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1.
Environmental Challenges ; JOUR: 100656,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104873

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is one of the major risk factors for mortality, as per the Global Burden of Diseases. Various natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to air pollution, which makes air quality worse. Community perceptions of air pollution are crucial in deciding how people will react and whether they will accept relevant policies. Therefore, people's awareness, behavior and perception must be known to engage communities in air pollution reduction. This study aimed to determine the levels and correlations between people's perceptions of pollution and health risk before COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 period in Chandigarh. The study was conducted following the interview schedule methodology using a standard questionnaire. Univariate and air pollution hotspot analysis was conducted to assess the correlation of variables and to evaluate the spatial variation in the perceived levels. The results revealed that 79.9% of respondents were worried about the city's air quality. It was observed that 39.2% of study participants perceived that automobile emissions were the primary source of air pollution. Association of sociodemographic factors with the awareness of air pollution, health effects, and people's attitudes was also assessed. The study observed a strong correlation between people's education status and their knowledge of air pollution during the COVID-19 period (p-value=0.064) and the pre-COVID period (p-value=0.035). On assessing the air quality perception and respondent's happiness as a place to live, participants' happiness was found to be strongly correlated with their neighborhood as a place to live with their opinion of the air quality (p-value=0.000). However, this correlation was insignificant during the COVID-19 period (p-value=0.192). Respondents perceived that exposure to air pollution is related to respiratory and chest problems. A linear relationship was observed between people's willingness to improve air quality and awareness, which shows a statistically significant association (0.076 and 0.001) during the COVID-19 and pre-COVID period. People's attitudes and actions towards air pollution suggested that people are willing to pay to mitigate air pollution to enhance environmental sustainability and quality of life.

2.
Remote Sens Appl ; 28: 100835, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105850

ABSTRACT

Air pollution has become one of the biggest challenges for human and environmental health. Major pollutants such as Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ), Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ), Ozone (O 3 ), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) are being ejected in a large quantity every day. Initially, authorities did not implement the strictest mitigation policies due to pressures of balancing the economic needs of people and public safety. Still, after realizing the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world imposed a complete lockdown to contain the outbreak, which had the unexpected benefit of causing a drastic improvement in air quality. The present study investigates the air pollution scenarios over the Dublin city through satellites (Sentinel-5P and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ground-based observations. An average of 28% reduction in average NO 2 level and a 27.7% improvement in AQI (Air Quality Index) was experienced in 2020 compared to 2019 during the lockdown period (27 March-05 June). We found that PM10 and PM2.5 are the most dominating factor in the AQI over Dublin.

3.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 4): 114781, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world since December 8, 2019. However, the key factors affecting the duration of recovery from COVID-19 remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of long recovery duration of COVID-19 patients with ambient air pollution, temperature, and diurnal temperature range (DTR) exposure. METHODS: A total of 427 confirmed cases in Changsha during the first wave of the epidemic in January 2020 were selected. We used inverse distance weighting (IDW) method to estimate personal exposure to seven ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) at each subject's home address. Meteorological conditions included temperature and DTR. Multiple logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship of air pollution exposure during short-term (past week and past month) and long-term (past three months) with recovery duration among COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We found that long recovery duration among COVID-19 patients was positively associated with short-term exposure to CO during past week with OR (95% CI) = 1.42 (1.01-2.00) and PM2.5, NO2, and CO during past month with ORs (95% CI) = 2.00 (1.30-3.07) and 1.95 (1.30-2.93), and was negatively related with short-term exposure to O3 during past week and past month with ORs (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99) and 0.41 (0.27-0.62), respectively. No association was observed for long-term exposure to air pollution during past three months. Furthermore, increased temperature during past three months elevated risk of long recovery duration in VOCID-19 patients, while DTR exposure during past week and past month decreased the risk. Male and younger patients were more susceptible to the effect of air pollution on long recovery duration, while female and older patients were more affected by exposure to temperature and DTR. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that both TRAP exposure and temperature indicators play important roles in prolonged recovery among COVID-19 patients, especially for the sensitive populations, which provide potential strategies for effective reduction and early prevention of long recovery duration of COVID-19.

4.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 2): 137209, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104526

ABSTRACT

Despite increasing the public awareness of ubiquity of microplastics (MPs) in air, the issue on particular source of tire wear particles (TWPs) emission into atmosphere and their exposure-associated human health has not received the attention it deserves. Here we linked vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) estimates covering demography, socio-environmental, and transportation features and emission factors to predict regional emission patterns of TWP-derived atmospheric MPs. A data-driven probabilistic approach was developed to consider variability across the datasets and uncertainty of model parameters in terms of country-level and vehicle-type emissions. We showed that country-specific VKT from billion to trillion vehicle-kilometer resulted in 103-105 metric tons of airborne TWP-derived atmospheric MPs annually in the period 2015-2019, with the highest emissions from passenger cars and heavy-duty vehicles. On average, we found that airborne TWP emissions from passenger cars by country had substantial decreased (up to ∼33%) during COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 and pronounced increased (by a factor ∼1.9) from vehicle electrification by the next three decades. We conclude that the stunning mass of airborne TWP is a predominant source of atmospheric MP. We underscore the necessity of TWP emissions control among the United States, China, and India. Our findings can be of great use to environmental transportation planners for devising vehicle/tire-oriented decision support tools. Our data offer information to enhance TWP-exposure estimates, to examine long-term exposure trends, and subsequently to improve health risk assessment during pandemic outbreak and future electrification.

5.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; JOUR(11), 22.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100065

ABSTRACT

Traffic-related emissions continue to be a significant source of air pollution in the United States (US) and around the globe. Evidence has shown that previous policies implemented to restrict -traffic flows have affected air pollution levels. Thus, mitigation strategies associated with the COVID-19 pandemic that modified population-level mobility patterns provide a unique opportunity to study air pollution change across the US. For instance, to slow the spread of the pandemic, state and local governments started implementing various mitigation actions, including stay-at-home directives, social distancing measures, school closures, and travel restrictions. This scoping review aimed to summarize the existing evidence about how air quality changed through mitigation practices throughout the pandemic in the US. We found 66 articles that fit our inclusion criteria. Generally, the consolidated results revealed that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) decreased across the country. Studies observed mixed directions and magnitudes of change for fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Few articles tried to explain this notable heterogeneity in air quality changes by associating contextual factors, such as mobility, traffic flow, and demographic factors. However, all studies agreed that the change in air pollution was nonuniform across the US and even varied within a city.

6.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100231

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in >554M cases and >6.3M deaths worldwide. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, has resulted in a broad range of clinical symptoms differing in severity. Initially, the elderly were identified as particularly susceptible to severe COVID-19, with children experiencing less severe disease. However, as new variants arise, the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is changing, and the disease severity in children is increasing. While environmental impacts on COVID-19 have been described, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. Objective: The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health (PBC) held meeting on September 16, 2021, to explore environmental impacts on infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Methods: The PBC is an international group of environmental scientists and those interested in health outcomes. The PBC met to present preliminary data and discuss the role of exposures to airborne pollutants in enhancing susceptibility to and severity of respiratory tract viral infections, including COVID-19. Findings: Analysis of the literature and data presented identified age as an important factor in vulnerability to air pollution and enhanced COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Mechanisms involved in increasing severity of COVID-19 were discussed, and gaps in knowledge were identified. Conclusions: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution enhanced morbidity and mortality to COVID-19 in a pediatric population associated with induction of oxidative stress. In addition, free radicals present on PM can induce rapid changes in the viral genome that can lead to vaccine escape, altered host susceptibility, and viral pathogenicity. Nutritional antioxidant supplements have been shown to reduce the severity of viral infections, inhibit the inflammatory cytokine storm, and boost host immunity and may be of benefit in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Environment
7.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100229

ABSTRACT

Background: This article summarises a session from the recent Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Focus meeting on Environmental Impacts on Infectious Disease. Objective: To provide an overview of the literature underpinning the presentations from this session. Methods: References used in developing the presentations were obtained from the presenters. Additional references were obtained from PubMed using key words from the presentations. Findings and Conclusions: The Hokkaido longitudinal children's study has found that exposure to chemicals in early life, such as persistent organic pollutants and per/polyfluorinated compounds, is associated with a range of immunological outcomes such as decreased cord blood IgE, otitis media, wheeze, increased risk of infections and higher risk of food allergy.Epidemiological evidence links exposure to poor air quality to increased severity and mortality of Covid-19 in many parts of the world. Most studies suggest that long-term exposure has a more marked effect than acute exposure.Components of air pollution, such as a newly described combustion product known as environmentally persistent free radicals, induce oxidative stress in exposed individuals. Individuals with genetic variations predisposing them to oxidative stress are at increased risk of adverse health effects from poor air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environment , Air Pollutants/adverse effects
8.
Psychiatria Danubina ; JOUR:172-173, 33.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2092223

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 outbreak are generating relevant consequences under several aspects. Covid-19 pandemic together with air pollution and a dysfunctional anthropization/urbanization might affect public and mental health with a synergistic effect. The current paper explore hypothesis about existing links among Covid-19, air pollution and mental illness. Copyright © 2021 Medicinska Naklada Zagreb. All rights reserved.

9.
Environmental Engineering and Management Journal ; JOUR(7):1171-1183, 21.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092222

ABSTRACT

A worldwide pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has killed many people. More than 31.6 million cases have been recorded in India alone till 2021. The main aim of this study is to identify the relationship between COVID-19 and air pollution concerning geographical location. Considerably air pollution also increases the cases, and COVID-19 disease causes damage to the respiratory system. Applying the Long short-term memory (LSTM) and Bidirectional Long short-term memory (BiLSTM) deep Learning model, this work attempts at giving insight into the connection between the various factors impacting COVID-19 mortality rates, i.e., the dispersion between the confirmed number of cases and the air pollution levels in major urban centres, namely Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai, Mumbai, and Kolkata in India COVID-19 infections discovered that there is an association between high PM10 and PM2.5 pollution levels and having confirmed diseases are high. There is a concrete relationship between PM2.5 and COVID-19 mortality, which confirmed by the developed deep learning model that uses multiple regression analysis. The research model estimate, forecast and track COVID-19 case infections effects on air pollution, particularly in metropolitan cities. The BiLSTM model gives better score values between 0.903 and 0.951, whereas the LSTM model scores between 0.754 and 0.829. This research reveals a link between health and air pollutions parameters during this pandemic period. The results obtained from the research show a constructive co-relationship between the level of air pollution and diffusion of coronavirus.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 158933, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086713

ABSTRACT

In great metropoles, there is a need for a better understanding of the spread of COVID-19 in an outdoor context with environmental parameters. Many studies on this topic have been carried out worldwide. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the influence of environmental variables on the transmission, hospitalizations and deaths from COVID-19, even though there are plausible scientific explanations that support this, especially air quality and meteorological factors. Different urban contexts, methodological approaches and even the limitations of ecological studies are some possible explanations for this issue. That is why methodological experimentations in different regions of the world are important so that scientific knowledge can advance in this aspect. This research analyses the relationship between air pollution, meteorological factors and COVID-19 in the Brussels Capital Region. We use a data mining approach that is capable of extracting patterns in large databases with diverse taxonomies. Data on air pollution, meteorological, and epidemiological variables were processed in time series for the multivariate analysis and the classification based on association. The environmental variables associated with COVID-19-related deaths, cases and hospitalization were PM2.5, O3, NO2, black carbon, radiation, air pressure, wind speed, dew point, temperature and precipitation. These environmental variables combined with epidemiological factors were able to predict intervals of hospitalization, cases and deaths from COVID-19. These findings confirm the influence of meteorological and air quality variables in the Brussels region on deaths and cases of COVID-19 and can guide public policies and provide useful insights for high-level governmental decision-making concerning COVID-19. However, it is necessary to consider intrinsic elements of this study that may have influenced our results, such as the use of air quality aggregated data, ecological fallacy, focus on acute effects in the time-series study, the underreporting of COVID-19, and the lack of behavioral factors.

11.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116522, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086407

ABSTRACT

Green bonds are becoming increasingly important in sustainable investments since their environmental protection attributes allow them to benefit from environmental degradation. However, the mechanism of environmental degradation on green bonds has not yet been studied. This study proposes a mediation model to analyze air pollution's influence on green bonds. Theoretically, air pollution leads to increased public concern through public environmental awareness and perceptions of physical health risks. Enhanced public concern drives investors' green preference and environmental responsibility, thus expanding green bond demand, in which public concern plays an important mediation role. To verify the mediating effect, causal stepwise regression and bootstrap methods are used. The empirical results confirm this theoretical mechanism. Air pollution is significantly positively related to public concern. Public concern is positively linked with green bond investment willingness, resulting in increased volatility. The total positive effect of air pollution on green bonds is partly absorbed by the mediating effect of public concern that is significantly positive and reaches 30.21% of the total effect. In addition, major crisis events (e.g., COVID-19) may hinder the positive mediation process by generating a negative trend and distracting the public. This means that the government could propose appropriate measures to minimize the negative aspects in order to promote green finance. The mediation model is also useful for investors wishing to increase green assets in their portfolios and provides an incentive for businesses to promote green finance.

12.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is associated with poor asthma outcomes. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) air purifiers may reduce air pollution and thus improve asthma outcomes. However, the efficacy of such devices for this purpose remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of reducing the levels of pollutants on asthma outcomes in adults, using a novel DYSON HEPA air purifier. METHODS: In a single-centre, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, participants (N=50) were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to active filters (Intervention) or to dummy filters (Placebo) for a total of 78 weeks. The primary outcomes were the changes in Asthma Control Questionnaire 6 (ACQ6) and Asthma-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores, from baseline. The secondary outcomes were changes in indoor air pollution and lung function measurements. The Covid-19 pandemic limited spirometry measurements to two timepoints and assessment of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Bronchial Hyper-responsiveness to baseline only. RESULTS: Air pollutant levels were significantly lower in the Intervention group compared to the Placebo group (p-value=0.0003). Both groups had a significant improvement in their ACQ6 and AQLQ. However, there were no significant between-group differences in ACQ6, AQLQ or spirometry, compared to baseline in multivariable repeated measures models. CONCLUSION: The Dyson air purifier significantly improved air quality. However, there were no significant improvements in asthma control, quality of life or measures of lung function in the intervention group compared to the control group despite improvements in indoor air quality. Larger, extended studies are required to confirm or refute these findings, especially given that the Covid-19 pandemic prevented the procurement of detailed objective data.

13.
Geographia Polonica ; 95(3):255-274, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080834

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine how COVID-19 pandemic influenced air quality in the chosen Polish cities. Data on nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, fine and coarse particulate matter concentrations from air quality monitoring stations was used to compare pollutants levels during the pandemic and in the 5-year pre-pandemic period. The impact of the pandemic on the air quality has been analysed using linear mixed effect models, adjusting for long-term, seasonal and weekly trends and meteorological conditions. Results showed that during the pandemic, until the second lockdown only nitrogen oxides levels were significantly reduced (up to 20%), while when again loosening restrictions the rebound effect led to 20-30% increase of all analysed pollutants. © Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization.

14.
Annual Review of Environment & Resources ; 47(1):65-90, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2079068

ABSTRACT

This review examines observed and hypothesized environmental impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Impacts are considered along two axes: timescale (from initial widespread sheltering, to a future after the economic recovery) and causal link (from direct impacts of protective measures, to cascading impacts of policy choices and market and behavioral responses). The available literature documents both positive and negative environmental consequences. These include many early reports of positive impacts (such as clearer skies and wildlife returning to vacated areas). However, it has become clear both that those benefits were largely temporary and that the prolonged health and economic disruptions pose acute risks to many terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Furthermore, this review was completed just as the Omicron variant emerged. Given the pandemic's persistence, the long timescales of cascading impacts, and the inherent lags in research and publication, this review provides an early view of what will eventually be known about the environmental impacts of the pandemic. [ FROM AUTHOR]

15.
International Conference on Advances and Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, ICAAAIML 2021 ; 925:139-149, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075300

ABSTRACT

The third Industrial Revolution brought about major changes in the lives of people. But people were too late to realize that the impact of the Revolution had an adverse effect on the environment and the biodiversity. With more and more industries and automobiles thriving around, improper waste management techniques, and increasing deforestation, the air quality started declining rapidly. Higher AQI level indicates poorer air quality and vice-versa. The Corona Virus Disease or Covid-19 is a pandemic that has claimed millions of lives till date. To contain its spread, countries are imposing nationwide lockdowns. With the imposition of lockdown, life came to a still. Almost everything flourished online pertaining to which, the air quality started getting better and better. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

16.
Environ Dev Sustain ; 23(4): 6408-6417, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075471

ABSTRACT

The present work estimates the increased risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by establishing the linkage between the mortality rate in the infected cases and the air pollution, specifically Particulate Matters (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 µm and ≤ 2.5 µm. Data related to nine Asian cities are analyzed using statistical approaches, including the analysis of variance and regression model. The present work suggests that there exists a positive correlation between the level of air pollution of a region and the lethality related to COVID-19, indicating air pollution to be an elemental and concealed factor in aggravating the global burden of deaths related to COVID-19. Past exposures to high level of PM2.5 over a long period, is found to significantly correlate with present COVID-19 mortality per unit reported cases (p < 0.05) compared to PM10, with non-significant correlation (p = 0.118). The finding of the study can help government agencies, health ministries and policymakers globally to take proactive steps by promoting immunity-boosting supplements and appropriate masks to reduce the risks associated with COVID-19 in highly polluted areas.

17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 68: 104243, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies investigated the association between air pollution and Covid-19 severity but the only study focusing on patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) exclusively evaluated exposure to PM2.5. We aim to study, in a sample of MS patients, the impact of long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 on Covid-19 severity, described as occurrence of pneumonia. METHODS: A 1:2 ratio case-control study was designed, differentiating cases and controls based on Covid-19 pneumonia. Associations between pollutants and outcome were studied using logistic regression. Weighted quantile sum (WQS) logistic regression was used to identify the individual contribution of each pollutant within the mixture; Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) penalized regression was performed to confirm the variable selection from WQS. All the analyses were adjusted for confounders selected a priori. RESULTS: Of the 615 eligible patients, 491 patients provided detailed place of exposure and were included in the principal analysis. Higher concentrations of air pollutants were associated with increased odds of developing Covid-19 pneumonia (PM2.5: 3rd vs 1st tercile OR(95% CI)=2.26(1.29;3.96); PM10: 3rd vs 1st tercile OR(95% CI)=2.12(1.22;3.68); NO2: 3rd vs 1st tercile OR(95% CI)=2.12(1.21;3.69)). Pollutants were highly correlated with each other; WQS index was associated to an increased risk of pneumonia (ß=0.44; p-value=0.004) and the main contributors to this association were NO2 (41%) and PM2.5 (34%). Consistently, Lasso method selected PM2.5 and NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Higher long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 increased the odds of Covid-19 pneumonia among MS patients and the most dangerous pollutants were NO2 and PM2.5.

18.
Air Qual Atmos Health ; : 1-14, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075614

ABSTRACT

To contain the spread of COVID-19 in 2020, several governments around the world imposed national lockdowns including that of South Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate and give an overview of nitrogen dioxide column levels during the year 2020 over three South African cities (Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town) using AURA OMI derived measurements, the HYSPLIT model, complemented with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Our findings were that in 2020, all the cities recorded their daily maximum mean NO2 column levels during the winter season at 14.1 × 1015 molecules per cm2, 3.1 × 1015 molecules per cm2 and 1.7 × 1015 molecules per cm2 for Johannesburg, Durban, and Cape Town respectively. Across all seasons, Cape Town recorded the lowest seasonal mean at 0.6 × 1015 molecules per cm2 (summer 2020) while the highest seasonal mean was recorded over Johannesburg at 9 × 1015 molecules cm2 (winter 2020). Furthermore, an interannual comparison analysis indicated that during summer, there were increases of 6%, 1% and 30% for Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town respectively. During winter, Johannesburg saw an increase of 19% while a 2% increase was recorded in Durban with Cape town recording a 16% decrease in NO2 column levels. The study also recorded that Cape Town and Durban were mainly influenced by long-range transport air masses originating from the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, Antarctica and the Indian Ocean particularly during the summer and autumn seasons possibly leading to the formation of marine nitrate aerosols.

19.
18th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (Dcoss 2022) ; : 314-321, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070317

ABSTRACT

Virtual sensing models have been used to generate synthetic data and provide complementary information. However, with the increase in cases related to COVID-19 and the lockdown, a problematic factor is that virtual sensing models may produce different results than they should since the environment has become better with the decrease in traffic conditions and industrial production. Therefore, this article will evaluate virtual sensing models for the city of Sao Paulo, using pre-pandemic and pandemic data in a lockdown scenario. As a result, we analyzed that even with these behavioral changes in the city, the pre-pandemic model produced similar results to the lockdown period model.

20.
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070098

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic was a challenge for the health systems of many countries. In the USA, COVID-19 accentuated political polarity. On the one hand, the defenders of more severe public health measures and, on the other, the advocates of individual rights and freedom above any other consideration. In this study, we analyse whether political partisanship and the political ideology of the different states of the USA have influenced the way COVID-19 was handled in the outbreak. Specifically, we analyse whether the ideology of each state affected the decrease in NO2 levels (used as a proxy for local economic activity and traffic) observed after the pandemic outbreak.

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