees. By reviewing relevant literature, this study exposed the inability of the Indian economic sectors to absorb the reverse migrants and the limited power of migration to bring about a structural transformation in the Indian economy.

2.
Enterprise Development & Microfinance ; 33(3):182-191, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2154651

ABSTRACT

This paper is concerned with microfinance in Africa post Covid-19, a crisis from which the continent is still recovering while new crises such as climate change challenges emerge. The resilience of the microfinance sector to crises must not only address operational weaknesses revealed by the pandemic, but also exploit the post-crisis potential to build resilience in areas such as digitalization and smallholder agriculture. New rules and regulations should target microfinance providers (MFPs) and enable them to quickly comply with new rules and those normally in force. This paper calls for the inclusion of all forms of MFPs, allowing for customized applications of policies and regulations. Moreover, measures for regulators include re-defining post-COVID-19 target groups, enhancing liquidity and MFP risk-based management, ensuring sustainability and best practices, activating prompt monitoring of the sector, and ensuring a consultative and coordinated culture. Measures for MFPs include increased micro-saving, avoiding subsidies, unlocking the full potential of smallholder farmers, a strong movement towards inclusive digital finance, product development, and partial movement towards crises-resistant, non-interest types of lending in countries with Muslim minorities.

3.
Global Perspectives ; 2(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2154365

ABSTRACT

This forum contribution highlights the confluence of two distinct trends in the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. On one hand, many of the worst socio-economic costs of the virus and control measures have been disproportionately borne by marginalized workers, primarily in the global south. Often these impacts have not overlapped with the public health costs of the virus itself. In this sense the pandemic has highlighted the ways that risks in the global political economy are unevenly and systematically distributed. On the other, early indications are that highly individualized notions of ‘risk management’ and ‘resilience’ will be central to post-crisis global development agendas. At the same time as the COVID-19 pandemic has made the systemic and unequal nature of risks in the global political economy visible, then, many of the most marginalized segments of the world’s population are being asked to take responsibility for managing those risks.

4.
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie ; 46(2):187-205, 2021.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2148942

ABSTRACT

ZusammenfassungIn der deutschen Fleischbranche wurde nur sechs Wochen nach Ausbruch der Corona-Pandemie deutlich, welch problematische und konzentrierte Strukturen hier bestehen – angezeigt durch die Schlachthöfe des Unternehmers Tönnies, die sich zu Corona-Hotspots entwickelten. Für Konzentrations- und Intensivierungsdynamiken solcher Strukturen werden üblicherweise sowohl ökonomische (wettbewerbliche Konzentrationstendenzen durch Größenvorteile) als auch wirtschaftspolitische (Arbeitsmarktpolitik, umweltpolitische Vorgaben usw.) Gründe angegeben. Kaum thematisiert wird dabei jedoch die aktive Rolle wissenschaftlicher Expertise im Prozess der fortschreitenden Intensivierung der Tierproduktion und hier insbesondere im Bereich Schlachtung und Verarbeitung. Dies steht in Diskrepanz zu der Tatsache, dass in Deutschland ab den 1970er-Jahren von Agrarökonomen Strukturpläne erstellt wurden, die dann als Sektorpläne politisch umgesetzt worden sind, wodurch die Strukturkonzentrationen maßgeblich forciert wurden.Daher soll im nachstehenden Beitrag diese performative Rolle der deutschen Agrarökonomik im Prozess der bewusst herbeigeführten Konzentrationen im Bereich der Schlachthofstrukturen thematisiert und aus soziologischer Perspektive hinterfragt werden. Dazu wird in einem ersten Schritt die Fleischbranche als Forschungsgebiet skizziert und aus wissenschaftssoziologischer Sicht auf Entwicklungen eingegangen, entlang derer die derzeitige Forschungsstruktur erklärbar wird. In einem zweiten Schritt werden die Planungsvorgänge und ihre Folgen thematisiert und hier insbesondere am Beispiel des sogenannten Böckenhoff-Planes, auf dessen Grundlage nach 1989 die Schlachthöfe in den Neuen Bundesländern stark dezimiert wurden. In einem dritten Schritt wird abschließend die aktive performative Rolle der Agrarökonomik vor dem Hintergrund der aktuellen Problemlage reflektiert. Dazu wird mit einem strukturationstheoretischen Zugang auf die Differenz zwischen marktfokussierter ökonomischer Sphäre und den Bewirtschaftungsvorgängen und ihren Folgen insgesamt insistiert. Hier zeigen sich auch die Grenzen der derzeit geltenden Ökonomik, da weder die eigene performative Rolle bei der Ausgestaltung der ökonomischen Sphäre nach marktwirtschaftlichen Vorstellungen noch die Folgewirkungen dieses Herangehens problematisiert werden.Alternate :In the German meat industry, only six weeks after the outbreak of the corona pandemic, it became clear what problematic and concentrated structures exist here—particularly indicated by the slaughterhouses of the Tönnies Group, which developed into corona hotspots. Economic reasons (competitive concentration tendencies due to economies of scale) and politico-economic factors (labor market policy, environmental policy requirements, etc.) are mentioned in order to explain the dynamics of concentration and intensification on the production side. However, the active role of scientific expertise to accelerate the progressive intensification of animal production is discussed very rarely, especially in the slaughtering and meat packing industry. This also shows the limits of the currently dominant economic approaches, which not only fail to reflect their own performative role in the shaping of the economic sphere but also ignore the consequences of their market-centered perspective.Therefore, in the following article, this performative role of German agricultural economics in the process of deliberately induced concentrations in the slaughterhouse industry will be addressed and questioned from a sociological perspective. In a first step, the meat sector as a field of research is outlined from the perspective of sociology of science. This helps explain the current research structure. In a second step, the planning processes and their consequences are discussed, in particular using the example of the so-called Böckenhoff plan, on the basis of which the slaughterhouses in the new German states were heavily decimated after 1989. Finally, in a third step, the active performati e role of agricultural economics is reflected against the background of the current situation. For this purpose, a structural theoretical approach is used to highlight the difference between the market-focused economic sphere and the economic activities and their consequences as a whole. This also shows the limits of the currently dominant economic approaches, which not only fail to reflect their own performative role in the shaping of the economic sphere but also ignore the consequences of their market-centered perspective.

5.
Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency (VADEA) ; : 262-269, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2112135

ABSTRACT

In the paper, an analysis of the costs and economic efficiency of the production of the three most significant stock-exchange crops in Serbia (namely corn, wheat and soya) was carried out. The paper is aimed at comparing the costs and profits their production in the year that was stable when the market is concerned (2018) and in the year which is affected by the influence of the coronavirus pandemic and the crisis in Ukraine (2022). The results have shown that there has been a significant increase in the growth of the total costs in all the three crops, namely 74.5%, 63.6% and 66.5% in corn, wheat and soybean, respectively. Change in the structure of the costs has also been perceived, namely the total production costs in the year 2022 were dominated by direct costs, i.e. the costs ofthe reproduction material, 65.3%, 55.8% and 55.1%, respectively. Changes in the agricultural products supply chain have caused a drastic rise in the kernel price per unit of measure namely by 73.7% in corn, 113.1% in wheat and 119.2% in the soybean kernel. Based on the analysis of the obtained parameters, the greatest economic efficiency was perceived in the production of soybean (1.43), then wheat (0.60) and corn (0.46).

6.
IUP Journal of Supply Chain Management ; 19(3):33-60, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2112125

ABSTRACT

In response to the broken agriculture supply chain caused by a lack of storage facilities, lack of transportation, and manifold intermediaries and lack of transparency and traceability, Thirukumaran Nagarajan launched Ninjacart, a leading agritech firm in India, in 2015, along with Sharath Babu Loganathan, Ashutosh Vikram, Kartheeswaran K K and Vasudevan Chinnathambi. After exploring the issues in the agriculture sector, Ninjacart shifted its operations from B2C to B2B, to leverage the profitable business opportunity. Ninjacart used advanced level supply chain algorithms that it developed in-house, predictive analytics, Big Data, IoT technology, and mobile applications to help farmers overcome the various issues they were grappling with. As of early 2020, Ninjacart became one of the largest fresh produce supply chain companies in India. With the Covid-19 pandemic leaving millions of farmers across India in the lurch, Ninjacart launched many initiatives. As part of its future plans, Ninjacart was banking on Machine Learning to improve operations. However, it faced several challenges. Having established itself as a prominent player, Ninjacart's next challenge was scaling up its operations while improving efficiency and profitability at the same time.

7.
Zagadnienia Ekonomiki Rolnej ; 372(3):21-44, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100917

ABSTRACT

Subsidies based on agricultural production are a common form of subsidies in many countries, both less developed (due to their economic difficulties in achieving a satisfactory level of food self-sufficiency) and highly developed. However, at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, this support was not so popular. It was only in the second decade that it began to be restored, which is sometimes referred to as recoupling. The COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukrainian-Russian war are undoubtedly two important circumstances that have increased interest in these subsidies. Therefore, it is important to identify theoretical and socio-political justifications for using these subsidies and the problems related to preparing schemes for determining their unit rates. After conducting the analysis, it turned out that the microeconomic theory rather provides arguments against the wide use of agricultural production subsidies. The justifications for pursuing a policy which refers to the difficulties in particular sectors of agriculture are also unconvincing. The calculation of unit payment rates is a challenge due to the lack of a solid methodology and sufficiently reliable source data.

8.
Journal of Agricultural Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082376

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused major disruptions to agricultural supply chains around the world. Researchers and policy-makers are interested in identifying means to reduce the disruptive effects caused by the pandemic. We investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on the operation of e-commerce stores (in short, e-stores) specialising in agricultural inputs. The difference-in-differences method (DID) is employed to estimate the causal relationship between COVID-19 and online sales of agricultural inputs using data from 54,244 agricultural input e-stores registered in 118 prefecture-level cities across 15 provinces and hosted on two major Chinese e-commerce platforms. The results show that COVID-19 led to a substantial growth in monthly sales of agricultural input e-stores, and this growth of online sales varied across store scales and by types of agricultural inputs. In particular, e-stores selling seeds and seedlings experienced a larger growth in sales than stores selling agricultural machinery and implements, and the mid- and larger-scaled e-stores experienced more growth of sales than micro- and small-scaled e-stores. Further analysis reveals that the growth of online sales of agricultural inputs was driven mainly by an increase in the quantity of customer orders (QCO). The findings of this paper underscore the importance of e-commerce in ensuring the resilience of the agricultural supply chain during the pandemic period.

9.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12330, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066397

ABSTRACT

The rapid pace of climate change has exacerbated Singapore’s ever-present vulnerability to food shortages. While most of Singapore’s current food supply is imported, the country is working towards becoming self-sufficient in at least 30% of its food demand by 2030. Though a high proportion of Singaporeans have pro-environmental views and believe that buying locally grown food is more eco-friendly, the demand for local produce remains low. To better understand the cause of this attitude–behaviour gap, this study investigated the factors influencing the purchasing decisions of local consumers, as well as their willingness to pay a premium for locally produced vegetables, eggs, and seafood in Singapore. The estimation results suggested that what primarily hinders the local produce demand of consumers with positive perceptions towards sustainability is not their income or product price. Instead, product-specific factors, such as freshness and quality of the produce, and easiness to identify the product at store were found to be positively associated with local produce purchase. Ensuring these factors can potentially lead to higher demand for local produce in Singapore. Attitudes and behaviours related to sustainability played a larger role in the willingness to pay (WTP) than purchase decision making. Thus, to enhance the WTP for local produce, educating the public regarding the sustainability aspect of local produce may prove to be effective.

10.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11830, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066372
11.
Bio - Based and Applied Economics ; 11(2):91-92, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057100

ABSTRACT

About one-third of trade in food and agriculture takes place within global value chains (GVC). Coffee, palm oil or biofuels production are examples of the modern organization of agri-food production through GVC (de Becker, Miroudot, 2014;Greenville et al., 2016;Baliè et al., 2019). Agricultural raw materials nowadays may cross borders many times before reaching the final consumers, as they are embedded in intermediate and processed goods which are produced in different countries. Agri-food GVC are typically characterized by a strong coordination between farmers, food processors or traders, and between processors and retailers. Value chain coordination can be initiated by downstream buyers, such as supermarkets and food processors, or by upstream suppliers including farmers or farmer cooperatives (Swinnen and Maertens, 2007;Reardon et al 2007). In a number of cases, a group of “lead firms” plays a critical role by defining the terms of supply chain membership and whom the value is added (Scoppola, 2021). The growth of the agri-food GVC raises new issues for the agricultural and food sectors. Participating to the GVC is expected to have several positive effects, both for countries and farmers, in terms of technology and knowledge spillovers, increased productivity, growth, employment opportunities, and ultimately increase of farmers’ income. On the other hand, market concentration in agri-food GVC raises concerns related to the emergence of market power (Swinnen, Vandeplas, 2014). Further, there are concerns that producing for agri-food GVC may result in the intensification of agricultural production, with negative environmental effects in terms of deployment of natural resources and water stress. Sound knowledge and evidence about the nature and implications of modern agri-food GVC are relevant for policymaker, firms and civil society. The economic analysis of agri-food GVC challenges agricultural and food economists in several respects. The complex nature of GVC and of the issues they raise makes it essential the use of new and multiple lens of analysis (World Bank, 2020). Country-level (macro) approaches to GVC are needed to investigate the drivers of the world-wide fragmentation of agri-food production and the welfare implications of countries participating to GVC. Recent progresses in the empirical trade analysis of GVC are certainly fundamental to the understanding of agri-food GVC. Industry level (meso) approaches are needed to investigate the relationship among the various stages of the GVC. Analytical tools and approaches from the industrial organization literature are to be used to investigate issues such the price transmission along the agri-food GVC, the drivers of vertical coordination or the distributions of benefits along the GVC. A firm level approach (micro) is needed to investigate the implications of the participation to GVC for farmers. The 10th AIEAA Annual Conference contributes to this debate, by putting together different disciplines and approaches to the analysis of agri-food GVC and of their implications in terms of economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Three keynotes explore these issues from different perspectives. The keynotes by Silvia Nenci Ilaria Fusacchia, Anna Giunta, Pierluigi Montalbano and Carlo Pietrobelli entitled Mapping global value chain participation and positioning in agriculture and food (Nenci et al., 2022) reviews key methods and data issues arising in country-level analyses of GVC. They overall conclude that improvements in GVC measurements and mapping are currently still severely limited by data availability. Empirical literature to date mostly uses global Input-Output matrices and aggregate trade data to map and measure GVCs;however, sectoral and country coverage remains rather weak. They further review recent evidence about trends of GVC, by using the GVC participation indicator and the upstreamness positioning indicator (measuring the distance of the sector from final demand in terms of the number of production stages) for two sectors, that is “Agriculture” and “Food and Beverages”. They show that at the country level, GVC participation is globally around 30-35 percent for both agriculture and food and beverages;while GVC linkages in agriculture are mostly forward linked, food and beverages are much more in the middle and at the end of a value chain. Furthermore, they show that, unsurprisingly, agriculture has a higher score on upstreamness with respect to the food and beverages sector. They conclude by discussing some critical issues faced by agriculture and food GVC concerning trade policies, technological innovation and the COVID crises. The keynote by Tim Lloyd entitled “Price transmission and imperfect competition in the food industry” aims at providing insights on how information is conveyed by means of prices between food consumers and agricultural producers along the agri-food value chains. After presenting some basic insights from theory, the keynote addresses the issue of how to detect the degree of market power by reviewing theory-consistent empirical models as well as the approaches developed in the New Empirical Industrial Organisation literature. The increased use of highly detailed retail (‘scanner’) data reveals that the food industry (retailing, manufacturing, and processing) is a major source of the price changes and that it also mediates price signals originating in other parts of the food chain in increasingly nuanced ways;the author concludes that agricultural and food economists should be wary of inferring too much about the competitive setting based on prices alone. The keynote by Miet Maertens entitled “A review of global and local food value chains in Africa: Supply chain linkages and sustainability” highlights the expansion of agri-food GVC in low- and middle-income countries and how GVC are modernizing rapidly through institutional, technical, and commercial innovations. While a large body of literature focusses on the development implications of participation in GVC, the development of local food supply chains in low- and middle-income countries has received less attention. The review assesses potential linkages between global and local value chains in African countries, and the sustainability outcomes of supply chain innovations. The keynotes emphasizes that market competition as well competition for land, labour, water, and other resources may create negative linkages between the development of global and local food value chains. Spill-over effects, such as investment, technical or institutional spillovers, may create positive linkages and complementarities in the process of supply chain development. The existence of such linkages importantly depends on the type of crop and the structure and organisation of supply chains and entail important consequences towards socio-economic and environmental sustainability.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(18):11783, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2055369

ABSTRACT

The food crisis caused by the rise in grocery prices affects many countries. Added to this complex panorama is the current health situation generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Its impact on the productive sector will be detrimental to many household incomes and food practices. The social sciences need to adopt a complex understanding of household food security (HFS) as a dynamic process of building collective nutritional knowledge and eating habits. In the case of Cuba, the burden on the agrifood system is the result of external and internal factors that affect household food sustainability. This paper, therefore, seeks to assess the social construction of HFS as a complex system in the current pandemic scenario using the municipality of Santiago de Cuba as a case study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The main results obtained focus on the role played by women in food use and distribution, and the effect of food vulnerability on HFS. These results provide an analytical model for the study of the new and diverse household-food-security configurations that are emerging.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(18):11626, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2055363

ABSTRACT

A sustainable food system is a key target of the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The current global food system operates on market mechanisms that prioritise profit maximisation. This paper examines how small food businesses grow and develop within grassroot economies that operate on different market mechanisms. Focusing on artisan food producers and farmers’ markets, this research highlights the potential of resilient, small-scale, diverse markets as pathways to sustainable food systems. An applied critical realist, mixed-methods study was conducted at a macro (Irish food industry), meso (farmers’ markets in the region of Munster, Ireland) and micro (artisan food producers and their businesses) level. The resulting framework provides a post-growth perspective to sustainability, proposing that farmers’ markets represent an alternative market structure to the dominant industrial market, organised on mechanisms where producers ‘Mind what they make’ and ‘Make peace with enough’. In their resilience, these markets can provide pathways for structural change. This implies a call to action to reorientate policies targeting small food businesses to move beyond the concept of firms as profit-maximizing enterprises and to instead focus on a local food policy framework that reinforces the regional ‘interstices’ within which small food businesses operate to promote diversity, resilience and sustainability in the food system.

14.
Continuity & Resilience Review ; 4(3):280-299, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2051837

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The study sought to determine the possibility of supplier development in the form of contract farming as a determinant of supply chain resilience in fast-food outlets. This is against the background of the restaurant having been designated as one of the industries that remained operational when the other industries were affected by the two-decade-long economic meltdown and more recently COVID-19 pandemic.Design/methodology/approach>Data were collected using questionnaires from the consenting restaurants with the most senior procurement personnel in target restaurants as the informants and analysed using analysis of moment structures (AMOS) software.Findings>The results revealed that indeed supplier development in the form of contract farming leads to supply chain resilience as indicated by improved supply chain visibility, supply chain flexibility, and supply chain redundancy. Fast-food restaurant businesses that have not yet adopted supplier development in the form of contract farming are therefore encouraged to adopt it as a way of enhancing their resilience to traditional supply chain disruptions such as transport shortages, droughts, and more recently COVID-19 pandemic.Originality/value>It is to the best knowledge of these researchers, that no studies have attempted to analyse the three drivers of supply chain resilience, namely supply chain redundancy, supply chain flexibility, and supply chain visibility in a single study and link them to a single antecedent.

15.
Sustainable Agriculture Research ; 11(3):20-26, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040283

ABSTRACT

The Specialty Crop Industry was hard hit after Covid-19 was declared a pandemic. Concerns of the future of the industry triggered the initiation of a Qualtrics survey to investigate growers' attitude and behaviors amidst Covid-19, identify new production practices and cost analysis going into the fall crop season. The results of the survey conducted from June 10-July 02, 2020 will also be useful to Extension professionals in other regions and Policymakers in determining financial assistance programs for growers who suffered from Covid-19 pandemic. Results depicted that 62.5% of farmers will plant the same acreages in the fall of 2020 amidst the pandemic.

16.
Journal of World - Systems Research ; 28(2):178-180, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040267

ABSTRACT

Olga Tokarczuk, The Book of Jacob A character in Olga Tokarczuk's magnificent novel The Book of Jacob refers to the time that is "not yet" historical;a time that is, in some ways, frozen, and as such excluded from the developmentalist and civilizationist historical narratives. Since its inception, the world-systems perspective has been concerned with the problem of historical time. In world-systems analysis, time and space are seen as substantive properties of social relations, and the network of relations that comprises the capitalist world economy produces its own temporal spatial and temporal configurations. [...]Çaǧrı Ídiman in the second part of his essay on Tributary World-Ecologies, brings into sharper historical relief the distinctive element of capitalist worldecology, distinguished from other world-ecologies by simultaneous transformation of productive relation and mode of appropriation of labor and nature.

17.
PLoS Sustainability and Transformation ; 1(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039450

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted agriculture in India in many ways, yet no nationally representative survey has been conducted to quantify these impacts. The three objectives of this study were to evaluate how the pandemic has influenced: (1) cropping patterns and input use, (2) farmers' willingness to adopt sustainable agricultural practices, and (3) farmers' COVID-19 symptoms. Phone surveys were conducted between December 2020 and January 2021 with farmers who had previously participated in a nationally representative survey. Values are reported as weighted percent (95% confidence interval). A total of 3,637 farmers completed the survey;59% (56-61%) were small/marginal farmers;72% (69-74%) were male;and 52% (49-55%) had a below poverty line ration card. A majority of farmers (84% [82-86%]) reported cultivating the same crops in 2019 and 2020. Farmers who reported a change in their cropping patterns were more likely to be cultivating vegetables (p = 0.001) and soybean (p<0.001) and less likely to be cultivating rice (p<0.001). Concerning inputs, 66% (63-68%) of farmers reported no change in fertilizers;66% (64-69%) reported no change in pesticides;and 59% (56-62%) reported no change in labor. More than half of farmers (62% [59-65%]) were interested in trying sustainable farming, primarily because of government schemes or because their peers were practicing it. About one-fifth (18% [15-21%]) of farmers reported COVID-19 symptoms in the past month (cough, fever, or shortness of breath) and among those with symptoms, 37% (28-47%) reported it affected their ability to work. In conclusion, COVID-19 infections had started to impact farmers' productivity even during the first wave in India. Most farmers continued to grow the same crops with no change in input use. However, many expressed an interest in learning more about practicing sustainable farming. Findings will inform future directions for resilient agri-food systems.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10917, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024210

ABSTRACT

Rice is the staple food for 2.5 billion people worldwide and most farmers depend solely on rice for their livelihood. This study estimates how paddy ecosystem elasticity and external human activity affect paddy ecosystem sustainable food supply. In particular, we analyzed how sustainable food supply is affected by three key domains of external factors—ecological factors, including the proportion of paddy Area (Are), per capita cultivated land area (Lan), and annual wastewater discharge per capita (Was);economic factors, including the agricultural economy level (Inv) and urbanization rate (Urb);and social factors, including the education of farmers (Edu) and rural medical level (Med). We use ANEV, or net paddy ecosystem services value per unit area, to assess the sustainable food supply, which not only represents the food supply quantity and quality, but also the sustainability of the food supply. Results from our panel and threshold regressions suggest that Lan and Urb have a threshold effect on paddy ANEV;Are, Was, Inv, and Edu have a linear negative correlation with ANEV;and Med has a positive linear correlation with ANEV. Based on our findings, we lay out a series of recommendations that may guide future formulation of policies on paddy ecosystem protection and sustainable food supply.

19.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10590, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024182

ABSTRACT

Farmer practices may influence the microbial quality and safety of fresh produce. The increasing demands to create ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh produce while providing potential niche markets for smallholder farmers might be contributing to increased numbers of fresh produce-associated foodborne disease outbreaks. This study determined the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and farmer hygiene practices of farmers using open-ended questionnaires and key informant interviews. Additionally, the relationships between farmer socioeconomic characteristics and hygiene practices were statistically analyzed. The semi-organic smallholder farmer population and the farmworkers of the organic farm were female-dominated. Tertiary education was a predominant characteristic in the organic and semi-conventional workforces. While the semi-organic and semi-conventional farms relied on a combination of ‘store-bought’ synthetic and composted organic fertilizers, the organic farm owner only used composted organic fertilizer. The irrigation water sources varied amongst the farm types. However, most of the semi-organic farmers did not pre-treat irrigation water prior to use. The irrigation water source and fertilizer type selected by farmers varied and might affect the microbial quality and safety of fresh produce. Socioeconomic factors such as gender and education may influence farmer hygiene practices. These characteristics should therefore be considered when planning farmer support interventions.

20.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10173, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024144

ABSTRACT

For many decades, the Region of Western Macedonia has been Greece’s energy hub, contributing significantly to electricity supply and national growth with the exploitation of lignite deposits for power generation. Lignite, though, has been banned from EU energy source policies towards achieving CO2 emissions reduction, with profound implications on the economy of the region. Despite the importance of this energy transition, a combinatorial analysis for the area in the coal phase-out regime is missing. Therefore, a combined analysis is performed here, and more specifically, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis in all the affected sectors, in combination with the examination of the degree of satisfaction with the EU’s energy priorities. The results of the study show that the Region of Western Macedonia has profound strengths and offers many new opportunities during its transition to a new production model. On the other hand, it has high unemployment rates and low rates of competitiveness and innovation. The main threat is the Region’s desertification due to the inability to find sufficient jobs. Considering the Energy Union’s priorities, the Region of Western Macedonia satisfactorily follows the priorities of Europe in its transition to the new production model, with plenty of room for improvement. The analysis performed allows for a just transition strategic planning to minimize social, economic and energy challenges while maximizing sustainable power generation and has implications for all relevant stakeholders, contributing to the implementation of Energy Union governance and climate actions.

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