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1.
Geomorphology ; : 108783, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-20240901

ABSTRACT

The 51st Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was held on October 15–17, 2021, at Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Postponed from 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic, this symposium focused on the theme of Geomorphology in the Anthropocene while navigating the unique challenges presented by the waning pandemic. Despite these challenges, twelve live oral presentations were delivered either virtually or in-person and poster presentations were presented under the themes of Biogeomorphology, Climate Change, Land degradation and Erosion, Sedimentological Processes, The Critical Zone, and Natural Hazards. Through continued symposia and special issues such as this one, the Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium seeks to assess the rate of change of geomorphic processes, promote advancement through technological and scientific methodologies, and understand the new paradigms presented by the rapidly changing Earth surface. The authors of this introduction emphasize that, in light of the rapidly-changing geomorphic processes and feedbacks with the climate and biotic systems they affect, practicing geomorphologists and researchers must prioritize sharing our understanding of the natural world and the extent of humans' modifications of all its cycles with the general public and policy-makers: those with little or no formal training in geomorphology, yet who wield considerable power to alter geomorphic processes.

2.
Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies ; 12(1):242-273, 2023.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20233413

ABSTRACT

In these times when we experience, first-hand, the limits of our existence, COVID-19 has proved to be another of the multiple consequences of the human footprint on the Earth ecosystem. The destruction of habitats, the extinction of biodiversity, the climatic emergency have generated a situation of global disease, which places the Earth system at the limits of its capacity and in which humans are not at all oblivious to the consequences of this pathology. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the need to promote an ecosocial transition towards a new eco-civilization, in which the legal paradigm established in the Anthropocene era must necessarily move towards the life system, towards the «Ecocene», a new era in which life is the center and it is articulated through a legal system guided by the welfare and care of all living beings. The conjunction of all eco-legal elements results in the so-called «Earth law», whose main center is the recognition of the pluri-subjectivity and the attribution of rights to all living beings of the Earth ecosystem. © 2023 Universidad de Zaragoza. All rights reserved.

3.
International Explorations in Outdoor and Environmental Education ; 12:199-214, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2324701

ABSTRACT

Childhoodnature encounters can flourish in the Anthropocene. Assembled theories supporting childhoodnature can produce sparks when knocked together. The chemical composition of all living things is composed of the shared building blocks of all life: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur. Indeed, even beyond our own planet, recent research has demonstrated that humans and our galaxy share 97% of the same atoms. Indeed, we are all merely matter circulating with and through bodies, places, and time. This entanglement of matter can be known as sympoiesis. Making together or making with, sympoiesis is a philosophical, ontological, and epistemological concept that rejects notions of human exceptionalism. Rather it supports an entangled and relational view;beings forever adapting, changing, and evolving in relation with one another. Boundaries are blurred between bodies, what is being human and what is being nonhuman is no longer clear. Applying a sympoietic approach to outdoor encounters this chapter explores the doing of childhoodnature and its relationship with outdoor environment education (OEE). Childhoodnature as a concept explicitly recognises children as ecologically congruent to all entities who are currently manifesting liveability on a dying planet. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Insight Turkey ; 24(3):23-31, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2324628

ABSTRACT

The best way to think about the climate emergency is to imagine humanity has just arrived at a new planet somewhere in a distant galaxy. After all, as scientists tell us, our planet Earth will soon look like a new planet, with conditions radically changed from the 'climate niche' of the past 10,000 years, during which human civilization developed. Once settled on the new planet, our task is to terraform it, to build a new natural environment fit for human life and human flourishing. My general approach to the politics of climate change thus differs from the most common view among environmentalists. I do not believe we can speak of climate change as a product of the Anthropocene, the human-built world. Our inability to control the consequences of climate change shows this is still at heart a natural process, one triggered by human beings or, more specifically, by our limited ability to control natural processes and therefore by our incapacity to control the unintended consequences of our actions and choices. The solution to the climate emergency is not to exit the Anthropocene but, intriguingly, to enter it for the first time. The world building is a task significantly full of existential meaning and urgency.

5.
Nihon Seitai Gakkaishi = Japanese Journal of Ecology ; 72(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2319739

ABSTRACT

At this stage of the Great Acceleration of the Anthropocene, humanity is experiencing the global issues of worsening climate change impacts, devastating damage from more frequent and severe natural disasters and the COVID-19 pandemic, all of which are attributable to ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. The global community recognises that these issues pose severe societal and economic risks. “Nature-based solutions” have been posited as a means to address these threats. Nature-based solutions utilise natural terrestrial ecosystem functions to provide environmental, social and economic benefits at low cost. The growing social demand for nature-based solutions constitutes an opportunity for the field of ecology to expand beyond the conventional focus on biodiversity and conservation and shift to presenting biodiversity and ecosystem functions as the basis of human well-being and social sustainability. We sought to identify a trajectory for ecological research that is aimed at contributing to the effective implementation of nature-based solutions. First, we summarise current social needs related to terrestrial ecosystem utilisation. Next, we provide an overview of existing literature and knowledge regarding biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystem function, which are critical to nature-based solutions. Finally, we identify outstanding ecological hurdles to the implementation of these strategies and propose a way forward based on our findings. We explain that any basic presentation of ecological processes requires addressing the impacts of climate change and the interrelatedness of biodiversity, climate and social systems. Enhanced ecological process models are critical for linking biodiversity and ecosystems with climate and social systems. It is crucial to establish a framework that embeds monitoring systems, data infrastructure and delivery systems within society to mobilise terrestrial ecosystem and biodiversity data and results. Furthermore, the implementation of nature-based solutions must include acknowledging trade-offs in objectives and transdisciplinary research with other fields and stakeholders with the shared goal of transformative change. Ecological research must demonstrate more clearly how terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystems are linked to human health and well-being, as well as how they are affected by production and consumption systems. In the age of climate change, the knowledge and tools of the ecologist form the foundation of nature-based solutions and provide an indispensable theoretical basis for this approach.Alternate :æŠ„éŒ²äººæ–°ä¸–ã®å¤§åŠ é€Ÿã¨ã‚‚å‘¼ã°ã‚Œã‚‹æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•ã®æ™‚ä»£ã«ãŠã„ã¦ã€æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•å½±éŸ¿ã®é¡•åœ¨åŒ–ã€è‡ªç„¶ç½å®³ã®æ¿€ç”šåŒ–ãƒ»é »ç™ºåŒ–ã€COVID-19の世界的流行などの地球規模の問題が増大している。国際社会では、ã"ã‚Œã‚‰ã®å•é¡Œã¯ç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»ã®åŠ£åŒ–ã‚„ç”Ÿç‰©å¤šæ§˜æ€§ã®æå¤±ãŒè¦å› ã§ã‚ã‚‹ã"と、そして社会経済にも多大な損害ã‚'与える大きなリスクであるã"とが共通の認識となりつつある。そのような状況ã‚'åæ˜ ã—ã€é™¸åŸŸç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»ã®å¤šé¢çš„ãªæ©Ÿèƒ½ã‚'活用するã"とで、低いコストでç'°å¢ƒãƒ»ç¤¾ä¼šãƒ»çµŒæ¸ˆã«ä¾¿ç›Šã‚'もたらし、社会が抱える複数の課題の解決に貢献する「自然ã‚'基盤とした解決策」という新しい概念に大きな期待が寄せられている。ã"の解決策への社会的なニーズの高まりは、生態学が長年取り組ã‚"できた生物多様性や生態系の保全に関する課題ã‚'超えて、生態学が生物多様性や生態系が豊かな人é–"社会ã‚'継続し発展させる知的基盤となるã"とや、生態学の社会的有用性ã‚'示す機会である。そã"で本稿では、気候変動時代における「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®å®Ÿè·µã«å‘ã‘ãŸç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ç ”ç©¶ã®æ–¹å‘ã¥ã‘ã‚'目的とし、陸域生態系の活用に対する社会的なニーズの現状ã‚'概観する。その上で、「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®éµã¨ãªã‚‹é™¸åŸŸç”Ÿæ ‹ç³»ã®ç”Ÿç‰©å¤šæ§˜æ€§ã‚„ç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»æ©Ÿèƒ½ã«é–¢ã™ã‚‹çŸ¥è¦‹ã‚'整理して課題ã‚'抽出し、ã"れらã‚'è¸ã¾ãˆã¦ä»Šå¾Œã®ç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ç ”ç©¶ã®æ–¹å‘æ€§ã‚'å…·ä½"的に示す。まず、現象の基礎的な理解という観点からは、生物多様性ã‚'含む陸域生態系と気候システムや社会システムとの相äº'関係性ã‚'含めた包括的な気候変動影響のメカニズムの解明と、予測・評価のためのプロセスモデルの高度化ã‚'進めるã"と、そして同時に、陸域生態系と生物多様性の変化ã‚'ç¤ºã™ãŸã‚ã®åŠ¹æžœçš„ãªãƒ¢ãƒ‹ã‚¿ãƒªãƒ³ã‚°ã¨æƒ…å ±åŸºç›¤ã®å¼·åŒ–ã‚'行い、データや分析結果ã‚'社会に還元するフレームワークã‚'構築するã"ã¨ãŒå„ªå…ˆäº‹é …ã§ã‚ã‚‹ã€‚ã‚ˆã‚Šå®Ÿè·µçš„ãªè¦³ç‚¹ã‹ã‚‰ã¯ã€ã€Œè‡ªç„¶ã‚'基盤とした解決策」の実装や社会変革などにおいて共通の目標ã‚'ã‚‚ã¤ä»–åˆ†é‡Žã¨ã®å­¦éš›ç ”ç©¶ã‚'積極的に行うã"とにより、実装における目的é–"のトレードオフã‚'示すã"と、健康・福祉の課題や生産・消費システムの中での陸域生態系や生物多様性への影響や役割ã‚'示すã"ã¨ãªã©ãŒå„ªå…ˆäº‹é …ã¨ãªã‚‹ã€‚æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•ã«ä»£è¡¨ã•ã‚Œã‚‹ä¸ç¢ºå®Ÿæ€§ã®é«˜ã„ç'°å¢ƒä¸‹ã§ã€åŠ¹æžœçš„な「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®å®Ÿæ–½ãŸã‚ã«ã¯ã€ãã®ç§‘å­¦çš„åŸºç›¤ã¨ãªã‚‹ç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ã®çŸ¥è¦‹ã¨ãƒ„ãƒ¼ãƒ«ã¯ä¸å¯æ¬ ã§ã‚ã‚Šã€ã¾ãŸãã®å®Ÿè£…ã‚'通じた社会変革へのé"筋においても生態学の貢献が期待されている。

6.
Tydskrif Vir Geesteswetenskappe ; 62(4):647-661, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2311437

ABSTRACT

A typifying characteristic of Homo sapiens is its ability to walk upright, which allowed humans to move about in grasslands, enabling them to leave the forests of central Africa and populate the rest of Africa and later the world, a success story like no other. Africa is the place of origin of Homo sapiens. The first major migration of anatomically modern humans, known as the Out-of-Africa migration, was the first of many migratory events of Homo sapiens that continue up to the current era that shaped the world and society. This article aims to describe the defining role of human migration in spreading infectious diseases from pre-history to the present. In future, infectious diseases will continue to spread through migration. However, by contrast, the spread of diseases will be exacerbated due to the opportunities provided in the Anthropocene epoch and will become progressively more challenging. Migration is a term that encompasses the simultaneous movement of large numbers or groups of people away from their original place of living and for a specific reason. The main reasons for migration are emigration/immigration, forced displacement, slavery, migrant labour, asylum seeking and refugees. In addition, war, conflict, and environmental disasters such as droughts, famine and overpopulation are other common causes of migration. Migration is usually unplanned;it happens without warning or advanced planning and is accompanied by a large-scale disruption in the socio-economic structure, health, and well-being of the migrants and/or other affected groups. Such major disruptions to individuals' normal living can weaken the immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. In addition, temporary housing during migration can often also result in humanitarian disasters that increase opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Migrants are also at risk of contracting new or previously-unencountered diseases prevalent in their chosen resettlement area. Conversely, migrants can carry with them microorganisms absent in the resettlement area. An example of this is the smallpox virus that was brought to South America by the Spanish colonisers. At that stage, poxvirus was absent in this continent, and the indigenous populations had no immunity to the pathogen. The transmission of the poxvirus by colonizers to indigenous populations almost destroyed the indigenous populations of the time. A form of migration that emerged more recently is travel. Travel migration is defined as the large number of unrelated individuals who travel simultaneously across the globe for work or pleasure. Travel migration has been enabled by advances in the speed by which air and train travel takes place. This results in large numbers of individuals being transported across the globe in a short period and over long distances. Travel by water, air and land resulted in the world's population being highly interconnected through the mingling of large numbers of people from geographically remote places but in a relatively short period. Travelling connects people and diseases across the globe. Examples of pathogens that spread through migration and that cause major infectious diseases include the smallpox virus, the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV), and coronaviruses that cause Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis, and Helicobacter pylori, which can cause gastric ulcers, are among the oldest known bacteria that infect humans and were already present in humans when the Out-of-Africa migration occurred. These two pathogens were carried with humans as they migrated and populated new areas of the world, and both have been present in large numbers of humans over millennia. These two organisms can only spread through very close contact between humans and have no host outside the body;therefore, they are great examples of how migration distributes infectious diseases across the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is exceptionally well-adapted to spread and cause disease among individuals with lower immunity, such as migrants. Poor housing conditions and crowding, which invariably result from migration due to humanitarian disasters, advance the transmission of pathogens such as tuberculosis. Major lifestyle changes of humans occurred from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic after the Out-of-Africa migration, which directly or indirectly benefited the transmission of diseases. During the Neolithic, animals were domesticated, and agriculture started, allowing people to settle down and establishing the first towns and cities. The domestication of animals created an opportunity for pathogens to cross from animals to humans and adapt to the new host to cause new infectious diseases in humans, called zoonosis. The Anthropocene dawned when deforestation, mining, farming, and other human activities left their mark. As a result, the Anthropocene offers unique opportunities for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases: firstly, by zoonosis or the transmission of diseases from animals to humans, and secondly, the spread of the diseases through migration. Furthermore, changes in the weather and climate can lead to environmental migration. This occurs when people need to abandon their normal place of living because of severe weather events such as droughts and ice ages. Labour migration was responsible for the spread of HIV from its place of origin in Africa. This virus initially landed in humans through inter-species cross-over from primates to humans in the 1950s from eating semi-cooked bush meat. As a result, it became established in the indigenous populations of Africa. HIV is a sexually transmitted disease amongst humans, and migratory labourers from Haiti were infected with the virus while working in the Congo, where they transmitted the virus to people in Haiti upon their return. The MERS and SARS coronaviruses became human pathogens due to bat-human species cross-over, probably due to eating bush meat. However, the rapid distribution of these two viruses to other areas of the world was enabled through travel migration and the highly connected world population. Similarly, the extremely rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) upon its discovery in December 2019 was partly due to travel migration. In future, the negative impact of infectious diseases can be prevented by having disaster preparedness plans to protect the health and well-being of migrants and resident populations. However, events that can potentially be disastrous are difficult to pre-empt: the world was largely unprepared on how to respond to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and how to control the ensuing pandemic. Other recent examples of similar unforeseen events are the Ukraine-Russian conflict that started in March 2022, which caused many people from Ukraine to flee to other countries for safety. The second example is the heavy rain of April 2022 in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, which caused massive destruction of houses and infrastructure, resulting in affected people being displaced. In both cases, the reasons for migration can have a detrimental impact on the health of the affected people, which renders them susceptible to disease transmission.

7.
Perspectives on Global Development and Technology ; 21(5-6):382-402, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2303917

ABSTRACT

This article sets out to analyze the connections between three different but related phenomena (capitalist globalization, the Anthropocene, and the coronavirus epidemic) through the lens of iconic buildings and spaces and the cities in which they are mostly found. I argue that the transnational capitalist class uses cities as competitors in a global system of lucrative investment opportunities. Capitalist globalization is widely implicated in the Anthropocene (signifying human impacts on the Earth system, usually destructive) and together they facilitate the spread of the coronavirus. The concept of "administrative evil"is mobilized to highlight the ethical dimensions of city planning, and the increasingly "beleaguered city." © Leslie Sklair, 2023.

8.
CounterText ; 8(3):385-412, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2295430

ABSTRACT

Departing from the (post-)Anthropocenic crisis state of today's world, fuelled by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, various post-truth populist follies, and an apocalyptic WW3-scenario that has been hanging in the air since the 2022 invasion of Ukraine, this article argues for the possibility – and necessity – of an affirmative posthumanist-materialist mapping of hope. Embedded in the Deleuzoguattarian-Braidottian (see Deleuze and Guattari 2005 [1980];Braidotti 2011 [1994]) methodology of critical cartography, and infused with critical posthumanist, new materialist, and queer theoretical perspectives, this cartography of hope is sketched out against two permacrisis-infused positionalities: nostalgic humanism and tragic (post-)humanism. Forced to navigate between these two extremes, the critical cartography of hope presented here explores hope in nume-rous historico-philosophical (re-)configurations: from the premodern ‘hope-as-all-too-human', to a more politicised early modern ‘hope-as-(politically-)human' – representing hope's first paradigm shift (politicisation), and from a four decades-long neoliberal redrawing of hope as ‘no-more-hope' – hope's second shift (depoliticisation) – to a critical (new) materialist plea to de-anthropocentrise and re-politicise hope – hope's third and final post-Anthropocenic shift (re-politicisation). By mapping these (re-)configurations of hope, a philosophical plea is made for hope as a material(ist) praxis that can help us better understand – and counter – these extractive late capitalist, neoliberal more-than-human crisis times. © Edinburgh University Press.

9.
Journal of Writing in Creative Practice ; 15(2):220-263, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2259129

ABSTRACT

A microsœpic being changing the socioeconomic stmcture of societies worldwide is forcing us to confront our porosity. Covid-19 permeating and altering the bodies of so many begs the question - have we ever been individuals? Matter Poetics, Melange and the Ticheuised Poathumau interrogates the ways in which our entangled existence is presented within science fiction media, using Frank Herbert's seminal work Dune [1965) and the fictional mind-altering drug Melange to fi-anie a discursive speculation surrounding the holobiotic existence of all Earthlings. Alternative theories surrounding symbiosis, taxonomy, mortality and consciousness expansion are sketched, calling for a reconsideration of what constitutes "the human" in such perilous times for the planet. The text examines literature, film, conceptual art and philosophical meditations. Tlie mycelial practices of Jae Rliim Lee and Jordon Belson, the posthuman ideologies of Drew Milne, Donna Haraway and Lynn Margulis, and Alex Garland'y Annihilation (2018) are explored;thoughts and arguments, like matter, arc scattered amorphously. Covid-19 restructuring the way we live our lives has made many more of us realise the fragility of the human condition. Science fiction is and always has been intertwined with our realities- can such speculations help us escape our dystopian reality by facilitating a re-evaluation of our inextricable connection to the natural world? © 2022 Intellect Ltd Visual Essay. English language.

10.
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe ; 62(4):647-661, 2022.
Article in Afrikaans | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2285138

ABSTRACT

A typifying characteristic of Homo sapiens is its ability to walk upright, which allowed humans to move about in grasslands, enabling them to leave the forests of central Africa and populate the rest of Africa and later the world, a success story like no other. Africa is the place of origin of Homo sapiens. The first major migration of anatomically modern humans, known as the Out-of-Africa migration, was the first of many migratory events of Homo sapiens that continue up to the current era that shaped the world and society. This article aims to describe the defining role of human migration in spreading infectious diseases from pre-history to the present. In future, infectious diseases will continue to spread through migration. However, by contrast, the spread of diseases will be exacerbated due to the opportunities provided in the Anthropocene epoch and will become progressively more challenging. Migration is a term that encompasses the simultaneous movement of large numbers or groups of people away from their original place of living and for a specific reason. The main reasons for migration are emigration/immigration, forced displacement, slavery, migrant labour, asylum seeking and refugees. In addition, war, conflict, and environmental disasters such as droughts, famine and overpopulation are other common causes of migration. Migration is usually unplanned;it happens without warning or advanced planning and is accompanied by a large-scale disruption in the socio-economic structure, health, and well-being of the migrants and/or other affected groups. Such major disruptions to individuals' normal living can weaken the immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. In addition, temporary housing during migration can often also result in humanitarian disasters that increase opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Migrants are also at risk of contracting new or previously-unencountered diseases prevalent in their chosen resettlement area. Conversely, migrants can carry with them microorganisms absent in the resettlement area. An example of this is the smallpox virus that was brought to South America by the Spanish colonisers. At that stage, poxvirus was absent in this continent, and the indigenous populations had no immunity to the pathogen. The transmission of the poxvirus by colonizers to indigenous populations almost destroyed the indigenous populations of the time. A form of migration that emerged more recently is travel. Travel migration is defined as the large number of unrelated individuals who travel simultaneously across the globe for work or pleasure. Travel migration has been enabled by advances in the speed by which air and train travel takes place. This results in large numbers of individuals being transported across the globe in a short period and over long distances. Travel by water, air and land resulted in the world's population being highly interconnected through the mingling of large numbers of people from geographically remote places but in a relatively short period. Travelling connects people and diseases across the globe. Examples of pathogens that spread through migration and that cause major infectious diseases include the smallpox virus, the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV), and coronaviruses that cause Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis, and Helicobacter pylori, which can cause gastric ulcers, are among the oldest known bacteria that infect humans and were already present in humans when the Out-of-Africa migration occurred. These two pathogens were carried with humans as they migrated and populated new areas of the world, and both have been present in large numbers of humans over millennia. These two organisms can only spread through very close contact between humans and have no host outside the body;therefore, they are great examples of how migration distributes infectious diseases across the world Mycobacterium tuberculosis is exceptionally well-adapted to spread and cause disease among individuals with lower immunity, such as migrants. Poor housing conditions and crowding, which invariably result from migration due to humanitarian disasters, advance the transmission of pathogens such as tuberculosis. Major lifestyle changes of humans occurred from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic after the Out-of-Africa migration, which directly or indirectly benefited the transmission of diseases. During the Neolithic, animals were domesticated, and agriculture started, allowing people to settle down and establishing the first towns and cities. The domestication of animals created an opportunity for pathogens to cross from animals to humans and adapt to the new host to cause new infectious diseases in humans, called zoonosis. The Anthropocene dawned when deforestation, mining, farming, and other human activities left their mark. As a result, the Anthropocene offers unique opportunities for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases: firstly, by zoonosis or the transmission of diseases from animals to humans, and secondly, the spread of the diseases through migration. Furthermore, changes in the weather and climate can lead to environmental migration. This occurs when people need to abandon their normal place of living because of severe weather events such as droughts and ice ages. Labour migration was responsible for the spread of HIV from its place of origin in Africa. This virus initially landed in humans through inter-species cross-over from primates to humans in the 1950s from eating semi-cooked bush meat. As a result, it became established in the indigenous populations of Africa. HIV is a sexually transmitted disease amongst humans, and migratory labourers from Haiti were infected with the virus while working in the Congo, where they transmitted the virus to people in Haiti upon their return. The MERS and SARS coronaviruses became human pathogens due to bat-human species cross-over, probably due to eating bush meat. However, the rapid distribution of these two viruses to other areas of the world was enabled through travel migration and the highly connected world population. Similarly, the extremely rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) upon its discovery in December 2019 was partly due to travel migration. In future, the negative impact of infectious diseases can be prevented by having disaster preparedness plans to protect the health and well-being of migrants and resident populations. However, events that can potentially be disastrous are difficult to pre-empt: the world was largely unprepared on how to respond to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and how to control the ensuing pandemic. Other recent examples of similar unforeseen events are the Ukraine-Russian conflict that started in March 2022, which caused many people from Ukraine to flee to other countries for safety. The second example is the heavy rain of April 2022 in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, which caused massive destruction of houses and infrastructure, resulting in affected people being displaced. In both cases, the reasons for migration can have a detrimental impact on the health of the affected people, which renders them susceptible to disease transmission. © 2022 South African Academy for Science and the Arts. All rights reserved.

11.
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe ; 62(4):647-661, 2022.
Article in Afrikaans | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2285137

ABSTRACT

A typifying characteristic of Homo sapiens is its ability to walk upright, which allowed humans to move about in grasslands, enabling them to leave the forests of central Africa and populate the rest of Africa and later the world, a success story like no other. Africa is the place of origin of Homo sapiens. The first major migration of anatomically modern humans, known as the Out-of-Africa migration, was the first of many migratory events of Homo sapiens that continue up to the current era that shaped the world and society. This article aims to describe the defining role of human migration in spreading infectious diseases from pre-history to the present. In future, infectious diseases will continue to spread through migration. However, by contrast, the spread of diseases will be exacerbated due to the opportunities provided in the Anthropocene epoch and will become progressively more challenging. Migration is a term that encompasses the simultaneous movement of large numbers or groups of people away from their original place of living and for a specific reason. The main reasons for migration are emigration/immigration, forced displacement, slavery, migrant labour, asylum seeking and refugees. In addition, war, conflict, and environmental disasters such as droughts, famine and overpopulation are other common causes of migration. Migration is usually unplanned;it happens without warning or advanced planning and is accompanied by a large-scale disruption in the socio-economic structure, health, and well-being of the migrants and/or other affected groups. Such major disruptions to individuals' normal living can weaken the immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. In addition, temporary housing during migration can often also result in humanitarian disasters that increase opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Migrants are also at risk of contracting new or previously-unencountered diseases prevalent in their chosen resettlement area. Conversely, migrants can carry with them microorganisms absent in the resettlement area. An example of this is the smallpox virus that was brought to South America by the Spanish colonisers. At that stage, poxvirus was absent in this continent, and the indigenous populations had no immunity to the pathogen. The transmission of the poxvirus by colonizers to indigenous populations almost destroyed the indigenous populations of the time. A form of migration that emerged more recently is travel. Travel migration is defined as the large number of unrelated individuals who travel simultaneously across the globe for work or pleasure. Travel migration has been enabled by advances in the speed by which air and train travel takes place. This results in large numbers of individuals being transported across the globe in a short period and over long distances. Travel by water, air and land resulted in the world's population being highly interconnected through the mingling of large numbers of people from geographically remote places but in a relatively short period. Travelling connects people and diseases across the globe. Examples of pathogens that spread through migration and that cause major infectious diseases include the smallpox virus, the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV), and coronaviruses that cause Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis, and Helicobacter pylori, which can cause gastric ulcers, are among the oldest known bacteria that infect humans and were already present in humans when the Out-of-Africa migration occurred. These two pathogens were carried with humans as they migrated and populated new areas of the world, and both have been present in large numbers of humans over millennia. These two organisms can only spread through very close contact between humans and have no host outside the body;therefore, they are great examples of how migration distributes infectious diseases across the world Mycobacterium tuberculosis is exceptionally well-adapted to spread and cause disease among individuals with lower immunity, such as migrants. Poor housing conditions and crowding, which invariably result from migration due to humanitarian disasters, advance the transmission of pathogens such as tuberculosis. Major lifestyle changes of humans occurred from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic after the Out-of-Africa migration, which directly or indirectly benefited the transmission of diseases. During the Neolithic, animals were domesticated, and agriculture started, allowing people to settle down and establishing the first towns and cities. The domestication of animals created an opportunity for pathogens to cross from animals to humans and adapt to the new host to cause new infectious diseases in humans, called zoonosis. The Anthropocene dawned when deforestation, mining, farming, and other human activities left their mark. As a result, the Anthropocene offers unique opportunities for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases: firstly, by zoonosis or the transmission of diseases from animals to humans, and secondly, the spread of the diseases through migration. Furthermore, changes in the weather and climate can lead to environmental migration. This occurs when people need to abandon their normal place of living because of severe weather events such as droughts and ice ages. Labour migration was responsible for the spread of HIV from its place of origin in Africa. This virus initially landed in humans through inter-species cross-over from primates to humans in the 1950s from eating semi-cooked bush meat. As a result, it became established in the indigenous populations of Africa. HIV is a sexually transmitted disease amongst humans, and migratory labourers from Haiti were infected with the virus while working in the Congo, where they transmitted the virus to people in Haiti upon their return. The MERS and SARS coronaviruses became human pathogens due to bat-human species cross-over, probably due to eating bush meat. However, the rapid distribution of these two viruses to other areas of the world was enabled through travel migration and the highly connected world population. Similarly, the extremely rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) upon its discovery in December 2019 was partly due to travel migration. In future, the negative impact of infectious diseases can be prevented by having disaster preparedness plans to protect the health and well-being of migrants and resident populations. However, events that can potentially be disastrous are difficult to pre-empt: the world was largely unprepared on how to respond to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and how to control the ensuing pandemic. Other recent examples of similar unforeseen events are the Ukraine-Russian conflict that started in March 2022, which caused many people from Ukraine to flee to other countries for safety. The second example is the heavy rain of April 2022 in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, which caused massive destruction of houses and infrastructure, resulting in affected people being displaced. In both cases, the reasons for migration can have a detrimental impact on the health of the affected people, which renders them susceptible to disease transmission. © 2022 South African Academy for Science and the Arts. All rights reserved.

12.
Mind & Society ; 20(2):215-219, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2284055

ABSTRACT

This author offers of narrative of hope in response to the coronavirus pandemic by viewing it as a wake-up call to lean into the adaptive moral challenge of stewardship for the future of humanity and the planet. Acknowledging the many material and social benefits of a global regime of free market urbanism built on advances in science and technology, this is a point in geohistory, the Anthropocene, when the impact of human activities on the Earth has begun to outcompete natural processes. The coronavirus has illuminated systemic moral failures and new moral challenges of the Anthropocene that call for adaptive response if we are to build a hopeful future for humanity and the planet. Pointing to millennia of human adaptive response to threats and disasters, the author asserts an evolutionary hardiness attributable as much to moral capacities as rational intelligence as a singularly defining trait fueling millennia of human adaptive learning and thrival. The current pandemic is the latest point in humanity's moral evolution of adaptive response to moments of urgent threat that have tested, expanded, and defined our character and moral capacities as a species. Rather than falter under the moral burden of the coronavirus threat and its consequences, the author views this pivotal point as an opportunity to stretch human moral horizons by taking responsibility for the urgent moral challenges we have created and inventing new ethical frameworks and tools that will lead us to new moral understandings and solutions to the moral challenges we face.

13.
World Conference on Information Systems for Business Management, ISBM 2022 ; 324:495-508, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2273157

ABSTRACT

In this Anthropocene era, it is relevant to understand how culture influences humans' ecological behavior. This research aims to understand the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on temple-led eco-conservation strategies from the Sasthamcotta Shri Dharma Sastha temple, known for its natural landscapes and pro-environmental activities. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews was conducted virtually among the people who regularly interact with the temple. The data was collected directly from the field and is analyzed systematically based on grounded theory. The findings indicate that temples can generate eco-conservation approaches that are socio-psychologically relevant to humans, such as (a) connectedness to nature, (b) sense of place, (c) values, beliefs, and norms, and (d) general awareness. The temple also serves as a management hub for (e) pro-social activities and (f) environmental decision-making. Managerial factors such as pro-social activities and environmental decision-making were curtailed during the COVID-19 lockdown, and the strategies based on socio-psychological factors remain unchanged. According to our findings, new environmental conservation strategies should be based on socio-psychological aspects that are more in line with the mental model of the community. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

14.
Social Anthropology / Anthropologie Sociale ; 29(4):883-906, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2271014

ABSTRACT

This review article surveys all of the articles published in the major Anglophone European social anthropology journals in 2020. Taking a perspective from Joel Robbins' theorising of 'the anthropology of the good' as a critique of the primacy of 'dark anthropology', it highlights the rich range of ethnography and analysis recently produced. Focusing on the continuing interest in ontology, environment, relations and the problems inherent in anthropological comparison, the review article identifies how-during the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic-the discipline has continued to respond with vigour and resilience. An ongoing resurgence of the anthropology of religion is noted, as is the emergence of powerful emic exploration of such global phenomena as care, debt and corporate capitalism. The review article concludes with a reflection on the ideological and epistemological challenges social anthropology continues to face, both in the academy and more widely. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved) Abstract (French) Cet article passe en revue tous les articles publies dans les principales revues europeennes anglo-phones d'anthropologie sociale en 2020. S'inspirant de la theorie de Joel Robbins sur 'l'anthro- pologie du bien' comme critique de la primaute de 'l'anthropologie sombre', il met en evidence la richesse des ethnographies et des analyses produites recemment. En se concentrant sur l'interet continu pour l'ontologie, l'environnement, les relations et les problemes inherents a la comparai- son anthropologique, l'article identifie comment -pendant la crise de la pandemie COVID 19-la discipline a continue a repondre avec vigueur et resilience. On note une resurgence continue de l'anthropologie de la religion, ainsi que l'emergence d'une exploration emique puissante de phenomenes mondiaux tels que les soins, la dette et le capitalisme d'entreprise. L'article de syn- these se termine par une reflexion sur les defis ideologiques et epistemologiques auxquels l'an- thropologie sociale continue d'etre confrontee, tant au sein du milieu universitaire que dans un cadre plus large. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
Conservation Letters ; 16(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2266941

ABSTRACT

In the present Anthropocene, wild animals are globally affected by human activity. Consumer fireworks during New Year (NY) are widely distributed in W-Europe and cause strong disturbances that are known to incur stress responses in animals. We analyzed GPS tracks of 347 wild migratory geese of four species during eight NYs quantifying the effects of fireworks on individuals. We show that, in parallel with particulate matter increases, during the night of NY geese flew on average 5–16 km further and 40–150 m higher, and more often shifted to new roost sites than on previous nights. This was also true during the 2020–2021 fireworks ban, despite fireworks activity being reduced. Likely to compensate for extra flight costs, most geese moved less and increased their feeding activity in the following days. Our findings indicate negative effects of NY fireworks on wild birds beyond the previously demonstrated immediate response.

16.
Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities ; 14(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2265686

ABSTRACT

This paper seeks to situate the anxieties engendered by the COVID-19 pandemic within the framework of the Anthropocene to analyse the multi-faceted ramifications of human and nonhuman interaction. By connecting this ongoing global crisis of human health with the politics of climate change, it attempts to read the forgotten agency of the nonhuman microbe in the light of the rude disruption of the traditional understandings of biopolitics (where bare life has taken centre stage) and the difficulties it has brought in bridging the rift between and concrete information, leading to the scapegoating of victims. It ends with the suggestion of preparation for greener futures by imagining human health within planetary health instead of an anxious wait for a return to pre-pandemic times. © 2022 Aesthetics Media Services. All rights reserved.

17.
Natures Sciences Societes ; 359(4), 2023.
Article in French | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2265013

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 crisis has given a rare visibility to science in the making , with still uncertain effects on the image of science. In any case, it offered a moment of reflection on the place of science and working conditions of scientists, from which we can already draw some lessons in the sociology of science, with a particular interest in the way knowledge is produced on the history of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. First of all, the question of its origin has enabled scientists to underline with great clarity the dependence of their knowledge capacities on political choices. Another interesting aspect of their discourses is that they show how much scientific credibility also depends on a collective effort carried out outside laboratories. The pandemic has in addition increased the credibility both of emerging and forgotten specialties, and shown the complementarity of very different ways of doing'science. Finally, it has confirmed the inclusion of virology in a scientific and political movement associated with the great narrative of the Anthropocene . The question of the origin of the virus is still open, however, and is the subject of a controversy that further enriches its sociological interest. © 2023 Authors. All rights reserved.

18.
Eco-anxiety and pandemic distress: Psychological perspectives on resilience and interconnectedness ; : 133-142, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2262245

ABSTRACT

When the pandemic struck, many countries went into lockdown mode;India did so for 21 days starting on March 24, 2020. In addition to the people who were already in quarantine, the experience during the lockdown has impacted our "normal" experience of home as people have been asked to stay at home. In the Anthropocene, the geological epoch where humans are acting as a planetary force, the questions of "home" and "ownership" have come under intense scrutiny because various species are losing their natural habitats and face extinction. This chapter proposes to investigate the elementality of home that marks the pandemic and the Anthropocene. To locate this threshold, we follow the conceptual motif of sanctuary and shelter to illuminate the structure of home during the pandemic. The chapter discusses the various inflections of home in the pandemic and its construction as a scientifically validated shelter from the virus. It focuses on the figure of the migrant and how the rootlessness of the migrant can be understood in the face of Gaia, our planet as a sanctuary in the Anthropocene. To discuss on futures that are lost, the chapter reflects on images of home-as-sanctuary relative to the pandemic and the Anthropocene. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

19.
New Media & Society ; 25(2):324-344, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2260975

ABSTRACT

Amid a warming planet and a surge in digital activity precipitated by COVID-19 lockdowns, the ecological impacts of cloud infrastructures are of increasing interest to scholars and publics. Deemed "essential workers," data center operators maintain server uptime by keeping equipment cool (via air conditioning). Failure results in overheating and a state of service interruption called downtime. Drawing on ethnographic research in data centers, this article introduces the concept of thermotemporalities to illustrate how time, temperature, and expertise converge in novel formations. By attending to the embodied practices and discursive pronouncements of data center operators, I reveal how uptime (cold) and downtime (hot), a binary opposition, are performative genres rather than discrete referents. Emerging out of this dyadic interplay, I locate a species of aspirational identity I call thermomasculinities. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of New Media & Society is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

20.
International Journal of Performance Arts and Digital Media ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2250068

ABSTRACT

Using the centennial anniversary of TS Eliot's The Waste Land as an opportune moment to reconsider the reflexive and the discursive in addressing themes occupying critical and creative thought, this document discusses the collaboration between a social scientist and a playwright during and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Its main output, a play titled Wasteland, had an understory framed by the problem-event of the lockdown as it confronted not only the negativity of wasteland but also the possibility of negating it simultaneously. The play situates itself in the privileged UCL Student Centre to probe its ‘storied matter' through repeated re-enactments. As an encounter between words and worlds across a temporal threshold marked by ‘becoming-events', the play draws the building into focus, diffracting it, blurring it, and finally opening it up as a wasteland. Based on the Ancient Greek theatrical tradition of City Dionysia, it relies on ‘preplays', multiple ‘draft' readings, to emphasise less a staged performance and more an identity text that is unhurried, unfinished, improvised and provisional. For, in the inter-subjective exchanges within this text we find ‘the sense of ongoingness' (Berlant 2008) to inhabit the now of our (post)pandemic present. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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