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1.
Companion ; : 17-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046845
2.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(12):1500-1508, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040500

ABSTRACT

Based on the M gene sequence of TGEV and PEDV and VP2 gene sequence of PoRV, the optimal reaction system and amplification procedure were established by optimizing primer, probe concentration and annealing temperature, and the Quantitative PCR method of TaqMan probes for three viruses is successfully established. On this basis, after further optimization of conditions, a triple real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for detecting TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV was established. The detection sensitivity of this method for TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 2.49 copies/ L, 4.36 copies/ L, and 4.96 copies/ L respectively. The maximum value of CV in repeated trials detected by TGEV, PEDV and PoRV were 2.5%, 3.8%, 4.3%, and the maximum value of CV in repeated trials between groups were 3.7%, 3.4%, 3.2%, which are no more than 5%.indicating that the established method has good reproducibility. Using this method to detect PRV, PCV1, and PRRSV virus samples, there is no cross-reaction, indicating that the method is specific. Using the established method to detect 40 clinical diseases, the samples were tested, and the positive rates of TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 5%, 30%, and 12.5%respectively. The mixed infection rate of TGEV and PEDV was 2.5%, the mixed infection rate of PEDV and PoRV was 5%. The results of the multiple fluorescence quantitative PCR method are consistent with those of the detection of a single fluorescent RT-PCR method, indicating that the established method has good clinical application value.

3.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1373-1378, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040499

ABSTRACT

In order to build a specific, sensitive and rapid detection method for PAstV3 detection, the PAstVB gene sequences in Genbank were used and the conserved region in ORFlb was selected to design specific primers and TaqMan probe. Clinical stool samples were collected and preliminary detected by this newly established real-time RT-PCR method after reaction systems and conditions optimization. This detection method established in this study has a good linear relationship with the standard curve, with R2 value up to 0.9971. The sensitivity is 100 times higher than conventional PCR method, The variation co-efficient of in-batch and inter-batch repeatability test is less than 2.0%, indicating good repeatability. The detection results of Clinical samples showed that the positive rate of this method is higher than conventional PCR method. The establishment of this method provides a rapid detection means for PAstV3 laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

4.
Journal of Mahanakorn Veterinary Medicine ; 17(1):123-133, 2022.
Article in Thaï | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012234

ABSTRACT

A male Munchkin cat was brought to a small animal teaching hospital at Mahanakorn University of Technology. The patient presentation with vomiting, chronic diarrhea, and intermittent fever. From history-taking, the owner previously had a cat that was diagnosed with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) living in the same house but had isolated in a separate area. Fecal examination revealed bacterial enteritis. Hematology and blood chemistry results shown lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and low serum albumin/globulin ratio (0.3 A: G ratio). Abdominal ultrasound revealed mesenteric lymph node (MLN) enlargement and cholecystitis. Cell cytology from the liver and MLN revealed suppurative inflammation. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was negative for the Feline coronavirus (FCoV) in the blood sample. On the 4th day of treatment, the cat developed pleural and peritoneal effusion. Thoracentesis and abdominocentesis were performed and submitted for analysis. The fluid's results were classified as modified transudate, low A: G ratio (0.3), Rivalta's test (positive), and positive for FCoV by using RT-PCR. On the 8th day of treatment, the cat died from systemic hypotension. Viscous straw yellow-colored fluid and pyogranulomatous lesions at the liver, lung, kidney, and MLN were observed from the necropsy. Histopathology's results shown severe suppurative inflammation in all the above organs. FIP was confirmed by detected FCoV antigen in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the kidney and lung tissue by immunohistochemistry staining.

5.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 976(34), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2001167

ABSTRACT

Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV), Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), Feline Calici Virus (FCV), and other cat's viral diseases were reported in Indonesia. Viral diseases that appear usually appear in each season with different intensities depending on the type of virus. The research data was taken from Animal Hospital Prof. Soeparwi's medical record in 2017-2019 along with rainfall, humidity, and temperature data in the Yogyakarta area in 2017-2019 obtained from the Climatology and Geophysics Meteorology Agency (BMKG). Disease data are grouped by diagnosis;temperature, humidity, and rainfall data. Data analysis was performed with Microsoft Excel 2016 in the form of a frequency chart and descriptive. The results of the analysis between the incidence patterns of FPV, FIP, FCV, Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR), and Papilloma with climatic conditions in the dry and rainy season periods show patterns that vary depending on the character of the virus that causes the disease. High incidence in the rainy season is seen in FPV and FCV, for FIP the incidence of each season is almost the same in each year, whereas the incidence of FVR and Papilloma can be higher in the rainy season and sometimes also can be higher in the dry season. These findings indicate that the incidence of viral diseases in cats has a seasonally based pattern of events.

6.
Point Veterinaire ; 51(410):16-20, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999460

ABSTRACT

In this article the author discusses how electrophoresis can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases in animals such as feline infectious peritonitis, Leishmania infantum and neoplasms.

7.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(7):398-405, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999285

ABSTRACT

Family Coronaviridae (coronaviruses, CoVs), comprises enveloped, positive sense RNA viruses. They are largest RNA viruses identified so far. CoVs are known for over half a century as agents causing respiratory, alimentary or systemic infections in domestic and wild birds and mammals. Feline (FcoV) and canine coronaviruses (CCoV) are common in the populations of these animals and fetine infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), infection may often be fatal. The new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-Z, causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-IQ), identified in 2019 and responsible for the ongoing pandemics, has raised concerns about its zoonotic potential. Since cats and dogs live in close contact with owners it is important to establish their possible role in COVlD-19 epidemiology. There have been reports of SAHS-Covo2 positive dogs and cats in the literature and on various websites, including OIE website. However, considering that despite that millions of people are infected and the virus is still spreading worldwide, while only few cases of SARS-CoV-19 in dogs and cats have been confirmed, these companion animals do not play a role as virus reservoirs, thus are not important in COVlD-19 pandemics.

8.
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus ; 11(3):412-423, 2022.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994709

ABSTRACT

Minmin, a 1-year-old male local cat weighing 4.3 kg has decreased appetite and an enlarged abdominal cavity. Based on physical examination, there was abdominal distension. Routine hematology and blood biochemical examinations were performed which showed chronic inflammation and abnormal liver and kidney function. Radiographic examination and abdominocentesis showed fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity (ascites) with pale yellow fluid and thickened liquid consistency. The results of the rivalta test showed a positive accumulation of exudate which was characterized by a jellyfish-like formation. The cat was diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. The therapies given are diuretic furosemide 5 mg/kg BW (twice a day) intravenously, antibiotic cefotaxime sodium 30 mg/kg BW (twice a day) intravenously, anti-inflammatory dexamethasone 0,5 mg/kg BW (twice a day) subcutaneously, hepato-protector betaine 2.5 mg/kg BW (every two days) subcutaneously, and keto acid 11 mg/kg BW orally (every two days). The results of treatment for one week only provide temporary results in reducing the degree of abdominal distension. The cat died in the sixth month after therapy.

9.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(5):603-609, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994656

ABSTRACT

To establish a J2-KD (knockdown) cell line stably expressing interfered IFITM1 and study the effect of interference with IFITMI gene on the infection of PCV2, PRV and TGEV. Gene cloning tech- niques were used to constructed pLKO. l-EGFP-Puro-IFITMI recombinant vector, which was co-transfected into 293 FT cells with lentiviral packaging plasmids psPAXZ and pMDZ. G to produce green fluorescent protein labeled lentiviruses expression IFITMlshRNA, the viral supernatant was collected at 48 hours after post transfection. J2 cells were infected with the harvested lentiviruses, screened by puromycin and cloned via cell limited dilution. Real-time PCR identify that the cell lines with stable interference with IFITMl gene were obtained, and via MTT method verify that interference with IFITMI expression had no effect on the growth of J2 cells, the successfully constructed J2 stable cell line interfere with IFITMl expression was named as JZ-KD. PRV, PCV2 and TGEV infected J2-KD cells, respectively. Using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR detect virus replication. The results showed that J2-KD cell line was successfully generated with interfered IFITMl expression;the copy number of PCV2 and TGEV were in- creased, while PRV was decreased in J'Z-KD cell. Indicating that the interference of IFITMI gene expression markedly inhibited the replication of PRV while promoted that. of TGEV and PCV2, providing a basis for further study on the function of porcine IFITMI protein and elucidates its antiviral mechanism.

10.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(5):556-562, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994650

ABSTRACT

In order to establish an efficient, sensitive and specific semi-nest RT-PCR method for the detection of Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), three specific primers were designed according to the N gene published by GenBank, the reaction system was established and optimized, and specificity and sensitivity were detected. The results showed that the method could successfully amplify the bands of 483 bp and 338 bp, and had good specificity to TGEV, there is no cross reaction with PEDV, PRov, PBov and PDCov, and the lowest sensitivity was 1.86 x 10-1 pg/L. The semi-nest RT-PCR shown the positive rate was 36% in 50 samples of pig diarrhea, which was higher than that of common RT-PCR, and then the positive samples coincidence rate was 100%. This semi-nest RT-PCR method has high sensitivity and specificity, and can accurately diagnose TGEV infection, which provides an effective method for clinical detection and epidemiological investigation of TGEV.

11.
Journal of Southwest Minzu University Natural Science Edition ; 48(2):135-141, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1958497

ABSTRACT

Feline Astrovirus (FAstV), Feline Parvovirus(FPV) and Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECoV) are important pathogens causing diarrhea in cats.In order to establish a molecular detection method which can differentiate the three pathogens in the same PCR system, an FAstV/FPV/FECoV triple PCR method was established with optimized primer concentrations and annealing temperature, and specificity, sensitivity and repeatability were tested. The results showed that the PCR method could only identify FAstV (320 bp), FPV (468 bp) and FECoV (664 bp) genes, while not other canine and feline related pathogens. The detection limits of FAstV, FPV and FECoV were 2x10~7 copy/L (7.1 pg/L),4.7x10~6 copy/L (2.4 pg/L) and 7x10~6 copy/L (5.1 pg/L) respectively. The established triple PCR method was used to detect 207 cat fecal samples collected in Chengdu from 2019 to 2020, including 141 diarrhea samples and 66 clinical health samples. The detection rates of FAstV, FPV and FECoV were 24.15% (50/207), 37.20% (77/207) and 15.46% (32/207) respectively, and the co-infection rates of FAstV/FPV, FPV/FECoV and FAstv/FECoV were 9.18%,6.28% and 6.28% respectively. In conclusion, the triple PCR method of FAstV/FPV/FECoV was successfully established, and could be applied for virus detection and epidemiological investigation.

12.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

13.
Veteriner Hekimler Dernegi Dergisi / Journal of the Turkish Veterinary Medical Society ; 93(2):124-132, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924975

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses in the family Coronaviridae cause digestive and respiratory system infections in humans and animals. There are two subtypes of canine coronaviruses (CCoV), which are included in the alfacoronavirus, as CCoV I and CCoV II. CCoV-II is divided into two genotypes, CCoV-IIa and IIb. Although CCoV affects dogs of all ages and all diets, newborn puppies can be particularly susceptible and severely affected. According to the literature research, no molecular studies have been found in our country for the detection of canine coronavirus, especially in lower respiratory tract infections. In this study, it was aimed to detect and molecular characterization of CCoV un shelter dogs with lower respiratory tract infection. For this purpose, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) fluids taken from 40 shelter dogs with lower respiratory tract infections were examined. CCoV was detected in 3 of the BAL fluids of 40 dogs tested. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with the sequences obtained after the sequence analysis. It was determined that 2 of the 3 positive samples in the phylogenetic tree were CCoV-I and one sample was CCoV-II. In conclusion, this study revealed that CCoV-I and CCoV-II may play a role in lower respiratory system disorders of shelter dogs. In addition, the detection of two different CCoVs in different animals in the same shelter has been considered as an important data, and the detection of both types in dogs housed in crowded environments such as shelter conditions shows that the possibility of new variants or subtypes that may occur in the future should not be ignored.

14.
Infectious disease management in animal shelters ; 2(656), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918436

ABSTRACT

This second edition contains 24 new and updated chapters on aetiology, epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical signs, treatment, prevention and control of infectious diseases in cats, dogs and exotic small companion mammals in animal shelters. These include an introduction to infectious disease management in animal shelters, wellness, data surveillance, diagnostic testing, necropsy techniques, outbreak management, pharmacology, sanitation, canine and feline vaccinations and immunology, canine infectious respiratory disease, canine distemper virus, canine influenza, feline infectious respiratory disease, canine parvovirus and other canine enteropathogens, feline panleukopenia, feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis, internal parasites, heartworm disease, external parasites, dermatophytoses, zoonoses, rabies, feline leukaemia and feline immunodeficiency viruses and conditions in exotic companion mammals (ferrets, rabbits, guineapigs and rodents). It is intended for shelter veterinarians, managers and workers.

15.
Companion Animal ; 27(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903908

ABSTRACT

Until recently, feline infectious peritonitis was an invariably fatal disease that occurs when a ubiquitous enteric coronavirus mutates. This enables it to replicate effectively within macrophages, resulting in immune-mediated phlebitis and serositis. While our understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis remains unchanged, with the recent availability of legalised antiviral drugs, successful treatment is now a possibility, albeit at a cost. As we approach a new dawn of research into the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, this review summarises current therapeutic options. Please note, some protocols are still being optimised.

16.
NAVC Clinician's Brief ; 29, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898327
17.
Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition ; 34(1):159-176, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1771309

ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of recombinant porcine Lactobacillus reuteri secreting bovine lactoferrin peptide (LFCA) on growth performance of newborn piglets and the protective effect on porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)infection which caused piglet diarrhea. Experiment 1:thirty-six one-day-old newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were randomly divided into 3 groups, which were pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group, pPG/LR-CO21 group and control group, each group with 12 piglets. Piglets in each group were orally administered recombinant porcine Lactobacillus reuteri expressing LFCA pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21, containing empty vector plasmid PPG/LR-CO21 and equal volume phosphate buffer (PBS);oral administration continued for 3 days, and the observation time after oral administration was 14 d. During the period, piglets were fed freely, and the changes of body weight and diarrhea were recorded. Experiment 2:thirty one-day-old newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were randomly divided into 5 groups and given TGEV with a half tissue culture infection dose (TCID50) of 10-7.50/mL by oral administration of 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mL, respectively. The observation period of 7 d was set to analyze the conditions of half lethal dose. Experiment 3:another thirty-two newborn piglets with an average body weight of about 1.5 kg were selected as experimental animals and randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 piglets in each group. The groups were pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group, pPG/LR-CO21 group, control group and TGEV infect group. There were 8 replicates in each group and 1 piglet in each replicate. Each head of the experimental group was orally fed ppG-LFCA/LR-CO21, pPG/LR-CO21 and equal volume of PBS at a dose of 2..1010 CFU per day for 1 consecutive week. At 8 days of age, TGEV was infected by oral administration at half lethal dose, and samples were collected after 7 days of infection. The weight change and diarrhea of each group of piglets were recorded;hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to detect the length of intestinal villi and the depth of crypts;enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine total serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibody contents. RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA relative expression levels of Claudin-1, Occludin, tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1), inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-P (IFN-P), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The flora structure of the contents of the piglet's cecum was analyzed. After oral recombinant porcine Lactobacillusreuteri, compared with the control group, the average daily gain of newborn piglets in the pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group was significantly increased (P < 0.01), while the diarrhea rate was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with TGEV infection group, the average daily gain of piglets in pPG-LFCA/LR-CO21 group was increased and diarrhea rate was decreased, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The contents of total IgG and intestinal mucosal total sIgA antibody in serum of piglets were significantly increased (P < 0.05);the mRNA relative expression levels of tight junction protein-related genes Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 in intestinal mucosal tissue were extremely significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the serum TNF-a content was extremely significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Serum IFN-P, IL-6, IL-8 and TLR2 contents were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the survival rate of piglets was improved. The analysis of the bacterial diversity in the contents of the piglets' cecum showed that the proportion of normal intestinal flora of piglets decreased after TGEV infection. Compared with the TGEV infect group, the proportion of pathogenic bacteria Bacteroides in piglet's intestinal flora decreased by o

18.
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University ; 6(3):127-132, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1628476

ABSTRACT

The aims of the study were to determine the effects of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection on blood Ca levels and Ca metabolism regulatory parameters in cats. In the study, twenty cats with clinical symthoms of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and positive to FCoV were used. They were negative to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leucoma virus (FeLV). These cats were divided into two groups equally as dry (n=10) and wet form (n=10) of FIP. Ten cats clinically healthy and negative for all test were also used as control group. Serum samples were collected from all the cats and they were used to analyse parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), calcitonin and vitamin D3 (Vit D3), using feline specific ELISA test kits. Furthermore, Calcium (Ca), magnesium, (Mg) and phosphorus (P) levels were also measured in these serum samples. In the sudy, PTH (p < 0.01), PTHrP (p < 0.001) and P (p < 0.01) levels were significantly higher in cats with FIP than those of control group. Additionally, calcitonin, vitamin D3 and Ca levels were found to be high in cats with FIP compared to those of control cats, but there were no statistically significance between these groups.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308347

ABSTRACT

Recently, as is evident with the COVID-19 pandemic, virus-containing aerosols can rapidly spread worldwide. As a consequence, filtering facepieces (FFP) are essential tools to protect against airborne viral particles. Incorrect donning and doffing of masks and a lack of hand-hygiene cause contagion by the wearers' own hands. This study aimed to prove that hypertonic saline effectively reduces the infectious viral load on treated masks. Therefore, a hypertonic salt solution´s protective effect on surgical masks was investigated, specifically analyzing the infectivity of aerosolized Alphacoronavirus 1 in pigs (Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV)). Uncoated and hypertonic salt pre-coated FFPs were sprayed with TGEV. After drying, a defined part of the mask was rinsed with the medium, and the eluent was used for the infection of a porcine testicular cell line. Additionally, airborne microorganisms´ long-term infectivity of sodium-chloride in phosphate-buffered saline comprising 5% saccharose was investigated. In the results from an initial Median Tissue Culture Infectious Dose, infection rate of TGEV was minimally reduced by untreated FFP. In contrast, this could be reduced by a factor of 104 if FFPs were treated with hypertonic salt solutions. Airborne pathogens did not contaminate the growth medium if salt concentrations exceeded 5%. We conclude that hypertonic saline is a vital tool for anti-virus protection, exponentially improving the impact of FFPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Animals , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
20.
Food Environ Virol ; 12(4): 361-366, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871571

ABSTRACT

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic dictates that anti-contagion strategies should become matters of essential routine in everyday life. Fomite transference is one of the routes of transmission that has been considered for this virus. However, the risks associated with contaminated surfaces of food packaging kept in refrigerators have not yet been adequately assessed. In this study, a surrogate virus, Alphacoronavirus 1, was used to investigate the persistence of coronavirus dried on a plastic carrier at 4 °C. Techniques of wet wiping, with or without disinfectant saturation, were employed to evaluate their effectiveness in the elimination of the virus. If not wiped, the loss of infectivity of the virus on plastic surfaces was, on average, 0.93 log10 (i.e. 83%) per day of storage at 4 °C. Wiping with water-saturated material reduced the initial virus titre on the plastic carrier by 2.4 log10 (99.6%); the same results were achieved through wiping with bactericidal wipes containing ethanol. Wipes saturated with a combination of disinfectant agents (didecyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide) decreased the virus titre still more efficiently, by 3.8 log10 (99.98%) and also significantly prevented further transfer of the virus to a secondary surface through wiping. Thus SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential via contaminated plastic packaging and food may be efficiently eliminated by wet-wiping, especially when wipes saturated with specific disinfectants are used.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Fomites/virology , Food Packaging , Food Safety , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plastics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Refrigeration , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants , Ethanol , Food Storage/methods , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
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