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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 1970-1976, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109670

ABSTRACT

The 4 common types of human coronaviruses (HCoVs)-2 alpha (HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E) and 2 beta (HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43)-generally cause mild upper respiratory illness. Seasonal patterns and annual variation in predominant types of HCoVs are known, but parameters of expected seasonality have not been defined. We defined seasonality of HCoVs during July 2014-November 2021 in the United States by using a retrospective method applied to National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System data. In the 6 HCoV seasons before 2020-21, season onsets occurred October 21-November 12, peaks January 6-February 13, and offsets April 18-June 27; most (>93%) HCoV detection was within the defined seasonal onsets and offsets. The 2020-21 HCoV season onset was 11 weeks later than in prior seasons, probably associated with COVID-19 mitigation efforts. Better definitions of HCoV seasonality can be used for clinical preparedness and for determining expected patterns of emerging coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
2.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(1):10-19, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056573

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to establish an indirect ELISA technique for detecting the SIgA antibody against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to evaluate its mucosal immunity. Firstly, the S1D gene (534-789 aa) of PEDV was cloned into the pET-28a(+) vector, and induced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by IPTG, the product of which was in the form of inclusion bodies. According to Western-blot, the target protein S1D with antigenic activity was 32 ku in molecular weight and could be well detected. Then, the S1D protein was denatured by 8 mol/L urea, purified and gradient as the coating antigen to establish an indirect ELISA for detecting the PEDV specific SIgA antibody in nasal or oral mucus by optimizing conditions. And the optimal antigen coating concentration of ELISA was 2 micro g mL, the working concentrations of nasal mucus was 1:1 and the optimal blocking solution was 50 g/L skimmed milk, while the working concentrations and optimal blocking solution were 1:2 and 30 g/L BSA in oral mucus, the working concentrations of the enzyme-labeled antibody was 1:2 000 in nasal and oral mucus. Finally, 84 samples of oral and nasal mucus from immunized pigs were detected by S1D of ELISA, and the coincidence rate could reach 95.2% compared with purified PEDV of ELISA. In conclusion, the indirect ELISA established in this study provided a quick, simple, sensitive, and specific method to detect PEDV specific SigA for evaluating the level of PEDV mucosal immunity.

3.
Companion ; : 17-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046845
4.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(12):1500-1508, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040500

ABSTRACT

Based on the M gene sequence of TGEV and PEDV and VP2 gene sequence of PoRV, the optimal reaction system and amplification procedure were established by optimizing primer, probe concentration and annealing temperature, and the Quantitative PCR method of TaqMan probes for three viruses is successfully established. On this basis, after further optimization of conditions, a triple real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for detecting TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV was established. The detection sensitivity of this method for TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 2.49 copies/ L, 4.36 copies/ L, and 4.96 copies/ L respectively. The maximum value of CV in repeated trials detected by TGEV, PEDV and PoRV were 2.5%, 3.8%, 4.3%, and the maximum value of CV in repeated trials between groups were 3.7%, 3.4%, 3.2%, which are no more than 5%.indicating that the established method has good reproducibility. Using this method to detect PRV, PCV1, and PRRSV virus samples, there is no cross-reaction, indicating that the method is specific. Using the established method to detect 40 clinical diseases, the samples were tested, and the positive rates of TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 5%, 30%, and 12.5%respectively. The mixed infection rate of TGEV and PEDV was 2.5%, the mixed infection rate of PEDV and PoRV was 5%. The results of the multiple fluorescence quantitative PCR method are consistent with those of the detection of a single fluorescent RT-PCR method, indicating that the established method has good clinical application value.

5.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1373-1378, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040499

ABSTRACT

In order to build a specific, sensitive and rapid detection method for PAstV3 detection, the PAstVB gene sequences in Genbank were used and the conserved region in ORFlb was selected to design specific primers and TaqMan probe. Clinical stool samples were collected and preliminary detected by this newly established real-time RT-PCR method after reaction systems and conditions optimization. This detection method established in this study has a good linear relationship with the standard curve, with R2 value up to 0.9971. The sensitivity is 100 times higher than conventional PCR method, The variation co-efficient of in-batch and inter-batch repeatability test is less than 2.0%, indicating good repeatability. The detection results of Clinical samples showed that the positive rate of this method is higher than conventional PCR method. The establishment of this method provides a rapid detection means for PAstV3 laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

6.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1421-1427, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040498

ABSTRACT

Recently, the variation and isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea Virus (PEDV) has been a focus of industry research. Whether porcine aminopeptidase (pAPN) is a functional receptor of PEDV infection is still controversial. Therefore, this article aims to review the latest progress on pAPN as a receptor of PEDV and its role during infection, to clarify whether pAPN is a functional receptor and to provide a reference for isolation and subsequent study of PEDV.

7.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1341-1347, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040497

ABSTRACT

The recombinant expression plasmid pIRES-S1 was constructed according to the gene sequence of PEDV S1 in NCBI (GenBank:JQ517274). The plasmid pIRES-S1 was transfected into ST cells by electrotransfer. After G418 pressurization screening, western-blot detection and suspension domestication, a stable transduction cell pool expressing S1 protein was obtained. The results of Western-blot showed that S1 protein have good reactivity. An indirect ELISA was established by using S1 protein as coating antigen, and the ELISA was used to detect PEDV clinical serum and PEDV negative serum of imported breeder pigs. Take the serum neutralization test as the standard, the results showed that the sensitivity of the ELISA was 96.3% and the specificity was 97.7%.It was significantly consistent with the serum neutralization test (kappa value=0.882, P < 0.05). The ELISA was used to detect the tracking serum of PEDV back-feeding pigs. The results showed that it could accurately evaluate the growth and decline of PEDV Ig G antibody level in infected pigs. Our results suggested that the ELISA based on S1 protein established in this study has high sensitivity and specificity. It could be used to detect PEDV antibody in clinical serum samples and provide an effective basis for immune evaluation of PEDV in pigs.

8.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 8:3152-3165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040441

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the key host protein that can regulate the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV).

9.
Journal of South China Agricultural University ; 41(5):27-35, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040361

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare monoclonal antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein, and develop an indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method used for detecting PEDV. Method: The expressed recombinantly PEDV N protein was used as an immunogen and 8-week-old female BALB/c mice were immunized. Then their spleen cells with high antibody titer were isolated and fused with SP2/0 cells. The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against PEDV N protein were screened. In Vero cells infected with PEDV, monoclonal antibody of anti-PEDV N protein was used as the primary antibody and FITC-goat-anti-mouse IgG was used as the secondary antibody to develop indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method used for detecting PEDV. Result: The prepared hybridoma cell lines could stably secrete anti-PEDV N protein antibodies, ELISA antibody titer in cell supernatant was above 1:3 200, and in mouse ascites above 1:1 000 000. While monoclonal antibodies were applied in established indirect immuno-fluorescence assay, the optimal conditions were that cells were fixed with 80% () acetone at -20 degrees C for 30 min;The primary antibody was diluted 1 000 times by PBS buffer solution and incubated at 4 degrees C overnight;The secondary antibody was diluted 100 times by PBS buffer solution and incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine reproductive virus (PRV), porcine enteric a corone virus (PEAV), porcine rotavirus (PoRV) and PEDV were detected by established indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method, only PEDV showed positive, all the else viruses showed negative.

10.
Zoonoses ; 1(7), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025749

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), especially the sweeping spread of the delta variant, and differing public health management strategies, have rendered global eradication of SARS-CoV-2 unlikely. The currently available COVID-19 vaccines, including the inactivated whole virus vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and adenovirus-vectored vaccines, are effective in protecting people from severe disease and death from COVID-19, but they may not confer good mucosal immunity to prevent the establishment of infection and subsequent viral shedding and transmission. Mucosal vaccines delivered via intranasal route may provide a promising direction, which, if given as a third dose after a two-dose series of intramuscular vaccination, likely promotes mucosal immunity in addition to boosting the systemic cell-mediated immunity and antibody response. However, immunity induced by vaccination, and natural infection as well, is likely to wane followed by re-infection as in the case of human coronaviruses OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1. It is a challenge to prevent and control COVID-19 worldwide with the increasing number of VOCs associated with increased transmissibility and changing antigenicity. Nevertheless, we may seek to end the current pandemic situation through mass vaccination and gradual relaxation of non-pharmaceutical measures, which would limit the incidence of severe COVID-19. Repeated doses of booster vaccine will likely be required, similar to influenza virus, especially for the elderly and the immunocompromised patients who are most vulnerable to infection.

11.
Pathogens ; 11(8)2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023970

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus is the most common infectious cause of uveitis in cats. Confirmatory diagnosis is usually only reached at postmortem examination. The relationship between the histologic inflammatory pattern, which depends on the stage of the disease, and the likelihood of detection of the viral antigen and/or RNA has not been investigated. We hypothesized that viral detection rate by either immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization or RT-qPCR is dependent upon the predominant type of uveal inflammatory response (i.e., pyogranulomatous vs. plasmacytic). Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate cases of FIP-induced uveitis, localize the viral antigen and RNA, and assess the relationship between the inflammatory pattern (macrophage- vs. plasma cell-rich) and the likelihood of detecting the FIP antigen and/or RNA. We evaluated 30 cats with FIP-induced uveitis. The viral antigen and/or RNA were detected within uveal macrophages in 11/30 cases, of which 8 tested positive by RT-qPCR. Correlation analysis determined a weak to moderate but significant negative correlation between the degree of plasmacytic uveal inflammation and the likelihood of detecting the FIP antigen and RNA. This study suggests that predominance of plasmacytic inflammation in cases of FIP uveitis reduces the odds of a confirmatory diagnosis through the viral detection methods available.

12.
Journal of Mahanakorn Veterinary Medicine ; 17(1):123-133, 2022.
Article in Thaï | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012234

ABSTRACT

A male Munchkin cat was brought to a small animal teaching hospital at Mahanakorn University of Technology. The patient presentation with vomiting, chronic diarrhea, and intermittent fever. From history-taking, the owner previously had a cat that was diagnosed with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) living in the same house but had isolated in a separate area. Fecal examination revealed bacterial enteritis. Hematology and blood chemistry results shown lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and low serum albumin/globulin ratio (0.3 A: G ratio). Abdominal ultrasound revealed mesenteric lymph node (MLN) enlargement and cholecystitis. Cell cytology from the liver and MLN revealed suppurative inflammation. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was negative for the Feline coronavirus (FCoV) in the blood sample. On the 4th day of treatment, the cat developed pleural and peritoneal effusion. Thoracentesis and abdominocentesis were performed and submitted for analysis. The fluid's results were classified as modified transudate, low A: G ratio (0.3), Rivalta's test (positive), and positive for FCoV by using RT-PCR. On the 8th day of treatment, the cat died from systemic hypotension. Viscous straw yellow-colored fluid and pyogranulomatous lesions at the liver, lung, kidney, and MLN were observed from the necropsy. Histopathology's results shown severe suppurative inflammation in all the above organs. FIP was confirmed by detected FCoV antigen in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the kidney and lung tissue by immunohistochemistry staining.

13.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006221

ABSTRACT

Significant efforts have been made to characterize viral diversity in bats from China. Many of these studies were prospective and focused mainly on Rhinolophus bats that could be related to zoonotic events. However, other species of bats that are part of ecosystems identified as virus diversity hotspots have not been studied in-depth. We analyzed the virome of a group of Myotis fimbriatus bats collected from the Yunnan Province during 2020. The virome of M. fimbriatus revealed the presence of families of pathogenic viruses such as Coronavirus, Astrovirus, Mastadenovirus, and Picornavirus, among others. The viral sequences identified in M. fimbriatus were characterized by significant divergence from other known viral sequences of bat origin. Complex phylogenetic landscapes implying a tendency of co-specificity and relationships with viruses from other mammals characterize these groups. The most prevalent and abundant virus in M. fimbriatus individuals was an alphacoronavirus. The genome of this virus shows evidence of recombination and is likely the product of ancestral host-switch. The close phylogenetic and ecological relationship of some species of the Myotis genus in China may have played an important role in the emergence of this alphacoronavirus.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Chiroptera , Coronavirus , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , China , Coronavirus/genetics , Ecosystem , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phylogeny , Prospective Studies , Virome/genetics
14.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 976(34), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2001167

ABSTRACT

Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV), Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), Feline Calici Virus (FCV), and other cat's viral diseases were reported in Indonesia. Viral diseases that appear usually appear in each season with different intensities depending on the type of virus. The research data was taken from Animal Hospital Prof. Soeparwi's medical record in 2017-2019 along with rainfall, humidity, and temperature data in the Yogyakarta area in 2017-2019 obtained from the Climatology and Geophysics Meteorology Agency (BMKG). Disease data are grouped by diagnosis;temperature, humidity, and rainfall data. Data analysis was performed with Microsoft Excel 2016 in the form of a frequency chart and descriptive. The results of the analysis between the incidence patterns of FPV, FIP, FCV, Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR), and Papilloma with climatic conditions in the dry and rainy season periods show patterns that vary depending on the character of the virus that causes the disease. High incidence in the rainy season is seen in FPV and FCV, for FIP the incidence of each season is almost the same in each year, whereas the incidence of FVR and Papilloma can be higher in the rainy season and sometimes also can be higher in the dry season. These findings indicate that the incidence of viral diseases in cats has a seasonally based pattern of events.

15.
Point Veterinaire ; 51(410):16-20, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999460

ABSTRACT

In this article the author discusses how electrophoresis can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases in animals such as feline infectious peritonitis, Leishmania infantum and neoplasms.

16.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(7):398-405, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999285

ABSTRACT

Family Coronaviridae (coronaviruses, CoVs), comprises enveloped, positive sense RNA viruses. They are largest RNA viruses identified so far. CoVs are known for over half a century as agents causing respiratory, alimentary or systemic infections in domestic and wild birds and mammals. Feline (FcoV) and canine coronaviruses (CCoV) are common in the populations of these animals and fetine infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), infection may often be fatal. The new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-Z, causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-IQ), identified in 2019 and responsible for the ongoing pandemics, has raised concerns about its zoonotic potential. Since cats and dogs live in close contact with owners it is important to establish their possible role in COVlD-19 epidemiology. There have been reports of SAHS-Covo2 positive dogs and cats in the literature and on various websites, including OIE website. However, considering that despite that millions of people are infected and the virus is still spreading worldwide, while only few cases of SARS-CoV-19 in dogs and cats have been confirmed, these companion animals do not play a role as virus reservoirs, thus are not important in COVlD-19 pandemics.

17.
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus ; 11(3):412-423, 2022.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994709

ABSTRACT

Minmin, a 1-year-old male local cat weighing 4.3 kg has decreased appetite and an enlarged abdominal cavity. Based on physical examination, there was abdominal distension. Routine hematology and blood biochemical examinations were performed which showed chronic inflammation and abnormal liver and kidney function. Radiographic examination and abdominocentesis showed fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity (ascites) with pale yellow fluid and thickened liquid consistency. The results of the rivalta test showed a positive accumulation of exudate which was characterized by a jellyfish-like formation. The cat was diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. The therapies given are diuretic furosemide 5 mg/kg BW (twice a day) intravenously, antibiotic cefotaxime sodium 30 mg/kg BW (twice a day) intravenously, anti-inflammatory dexamethasone 0,5 mg/kg BW (twice a day) subcutaneously, hepato-protector betaine 2.5 mg/kg BW (every two days) subcutaneously, and keto acid 11 mg/kg BW orally (every two days). The results of treatment for one week only provide temporary results in reducing the degree of abdominal distension. The cat died in the sixth month after therapy.

18.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(5):603-609, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994656

ABSTRACT

To establish a J2-KD (knockdown) cell line stably expressing interfered IFITM1 and study the effect of interference with IFITMI gene on the infection of PCV2, PRV and TGEV. Gene cloning tech- niques were used to constructed pLKO. l-EGFP-Puro-IFITMI recombinant vector, which was co-transfected into 293 FT cells with lentiviral packaging plasmids psPAXZ and pMDZ. G to produce green fluorescent protein labeled lentiviruses expression IFITMlshRNA, the viral supernatant was collected at 48 hours after post transfection. J2 cells were infected with the harvested lentiviruses, screened by puromycin and cloned via cell limited dilution. Real-time PCR identify that the cell lines with stable interference with IFITMl gene were obtained, and via MTT method verify that interference with IFITMI expression had no effect on the growth of J2 cells, the successfully constructed J2 stable cell line interfere with IFITMl expression was named as JZ-KD. PRV, PCV2 and TGEV infected J2-KD cells, respectively. Using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR detect virus replication. The results showed that J2-KD cell line was successfully generated with interfered IFITMl expression;the copy number of PCV2 and TGEV were in- creased, while PRV was decreased in J'Z-KD cell. Indicating that the interference of IFITMI gene expression markedly inhibited the replication of PRV while promoted that. of TGEV and PCV2, providing a basis for further study on the function of porcine IFITMI protein and elucidates its antiviral mechanism.

19.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(7):825-832, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994655

ABSTRACT

In order to establish a method for rapid differential identification of Senecavirus A (SVA) and en-cephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), two pairs of corresponding specific primers were designed based on the highly conserved 3D genes of SVA and EMCV. And two different fluorescent labeled TaqMan probes were used to establish a dual TaqMan real-time PCR method for simultaneous detection of these two viruses, and we also optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the minimum detection of the method was 760 copies/ micro L and 98 copies/ micro L for SVA and EMCV. respectively, and it can specifically detect SVA and EMCV, and there was no cross reaction with CSFV, PRRSV and PEDV. The established standard curves showed good linear relationship. Repeated experimental group and inter-group coefficient of variation were less than 5%. The results indicated that the dual-quantitative PCR established in this study has the advantages of convenience, rapidity, good specificity. high sensitivity and good repeatability .and can be used for simultaneous detection of SVA and EMCV.

20.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(5):537-544, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994651

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA molecule longer than 200 nt, which plays vital roles in biological events. Our previous results demonstrated that the host's lncRNA expression profile was significantly changed after porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. In this study, one of the lncRNAs, lncRNA9606, was selected to investigate its impact on PEDV replication. First, the kinetics of lncRNA9606 expression in IPEC-J2 cells were examined at different time points after PEDV infection. The results confirmed that PEDV infection significantly upregulated the expression of lncRNA9606. The lncRNA9606 expression levels in different cells or tissues were evaluated and the results showed that the amount of lncRNA9606 in Peyer's patches and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were significantly higher than that in small intestinal epithelial cell lines. It was mainly localized in the nucleus. Further investigations indicated that over expression of lncRNA in LLC-PK1 cells significantly inhibited PEDV replication. In conclusion, lncRNA9606 can suppress the PEDV replication in LLC-PK1 cells.

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