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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(808):2410-2411, 2022.
Article in French | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2164884
2.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 28(13):S4-S7, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162921
3.
Veterinary and Animal Science ; 19:100280, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159918

ABSTRACT

Current evidence have now demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infects a wide array of mammalian animals;however, the full range of hosts and the viral circulation in companion animals remains to be clarified. In this context, as no such evidenced cases have been reported from Turkey, we aimed to screen for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in housed dogs and cats clinically evaluated for respiratory symptoms and reared in different locations of Samsun province in the black sea region of Turkey from July 2020 to July 2021. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 415 pets (65 cats and 350 dogs) aged between 1 and 9 years old. All the specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA presence by real-time RT-PCR targeting two genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2, but none showed positive results. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 does not circulate in local pets and is not responsible for respiratory symptoms. However, further comprehensive molecular and serological surveys are required to have a better picture of the zoonotic, reverse zoonotic and pathogenic consequences of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey.

4.
3 Biotech ; 13(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2158199

ABSTRACT

Animals and viruses have constantly been co-evolving under natural circumstances and pandemic like situations. They harbour harmful viruses which can spread easily. In the recent times we have seen pandemic like situations being created as a result of the spread of deadly and fatal viruses. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are one of the wellrecognized groups of viruses. There are four known genera of Coronavirus family namely, alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and delta (δ). Animals have been infected with CoVs belonging to all four genera. In the last few decades the world has witnessed an emergence of severe acute respiratory syndromes which had created a pandemic like situation such as SARS CoV, MERS-CoV. We are currently in another pandemic like situation created due to the uncontrolled spread of a similar coronavirus namely SARSCoV-2. These findings are based on a small number of animals and do not indicate whether animals can transmit disease to humans. Several mammals, including cats, dogs, bank voles, ferrets, fruit bats, hamsters, mink, pigs, rabbits, racoon dogs, and white-tailed deer, have been found to be infected naturally by the virus. Certain laboratory discoveries revealed that animals such as cats, ferrets, fruit bats, hamsters, racoon dogs, and white-tailed deer can spread the illness to other animals of the same species. This review article gives insights on the current knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection and development in animals on the farm and in domestic community and their impact on society.

5.
Veterinary Medicine & Science ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2157922

ABSTRACT

Background Objectives Methods Results Conclusions Impacts Reverse zoonoses occur because of interactions between humans and animals. Homology of ACE‐2 cell receptors in different hosts and high mutation rate of SARS‐CoV‐2 enhance viral transmission among species.This study aimed to investigate spillover of SARS‐CoV‐2 between humans and companion animals.A cross‐sectional study was constructed using nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs, serum and blood samples collected from 66 companion animals (33 cats and 33 dogs) that were in contact with SARS‐CoV‐2‐positive owners from December 2020 to March 2021. Swabs were screened by rRT‐PCR and some positive cases were confirmed by partial spike gene sequencing. Clinical pathology and pathological studies were also performed.Our findings revealed that 30% of cats (10/33) and 24% of dogs (8/33) were SARS‐CoV‐2 positive. While 33% of these animals were asymptomatic (6/18), 28% showed mild respiratory signs (5/18) and 39% displayed severe respiratory signs (7/18) including 4 dead cats 40% (4/10). Partial spike gene sequencing of 6 positive samples collected in December 2020 were identical to SARS‐CoV‐2 that was detected in humans in Egypt in that time frame. Clinical pathology findings revealed thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, as well as elevated levels of D‐dimer, LDH, CRP, and ferritin. Post‐mortem and histopathological examinations illustrated multisystemic effects.There is a potential occurrence of SARS‐CoV‐2 spillover between humans and pet animals. The present study highlighted the potential occurrence of SARS‐CoV‐2 spillover between humans and their companion animals. Biosecurity measures should be applied to decrease spread of SARS‐CoV‐2 among humans and pet animals. [ FROM AUTHOR]

6.
Lancet Planetary Health ; 6(9):E760-E768, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2157184

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 has drawn the attention of health researchers sharply back to the role that food systems can play in generating human disease burden. But emerging pandemic threats are just one dimension of the complex relationship between agriculture and infectious disease, which is evolving rapidly, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) that are undergoing rapid food system transformation. We examine this changing relationship through four current disease issues. The first is that greater investment in irrigation to improve national food security raises risks of vector-borne disease, which we illustrate with the case of malaria and rice in Africa. The second is that the intensification of livestock production in LMICs brings risks of zoonotic diseases like cysticercosis, which need to be managed as consumer demand grows. The third is that the nutritional benefits of increasing supply of fresh vegetables, fruit, and animal-sourced foods in markets in LMICs pose new food-borne disease risks, which might undermine supply. The fourth issue is that the potential human health risks of antimicrobial resistance from agriculture are intensified by changing livestock production. For each disease issue, we explore how food system transition is creating unintentional infectious disease risks, and what solutions might exist for these problems. We show that successfully addressing all of these challenges requires a coordinated approach between public health and agricultural sectors, recognising the costs and benefits of disease-reducing interventions to both, and seeking win-win solutions that are most likely to attract broad policy support and uptake by food systems.

7.
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja ; 144(1):3-12, 2022.
Article in Hungarian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2157134

ABSTRACT

Background: Prior to the present research, the last nationally representative survey on the number and habits of Hungarian cog-keeping households was conducted in 2018, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Hungarian dog-keeping has not been studies so far. Some international sources consider the increase in the number of keepers of companion animals to be an accompanying effect of the quarantine period, the question was whether the situation is similar in Hungary. Changes in the number of animal keepers and pets, as well as changes in animal keeping habits, also have a significant impact on animal welfare. Objectives: Our study focuses on the changes of the number and demographic composition of dog keepers by the summer of 2021, on the source from which the dogs enter households, and on the opinion of dog keepers about issues related to their dog and responsible animal keeping in general. Materials and Methods: The results are based on a quantitative (n = 10 01) survey compiled through telephone interviews, which is representative to the Hungarian adult population in terms of age, sex, and geographical distribution, of households. Results and Discussion: The results show a significant increase in dog-keeping households, which rose from approximately one-third to one-half of all Hungarian households. Dog keepers are. rather women, and the proportion of those over 60 years old has increased. Most dog keepers are concentrated in Pest county (14.3%) and Budapest (11.1%) within Hungary. Many dog keepers still buy dogs without pedigrees (10.7%), and the proportion of animals adopted from smelters is relatively low (14.9%). For more than three-quarters of dog keepers, the cost of dog-keeping does not seem to be a problem. With very few exceptions, dog keepers agree that the basics of responsible animal keeping should be taught for children (98.3%) and that the state should support the national neutering programme (95.2%).

8.
Point Veterinaire ; 53(429):20-26, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2156621

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of COVID-19 in humans, there have been numerous reports of dogs and cats being infected with SARS-CoV-2, with cats appearing to be particularly susceptible. The portal of entry of the virus into the body's cells is a membrane receptor called ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) belonging to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The ACE2 receptor is expressed in airway epithelial cells, myocardium, venous and arterial endothelial cells, kidney, liver, oral cavity, intestine and also adipose tissue, explaining the diversity of clinical expression of the disease, with respiratory manifestations predominating. SARS-CoV-2 causes an imbalance in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In addition, the virus has a direct action combined with an immune reaction, that is sometimes intense, causing a cascade of lesions, mainly in the lungs but also in the heart. The clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains rare in dogs and cats and mainly includes fever, depression, anorexia, digestive, respiratory or ocular disorders. As in humans, various cardiovascular clinical signs are less frequently seen. Several cases of myocarditis, correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (PCR or serology), have been identified in England and at least one in France. In the latter case, further investigation led to a strong suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated by myocarditis. It is highly likely that obesity (with significant fat deposition in the pleural and pericardial spaces, tissues with high expression of the ACE2 receptor) may have favoured these complications. SARS-CoV-2 infection should therefore now be included in the differential diagnosis of agents causing myocarditis and pneumonia in both cats and dogs.

9.
Point Veterinaire ; 53(429):53-59, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2156583

ABSTRACT

Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) are widespread in some cat populations. Animals are asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic carriers in the majority of cases. In 5 to 10% of cases, cats will develop a severe clinical form, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is almost always fatal. FIP is caused by mutations, which have not yet been identified with certainty, of the low pathogenic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). This article presents recent data on the management of infected cats. Diagnosis remains complicated as there is no test to differentiate FECV from its pathogenic variant, feline coronavirus causing FIP (FIPV). There is currently no vaccine that has shown sufficient efficacy in the field to prevent the occurrence of FIP. However, in various preliminary studies, several therapeutic strategies have been shown to have a promising level of efficacy. Trial confirmation is required before a marketing authorisation can be issued and these drugs can be used for the treatment of FIP.

10.
Revue forestière française ; 72(6):491-503, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2155985

ABSTRACT

The economic impact of the worldwide Covid health crisis and the faster decline of forests have led to a 14% decrease of the turnover of wood from publicly owned forests Wood prices decreased by 10% on average, and by 17% for spruce, with more wood infested by bark beetles than in 2019 Beech, fir, Scots pine and even oak suffered from this third hot year in a row, with severe drought in summer All sales by submission have been done using an upgradable online selling tool since January 2020 In addition, supply contracts are increasing steadily, and represent 35% of the volumes.

11.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 51(11):1355-1360, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2155897

ABSTRACT

To develop a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for rapid, accurate, sensitive and quantitative detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), according to the highly conserved nucleotide sequence of S gene reported by GenBank, a pair of PEDV S gene specific primers were designed, and a fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR detection method using SYBR Green I as the dye was established. The clinical samples suspected of PEDV infection were tested and compared with the results of ordinary RT-PCR. The results showed that the established standard curve of the SYBR Green I fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method had a good linear relationship. The linear correlation coefficient R2=1, its amplification efficiency E=2.03, and the melting curve was a sharp single peak. The amplification of transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine parvovirus, classical swine fever virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine deltacoronavirus and porcine rotavirus was negative and had strong specificity. The lowest detection concentration of 1 x 101 copies/L was 100 times more sensitive than that of the ordinary RT-PCR method. The coefficient of variation of intra- and inter-assay repeatability test were both less than 2%, with good repeatability and stability. Comparing the test results of 36 clinical samples, the total coincidence rate with ordinary RT-PCR was 88.89%. The results show that the established real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR detection method has strong specificity, good reproducibility, and high sensitivity, which is of great significance for the rapid and quantitative detection of PEDV.

12.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 51(11):1433-1437, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2155896

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a positive-strand RNA virus with the largest genome among all RNA viruses and can affect a wide range of vertebrate in connection, as well as human. Host cell cytoskeletons have been reported to involved in the process of virus entry, intracellular replication transport, assembly and egress of coronavirus, although many detailed mechanisms are still unclear. This article provides a brief overview of the function of the most prominent coronavirus-induced or -hijacked cytoskeletal structures including actin, microtubu1es and intermediate filaments. This article will provide evidence for future research on the interaction between the coronavirus and the host cytoskeleton.

13.
Cultural Anthropology ; 37(1):30-30–36, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2155861

ABSTRACT

The majority of diseases that afflict humans are shared by nonhuman animals, and three-quarters of emerging diseases do so. People have known this for centuries, understanding that diseases traveled the same routes as did traders, migrants, and soldiers. Zoonosis is a process that involves the movement of a pathogen from a nonhuman animal body to a human animal body, which then triggers disease. In the past, this reality mostly served as an impediment to the bioeconomics of working with animals;in more recent years, research on zoonoses has turned animals into part of bioeconomic logic in themselves.

14.
Global Perspectives ; 2(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2154372

ABSTRACT

This essay argues for the need for research into multispecies relations at the intersection between international political economy, ecology, and disease emergence. It draws attention to the conditions of intensive agribusiness and modern livestock, which alter human-animal-microbe relations, facilitating the emergence of infectious diseases such as the case of mink farms and COVID-19. It also highlights the impact of infection on animals and farming economies. Through a discussion of the ways anthropogenic activities have historically changed the kinds, scale, and spread of human disease, the essay concludes with an appeal to rethink international political economy.

15.
The Health Education Journal ; 81(8):982-992, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2153290

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 crisis has been a fertile ground for misinformation due to several factors such as the uncertainty typical of crises, the hasty handling of information, the virality provided by social networks and the scarce resources that average citizens have to discern between what is true and what is false in the health information they consume. Objective: In this context, this article aims to characterise the COVID-19 hoaxes registered on the Mexican fact-checking platforms Animal Político and Verificado during 2020 and 2021. Method and design: The method used in this study was predominantly quantitative and took the form of content analysis. This method was applied to hoaxes registered on these two fact-checking sites. Results: The primary type of hoax encountered was one of deception, followed by decontextualisation, exaggeration and joking. Disinformation circulates mainly in social media, in various formats that make the false seem more credible. We found that public figures and the media contribute to the spread of health hoaxes. However, they do not contain hate speech as has been the case in other contexts informed by xenophobic and racist agenda. Conclusion: The disinformation on COVID-19 registered on the Mexican fact-checking platforms Animal Político and Verificado during 2020 and 2021 is characterised by a marked concern to question the role of vaccination in confronting and controlling the pandemic. In this way, denialist, conspiracy and anti-vaccine ideas have come to permeate public debate.

16.
Ptitsevodstvo ; 9:65-69, 2022.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2148190

ABSTRACT

The successful experiment in large-scale commercial conditions is described with new vaccination program for broiler parental flock involving vaccination at 130 days of age (at the transfer of pullets to poultry houses for adult broiler breeders) with 4-valent vaccine PROVAC 4 against chicken infectious bronchitis, Newcastle and Gumboro diseases, and reoviral infection, together with additional vaccination against rhinotracheitis. Control treatment was vaccinated according to a standard scheme previously used in the farm, with separate vaccines against the aforementioned diseases;certain vaccines contained several antigens of a single disease. It was found that productive performance in the parental flocks and in broilers from these flocks was similar and consistently high with both vaccination schemes;the antibody titers at different ages of parental flocks were also similar. However, the cost of the experimental vaccination scheme was lower by 16% as compared to the standard one;on 4 batches of parental flock (120,000 hens each) it saved over 1 mio. rubles to the farm. The conclusion was made that vaccine PROVAC 4 can provide prolonged and effective protection of broiler parental flock and its progeny against viral diseases at low financial expenses.

17.
Point Veterinaire ; 52(424):10-12, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147520

ABSTRACT

This article describes the regulatory, health and environmental aspects of defaunation, including its effects on biodiversity, the status of COVID-19 and other zoonoses, wildlife conservation and One Health.

18.
Missouri Medicine ; 119(2):98-105, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2147485

ABSTRACT

Multiple early SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates lacked substantial genetic variability, a finding consistent with the notion that SARS-CoV-2 first was introduced into the human population in late 2019 shortly prior to the earliest recognized cases in Wuhan.7 Proposed potential explanations for initial human exposure to SARS-CoV-2 include 1) direct exposure from bats;2) transmission from bats to an intermediate host and then to humans, or 3) inadvertent or deliberate release from a laboratory where the virus had been stored and perhaps manipulated. Raccoon dogs, subsequently found to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, were caged in the western area of the 12acre market, a location visited by many of the initial cases.11 Multiple other animal species including hedgehogs, badgers, deer, and raccoons, but not bats, were sold at the market.2,11 To borrow an analogy from trauma care, the "golden hour" for elucidation of the epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was in late December 2019.12 Unfortunately, when the Huanan Market was closed on January 1, 2020, no live mammals were screened for SARS-CoV-2, an exercise which would have provided invaluable information about the potential intermediate host or hosts;thus the golden hour was squandered (Figure 1). Multiple lines of evidence, summarized by Holmes et al., do not support this theory.8 No evidence that SARSCoV-2 originated in a laboratory has been identified by multiple investigators using different lines of inquiry: epidemiologic investigation of laboratory workers;evaluation of the pathogenicity of SARSCoV-2 in laboratory animals, including mice, necessary for serial passage in virology experiments;and assessment of the feasibility of altering an existing virus to attain the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2.8 Prior gain-of-function experiments at the Wuhan Institute of Virology used viruses with different genetic backbones than that of SARS-CoV-2 and thus the widely promoted theory that this research caused the pandemic is unfounded.8 Was there an unidentified smoking gun in Wuhan, either at the virology institute or across the Yangtze River at the seafood market? Initiation of a pandemic by transmission from other species to humans has been well-documented on multiple occasions.13 Although the mystery of how SARS-CoV-2 first entered the human population remains unsolved, it seems likely that cross-species transmission occurred, either at the market or nearby, from an as-yet unidentified intermediate host.

19.
Veterinary Times ; 52(24):10-10, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147257

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has focused many minds in respect of infection control, biosecurity, zoonosis and nosocomial infections, which is certainly a good thing. If anything positive can come from the pandemic, perhaps it might act as a "light bulb moment" just as cleanliness was to Florence Nightingale so many years ago, as well as in teaching us all' some important and uncomfortable home truths. COVID-19 was not the first, nor will it be the last, global pandemic. AM of us in health care sectors have a duty of care to patients, staff and populations alike to undertake basic infection control procedures. As references demonstrate, we cannot rely on human cleaning and disinfection in busy clinical settings. We must use procedures and techniques that can run simultaneously with "on-going clinical activities", and are proven to be safe (for patients, staff and the environment), and effective (to national or international standards) to match the requirements of that specific clinical setting. We must test and measure outcomes, we must record and investigate nosocomial and zoonotic incidents. We must continue to learn and improve.

20.
Veterinary Times ; 52(30):6-8, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147103
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