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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(14): e0076422, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962070

ABSTRACT

Most studies on surface persistence of SARS-CoV-2 have been conducted at temperatures between 20°C and 30°C. There is limited data on the survival of SARS-CoV-2 at low temperatures. In this study, the stability of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants on stainless steel was investigated at two temperatures (4°C and 24°C). The results show that both variants decayed more rapidly at 24°C compared with 4°C. At 24°C, Alpha and Delta variants showed reductions of 0.33 log10 and 1.02 log10, respectively, within the first 2.5 h. However, at 4°C, Alpha variant showed a reduction of 0.16 log10 within the first 2.5 h while no reduction was observed with Delta variant. After remaining in situ for 24 h at 24°C, log10 reductions of 2.66 (Alpha) and 3.11 (Delta) were observed. No viable Alpha and Delta variant was recovered after 48 h and 72 h, respectively. After 24 h in a refrigerated environment (4°C) log10 reductions of 1.16 (Alpha) and 0.95 (Delta) were observed. Under these experimental conditions, both viruses survived on stainless steel for at least 1 week. No viable Alpha and Delta variant was recovered after 10 days. These findings support the potential for increased fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during winter months in colder regions worldwide and in some industrial sectors. IMPORTANCE Human transmission is believed to occur primarily through direct transfer of infectious droplets or aerosols. However, fomite transmission through contact with contaminated surfaces may also play an important role. This study provides novel evidence comparing the stability of Alpha and Delta variants on stainless steel surfaces at 4°C and 24°C. At 4°C both variants were found to be still detectable for up to 7 days. At 24°C Delta variant could be recovered over 2 days compared with Alpha variant which could not be recovered after 2 days. This has implications for fomite transmission interventions for people living and working in cold environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Stainless Steel , Temperature
2.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 923137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957189

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a mysterious viral pneumonia first developed in Wuhan, China, resulting in a huge number of fatal cases. This pneumonia, which was named COVID-19, was attributed to a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutations pose the greatest risk to human health because they could result in an increase in the COVID-19 severity or the failure of current vaccines. One of these notable mutations is the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant (B.1.617) that was first detected in India and has rapidly expanded to 115 countries worldwide. Consequently, in this study, we performed next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 during the third wave of the pandemic to determine the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) prevalence in Egypt. We observed several mutational patterns, revealing that SARS-CoV-2 evolution has expanded in Egypt with a considerable increase in the number of VOC. Therefore, the Egyptian authorities should take an appropriate approach to investigate the compatibility of already employed vaccines with this VOC and to examine the efficacy of the existing therapeutic regimen against new SARS-CoV-2 variants.

3.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(4): 415-418, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957587

ABSTRACT

Prominent genomic recombination has been observed between the Delta and Alpha variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), isolated from clinical specimens in Japan. Interestingly, the recombination variant detected in this study carries a spike protein identical to that in the domestic Delta variant, thereby suggesting that further risks would not be associated with infectivity and immune escape. The recombinant was classified as an XC lineage in the PANGOLIN database. It is necessary to intensively study such marked genetic variations and characterize emerging variants after careful verification of their lineage and clade assignment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Japan , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 849217, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952368

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing to evolve, emerging novel variants with spike protein mutations. Although most mutations emerged in the SARS-CoV-2 genome are neutral or mildly deleterious, a small number of mutations can affect virus phenotype that confers the virus a fitness advantage. These mutations can enhance viral replication, raise the risk of reinfection and blunt the potency of neutralizing antibodies triggered by previous infection and vaccination. Since December 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 has emerged five quickly spreading strains, designated variants of concern (VOCs), including the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant, the Beta (B.1.351) variant, the Gamma (P.1) variant, the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant and the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. These variants have a high number of the mutations in the spike protein that promotes viral cell entry through the angiotensin-converting enzyme -2 (ACE2). Mutations that have arisen in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein are of great concern due to their potential to evade neutralizing antibodies triggered by previous infection and vaccines. The Alpha variant emerged in the United Kingdom in the second half of 2020 that has spread quickly globally and acquired the E484K mutation in the United Kingdom and the United States. The Beta and Gamma variants emerged in South Africa and Brazil, respectively, that have additional mutations at positions E484 and K417 in the RBD. SARS-CoV-2 variants containing the combination of N501Y, E484K, and K417N/T mutations exhibit remarkably decreased sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies mediated by vaccination or previous infection. The Gamma variant may result in more severe disease than other variants do even in convalescent individuals. The Delta variant emerged in India in December 2020 and has spread to many countries including the United States and the United Kingdom. The Delta variant has 8 mutations in the spike protein, some of which can influence immune responses to the key antigenic regions of RBD. In early November 2021, the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant was first detected in Botswana and South Africa. The Omicron variant harbors more than 30 mutations in the spike protein, many of which are located within the RBD, which have been associated with increased transmissibility and immune evasion after previous infection and vaccination. Additionally, the Omicron variant contains 3 deletions and one insertion in the spike protein. Recently, the Omicron variant has been classified into three sublineages, including BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3, with strikingly different genetic characteristics. The Omicron BA.2 sublineage has different virological landscapes, such as transmissibility, pathogenicity and resistance to the vaccine-induced immunity compared to BA.1 and BA.3 sublineages. Mutations emerged in the RBD of the spike protein of VOCs increase viral replication, making the virus more infectious and more transmissible and enable the virus to evade vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies. Unfortunately, the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 VOCs has tempered early optimism regarding the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. This review addresses the biological and clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and their impact on neutralizing antibodies mediated by existing COVID-19 vaccines.

5.
Pathogens ; 11(7)2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938935

ABSTRACT

An analysis of the structural effect of the mutations of the B.1.640.2 (IHU) Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and N-terminal Domain (NTD) is reported along with a comparison with the sister lineage B.1.640.1. and a selection of variants of concern. The effect of the mutations on the RBD-ACE2 interaction was also assessed. The structural analysis applied computational methods that are able to carry out in silico mutagenesis to calculate energy minimization and the folding energy variation consequent to residue mutations. Tools for electrostatic calculation were applied to quantify and display the protein surface electrostatic potential. Interactions at the RBD-ACE2 interface were scrutinized using computational tools that identify the interactions and predict the contribution of each interface residue to the stability of the complex. The comparison among the RBDs shows that the most evident differences between the variants is in the distribution of the surface electrostatic potential: that of B.1.640.1 is as that of the Alpha RBD, while B.1.640.2 appears to have an intermediate surface potential pattern with characteristics between those of the Alpha and Delta variants. Moreover, the B.1.640.2 Spike includes the mutation E484K that in other variants has been suggested to be involved in immune evasion. These properties may hint at the possibility that B.1.640.2 emerged with a potentially increased infectivity with respect to the sister B.1.640.1 variant, but significantly lower than that of the Delta and Omicron variants. However, the analysis of their NTD domains highlights deletions, destabilizing mutations and charge alterations that can limit the ability of the B.1.640.1 and B.1.640.2 variants to interact with cellular components, such as cell surface receptors.

6.
ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY ; 10(1):44-48, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1912237

ABSTRACT

New SARS-CoV-2 infections are difficult to be verified, whether they are reinfections or persistent infections. The most prominent factors used for differentiating reinfections from persistent infections are whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses that require time and funds, which may not be feasible in most developing countries. This study explores reinfections with COVID-19 that harbors D614G and N501Y mutations by rapid inexpensive methods. It exploits the previously developed rapid economic methods that identified both D614G and N501Y mutations in clinical samples using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) probes and conventional PCR specific primers. In the present study, an immunocompetent patient has been found with a SARS-CoV-2 N501Y reinfection without comorbidities. According to the obtained results, this study suggests that the initial infection was due to a variant that contained only D614G mutation whereas the reinfection was potentially a result of alpha variant contained three mutations confirmed by DNA sequencing, including D614G, N501Y, and A570D mutations. These techniques will support rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections through the identification of common spike mutations in the developing countries where sequencing tools are unavailable. Furthermore, seven cases of reinfections were also confirmed by these methods. These rapid methods can also be applied to large samples of reinfections that may increase our understanding epidemiology of the pandemic.

7.
BioMed ; 2(2):133-169, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1911172

ABSTRACT

Vaccination has been the most effective approach in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic. More than half of the world's population has been vaccinated and sufficient data is available to analyze the impact of COVID-19 vaccines around the globe. In this paper, we present a correlation analysis between administered vaccine doses and COVID-19 cases/deaths in Europe. The correlation analysis is performed considering different types of vaccinations, different age groups and different COVID-19 variants (including the prevalent Delta and Omicron variants). We present a detailed analysis for 30 European countries giving various insights such as efficacy of six different vaccines, effect of vaccinating different age groups and how the correlation evolves as different COVID-19 variants emerge. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of BioMed is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Jpn J Radiol ; 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906494

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the CT findings and pneumonnia progression pattern of the Alpha and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 by comparing them with the pre-existing wild type. METHOD: In this retrospective comparative study, a total of 392 patients with COVID-19 were included: 118 patients with wild type (70 men, 56.8 ± 20.7 years), 137 with Alpha variant (93 men, 49.4 ± 17.0 years), and 137 with Delta variant (94 men, 45.4 ± 12.4). Chest CT evaluation included opacities and repairing changes as well as lesion distribution and laterality. Chest CT severity score was also calculated. These parameters were statistically compared across the variants. RESULTS: Ground glass opacity (GGO) with consolidation and repairing changes were more frequent in the order of Delta variant, Alpha variant, and wild type throughout the disease course. Delta variant showed GGO with consolidation more conspicuously than did the other two on days 1-4 (vs. wild type, Bonferroni corrected p = 0.01; vs. Alpha variant, Bonferroni corrected p = 0.003) and days 5-8 (vs. wild type, Bonferroni corrected p < 0.001; vs. Alpha variant, Bonferroni corrected-p = 0.003). Total lung CT severity scores of Delta variant were higher than those of wild type on days 1-4 and 5-8 (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.01 and Bonferroni corrected p = 0.005, respectively) and that of Alpha variant on days 1-4 (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.002). There was no difference in the CT findings between wild type and Alpha variant. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumonia progression of Delta variant may be more rapid and severe in the early stage than in the other two.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903378

ABSTRACT

We aimed to elucidate the range of the incubation period in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in comparison with the Alpha variant. Contact tracing data from three Japanese public health centers (total residents, 1.06 million) collected following the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Control Law were reviewed for 1589 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases diagnosed in January 2022. We identified 77 eligible symptomatic patients for whom the date and setting of transmission were known, in the absence of any other probable routes of transmission. The observed incubation period was 3.03 ± 1.35 days (mean ± SDM). In the log-normal distribution, 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values were 1.3 days (95% CI: 1.0-1.6), 2.8 days (2.5-3.1) and 5.8 days (4.8-7.5), significantly shorter than among the 51 patients with the Alpha variant diagnosed in April and May in 2021 (4.94 days ± 2.19, 2.1 days (1.5-2.7), 4.5 days (4.0-5.1) and 9.6 days (7.4-13.0), p < 0.001). As this incubation period, mainly of sublineage BA.1, is even shorter than that in the Delta variant, it is thought to partially explain the variant replacement occurring in late 2021 to early 2022 in many countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 812606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902974

ABSTRACT

Background: B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) variants of concern for SARS-CoV-2 have been reported to have differential infectivity and pathogenicity. Difference in recovery patterns across these variants and the interaction with vaccination status has not been reported in population-based studies. Objective: The objective of this research was to study the length of stay and temporal trends in RT-PCR cycle times (Ct) across alpha and delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Methods: Participants consisted of patients admitted to national COVID-19 treatment facilities if they had a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, and analysis of variants was performed (using whole genome sequencing). Information on vaccination status, age, sex, cycle times (Ct) for four consecutive RT-PCR tests conducted during hospital stay, and total length of hospital stay for each participant were ascertained from electronic medical records. Results: Patients infected with the delta variant were younger (mean age = 35years vs 39 years for alpha, p<0.001) and had lesser vaccination coverage (54% vs 72% for alpha, p<0.001). RT-PCR Ct values were similar for both variants at the baseline test; however by the fourth test, delta variant patients had significantly lower Ct values (27 vs 29, p=0.05). Length of hospital stay was higher in delta variant patients in vaccinated (3 days vs 2.9 days for alpha variant) as well as in unvaccinated patients (5.2 days vs 4.4 days for alpha variant, p<0.001). Hazards of hospital discharge after adjusting for vaccination status, age, and sex was higher for alpha variant infections (HR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.01-1.41, p=0.029). Conclusion: Patients infected with the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 were found to have a slower recovery as indicated by longer length of stay and higher shedding of the virus compared to alpha variant infections, and this trend was consistent in both vaccinated and unvaccinated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Age Factors , Bahrain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0066522, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874513

ABSTRACT

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is the gold standard for characterizing the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome and identification of new variants. However, the cost involved and time needed for WGS prevent routine, rapid clinical use. This study aimed to develop a quick and cost-effective surveillance strategy for SARS-CoV-2 variants in saliva and nasal swab samples by spike protein receptor-binding-motif (RBM)-targeted Sanger sequencing. Saliva and nasal swabs prescreened for the presence of the nucleocapsid (N) gene of SARS-CoV-2 were subjected to RBM-specific single-amplicon generation and Sanger sequencing. Sequences were aligned by CLC Sequence Viewer 8, and variants were identified based upon specific mutation signature. Based on this strategy, the present study identified Alpha, Beta/Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants in a quick and cost-effective manner. IMPORTANCE The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in 427 million infections and 5.9 million deaths globally as of 21 February 2022. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, frequently mutates and has developed into variants of major public health concerns. Following the Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) infection wave, the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) became prevalent, and now the recently identified Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is spreading rapidly and forming BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.3, BA.4, and BA.5 lineages of concern. Prompt identification of mutational changes in SARS-CoV-2 variants is challenging but critical to managing the disease spread and vaccine/therapeutic modifications. Considering the cost involved and resource limitation of WGS globally, an RBM-targeted Sanger sequencing strategy is adopted in this study for quick molecular surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the household secondary infection risk (SIR) of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and non-Alpha lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children. STUDY DESIGN: During January to April 2021, we prospectively followed households with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected questionnaires, serial nasopharyngeal swabs for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing and whole genome sequencing, and serial blood samples for serology testing. We calculated SIRs by primary case age (pediatric vs adult), household contact age, and viral lineage. We evaluated risk factors associated with transmission and described symptom profiles among children. RESULTS: Among 36 households with pediatric primary cases, 21 (58%) had secondary infections. Among 91 households with adult primary cases, 51 (56%) had secondary infections. SIRs among pediatric and adult primary cases were 45% and 54%, respectively (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.41-1.54). SIRs among pediatric primary cases with Alpha and non-Alpha lineage were 55% and 46%, respectively (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.51-4.53). SIRs among pediatric and adult household contacts were 55% and 49%, respectively (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68-1.50). Among pediatric contacts, no significant differences in the odds of acquiring infection by demographic or household characteristics were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from children and adult primary cases to household members was frequent. The risk of secondary infection was similar among child and adult household contacts. Among children, household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of secondary infection was not influenced by lineage. Continued mitigation strategies (eg, masking, physical distancing, vaccination) are needed to protect at-risk groups regardless of virus lineage circulating in communities.

13.
Epidemics ; 39: 100578, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873031

ABSTRACT

From 24 December 2020 to 8 February 2021, 163 cases of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant of concern (VOC) were identified in Chieti province, Abruzzo region. Epidemiological data allowed the identification of 14 epi-clusters. With one exception, all the epi-clusters were linked to the town of Guardiagrele: 149 contacts formed the network, two-thirds of which were referred to the family/friends context. Real data were then used to estimate transmission parameters. According to our method, the calculated Re(t) was higher than 2 before the 12 December 2020. Similar values were obtained from other studies considering Alpha VOC. Italian sequence data were combined with a random subset of sequences obtained from the GISAID database. Genomic analysis showed close identity between the sequences from Guardiagrele, forming one distinct clade. This would suggest one or limited unspecified viral introductions from outside to Abruzzo region in early December 2020, which led to the diffusion of Alpha VOC in Guardiagrele and in neighbouring municipalities, with very limited inter-regional mixing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864959

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new SARS-COV-2 variants is of public health concern in case of vaccine escape. Described are three patients with advanced HIV-1 and chronic SARS-CoV-2 infection in whom there is evidence of selection and persistence of novel mutations which are associated with increased transmissibility and immune escape.

15.
Euro Surveill ; 27(20)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862540

ABSTRACT

BackgroundChanging patterns of vaccine breakthrough can clarify vaccine effectiveness.AimTo compare breakthrough infections during a SARS-CoV-2 Delta wave vs unvaccinated inpatients, and an earlier Alpha wave.MethodsIn an observational multicentre cohort study in Israel, hospitalised COVID-19 patients were divided into three cohorts: breakthrough infections in Comirnaty-vaccinated patients (VD; Jun-Aug 2021) and unvaccinated cases during the Delta wave (ND) and breakthrough infections during an earlier Alpha wave (VA; Jan-Apr 2021). Primary outcome was death or ventilation.ResultsWe included 343 VD, 162 ND and 172 VA patients. VD were more likely older (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.05-1.08), men (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.5) and immunosuppressed (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.5) vs ND. Median time between second vaccine dose and admission was 179 days (IQR: 166-187) in VD vs 41 days (IQR: 28-57.5) in VA. VD patients were less likely to be men (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), immunosuppressed (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2-0.5) or have congestive heart failure (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) vs VA. The outcome was similar between all cohorts and affected by age and immunosuppression and not by vaccination, variant or time from vaccination.ConclusionsVaccination was protective during the Delta variant wave, as suggested by older age and greater immunosuppression in vaccinated breakthrough vs unvaccinated inpatients. Nevertheless, compared with an earlier post-vaccination period, breakthrough infections 6 months post-vaccination occurred in healthier patients. Thus, waning immunity increased vulnerability during the Delta wave, which suggests boosters as a countermeasure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Vaccination
16.
Econometrics Journal ; : 23, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853018

ABSTRACT

We propose a simple dynamic model for estimating the relative contagiousness of two virus variants. Maximum likelihood estimation and inference is conveniently invariant to variation in the total number of cases over the sample period and can be expressed as a logistic regression. We apply the model to Danish SARS-CoV-2 variant data. We estimate the reproduction numbers of Alpha and Delta to be larger than that of the ancestral variant by a factor of 1.51 [CI 95%: 1.50, 1.53] and 3.28 [CI 95%: 3.01, 3.58], respectively. In a predominately vaccinated population, we estimate Omicron to be 3.15 [CI 95%: 2.83, 3.50] times more infectious than Delta. Forecasting the proportion of an emerging virus variant is straight forward and we proceed to show how the effective reproduction number for a new variant can be estimated without contemporary sequencing results. This is useful for assessing the state of the pandemic in real time as we illustrate empirically with the inferred effective reproduction number for the Alpha variant.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847294

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to elucidate the household secondary attack rate (HSAR) of the Delta variant in comparison to the Alpha variant, and evaluate the risk factors among unvaccinated household contacts of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We studied household contacts of index cases of COVID-19 infected with Delta (L452R mutation), Alpha (N501Y mutation), and wild strain from December 2020 through November 2021 in Itako, Japan. The HSARs of the entire household contact, and the contact of index case with Delta variant were calculated and compared across the risk factors. We used a generalized estimating equation regression model for the multivariate analysis. We enrolled 1257 unvaccinated contacts from 580 households. The HSAR was higher in household contacts of index patients with Delta (48.5%) than with Alpha variant (21.7%) (aOR = 3.34, p = 0.000). In Delta variants, the HSAR was higher in household contacts with spousal relationships to index patients (63.4%) than contacts with other relationships (45.5%) (aOR 1.94, p = 0.026), and was lower in household contacts of index patients aged ≤19 (33.1%) than for contacts of index cases aged 20-59 years (52.6%) (aOR = 0.50, p = 0.027). The result of our study can be used to devise informed strategy to prevent transmission within households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Indian J Med Res ; 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835120

ABSTRACT

The WHO emergency use-listed (EUL) COVID-19 vaccines were developed against early strains of SARS-CoV-2. With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) - Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron, it is necessary to assess the neutralizing activity of these vaccines against the VOCs. PubMed and preprint platforms were searched for literature on neutralizing activity of serum from WHO EUL vaccine recipients, against the VOCs, using appropriate search terms till November 30, 2021. Our search yielded 91 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The analysis revealed a drop of 0-8.9-fold against Alpha variant, 0.3-42.4-fold against Beta variant, 0-13.8-fold against Gamma variant and 1.35-20-fold against Delta variant in neutralization titres of serum from the WHO EUL COVID-19 vaccine recipients, as compared to early SARS-CoV-2 isolates. The wide range of variability was due to differences in the choice of virus strains selected for neutralization assays (pseudovirus or live virus), timing of serum sample collection after the final dose of vaccine (day 0 to 8 months) and sample size (ranging from 5 to 470 vaccinees). The reasons for this variation have been discussed and the possible way forward to have uniformity across neutralization assays in different laboratories have been described, which will generate reliable data. Though in vitro neutralization studies are a valuable tool to estimate the performance of vaccines against the backdrop of emerging variants, the results must be interpreted with caution and corroborated with field-effectiveness studies.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1512-1515, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834285

ABSTRACT

We describe persistent circulation of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant in an immunosuppressed patient in France during February 2022. The virus had a new pattern of mutation accumulation. The ongoing circulation of previous variants of concern could lead to reemergence of variants with the potential to propagate future waves of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , France/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0000822, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784770

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to compare the susceptibility and infectivity between the Alpha and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 and to investigate characteristics of the index case and the contact that may affect transmission. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was compared between close contacts of COVID-19 cases with Alpha and Delta variants during June 2021 to August 2021. In index cases, Spike gene target failure (TaqPath) was used as a proxy of Alpha variant and the L452R mutation (TaqMan) for Delta variant. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR). We compared close contacts of index cases with Alpha (n = 2139) and Delta variants (n = 5439). Delta variant was more transmissible overall (relative risk [RR] 1.32, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.53), and in non-household contacts (RR 1.71, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.16), but not in household contacts (RR 1.10, 95% CI = 0.91 to 1.34; Pinteraction < 0.001). Delta variant excess transmission was observed when the index cases were 12 to 39 years old (RR 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.79) and the close contacts were 18 to 39 years old (RR 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29 to 2.03), but not among those younger or older than such ages. Differences in transmissibility between variants disappeared with vaccination of the index case (RR 0.68, 95% CI = 0.46 to 1.02), but not with vaccination of the close contact. This report shows that the Delta variant is more transmissible than Alpha variant mainly among young adults. Vaccination of the index cases reduced the excess transmission, which reinforces the recommendation of vaccination to reduce transmission of the Delta variant. IMPORTANCE The higher transmissibility of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with the Alpha variant has been reported. We compared the transmission of the Alpha and Delta variants by characteristics and COVID-19 vaccination status of index cases and their close contacts. Interestingly, the Delta variant showed increased transmissibility when the index case was an adolescent or young adult and when the close contact was a young adult; however, in index cases and close contacts of other age groups, transmission did not differ between variants. This may explain the increased proportion of young people who have been infected in the surges due to the Delta variant. The Delta variant was more transmissible than the Alpha variant when the index cases were unvaccinated against COVID-19, and their vaccination equaled the transmissibility of both variants, which suggests a higher impact of vaccination in controlling transmission of the Delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Young Adult
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