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1.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960148

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory virus and there is no evidence of transfusion transmission for COVID-19;1, 2 however, estimation of the seroprevalence rate of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) in blood donors' population reflects the progression of the epidemic in the region. It is unclear how many people have contracted the virus since only symptomatic cases have been registered. For this reason, and as a part of the National Centre for Disease Control preparedness plan to combat the spread of the COVID-19 infection in the Tobruk region, eastern Libya, we conducted a cross-sectional study between January 15 to February 15, 2021, six months after the identification of the first confirmed COVID-19 case in the region on 23 July 2020. 3.

2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID-19 vaccine boosting is a potent tool in the ongoing pandemic. Relevant data regarding this approach during pregnancy are lacking, which affects vaccination policy guidance, public acceptance, and vaccine uptake during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate the dynamics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels following SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and to characterize the effect of a single postinfection vaccine booster dose on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in parturients in comparison with the levels in naïve vaccinated and convalescent, nonboosted parturients. STUDY DESIGN: Serum samples prospectively collected from parturients and umbilical cords at delivery at our university-affiliated urban medical center in Jerusalem, Israel, from May to October 2021, were selected and analyzed in a case-control manner. Study groups comprised the following participants: a consecutive sample of parturients with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed history of COVID-19 during any stage of pregnancy; and comparison groups selected according to time of exposure comprising (1) convalescent, nonboosted parturients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19; (2) convalescent parturients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 who received a single booster dose of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine; and (3) infection-naïve, fully vaccinated parturients who received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine. Outcomes that were determined included maternal and umbilical cord blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels detected at delivery, the reported side effects, and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 228 parturients aged 18 to 45 years were included. Of those, samples from 64 were studied to characterize the titer dynamics following COVID-19 at all stages of pregnancy. The boosting effect was determined by comparing (1) convalescent (n=54), (2) boosted convalescent (n=60), and (3) naïve, fully vaccinated (n=114) parturients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels detected on delivery showed a gradual and significant decline over time from infection to delivery (r=0.4371; P=.0003). Of the gravidae infected during the first trimester, 34.6% (9/26) tested negative at delivery, compared with 9.1% (3/33) of those infected during the second trimester (P=.023). Significantly higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were observed among boosted convalescent than among nonboosted convalescent (17.6-fold; P<.001) and naïve vaccinated parturients (3.2-fold; P<.001). Similar patterns were observed in umbilical cord blood. Side effects in convalescent gravidae resembled those in previous reports of mild symptoms following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Postinfection maternal humoral immunity wanes during pregnancy, leading to low or undetectable protective titers for a marked proportion of patients. A single boosting dose of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine induced a robust increase in protective titers for both the mother and newborn with moderate reported side effects.

3.
Nephron ; : 1-8, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for severe COVID-19 disease. Despite a high early seropositivity rate, dialysis patients mount a dampened immune response following two doses of an mRNA vaccine. This study aimed to evaluate the serologic response to a booster dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, 6 months after the second dose, among hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This prospective study included 80 hemodialysis patients and 56 healthcare workers serving as controls. Serologic samples were evaluated before and ∼3 weeks after the third vaccine dose. The primary outcomes were the seropositivity rate and the log-transformed anti-SARS-COV-2 S1 (RBD) IgG as a continuous variable after the third dose. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of participants with "high response," defined as antibody levels >1,000 AU/mL, and "robust response," defined as antibody levels >4,160 AU/mL, according to prespecified cutoff values associated with neutralizing antibodies. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify predictors of antibody response. RESULTS: Among 80 hemodialysis patients, seropositivity rates improved from 78% (62/80) before the third dose, up to 96% (77/80) after the booster dose. The S1-RBD log-transformed antibody level increased significantly following the third dose from 2.15 ± 0.75 to 3.99 ± 0.83 compared with 2.65 ± 0.4 to 4.31 ± 0.42 in the control group. Among the hemodialysis patients, 88% (70/80) became "high responders" (>1,000 AU/mL), and of these, 79% (63/80) mounted a "robust response" (>4,160 AU/mL). Baseline antibody level, dialysis therapy, and hypoalbuminemia were independent predictors of impaired antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: A third dose of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine, 6 months after the standard two-dose vaccination regimen, substantially improved humoral response in hemodialysis patients.

4.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0098622, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962112

ABSTRACT

Past severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is an important determinant of protection from reinfection and of postvaccine immune responses. Herein, we conducted a follow-up analysis of health care workers previously infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with the aim of evaluating different immunoassays for their capability in detecting the waning anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses and accuracy in documenting past SARS-CoV-2 infections. We evaluated serum antinucleocapsid antibody levels in convalescent individuals following a 1.5-year interval from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Three different commercial immunoassays that qualitatively measure serum antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, namely, the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG, the Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 NCP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG, and the Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2, were tested for comparison of detectability. A total of 38 individuals consented to participating in this follow-up analysis. From assay to assay, seropositivity rate at 18 months from infection varied from lowest at 42% to highest at 92%. The Roche Elecsys immunoassay, dependent on the dual-antigen antibody detection method and tuned for the detection of high avidity antibodies, was most capable of accurately documenting past SARS-CoV-2 infections. Different immunoassays showed variable capability of determining previous infection status under waning antibody concentrations. Immunoassays with lower detection limits are to be selected, and adjusted thresholds are to be considered in order to maximize the tests' performance. IMPORTANCE Past SARS-CoV-2 infection is an important determinant of protection from reinfection and of postvaccine immune responses. Our results show that different immunoassays, by design, harbor variable capability of tracking SARS-CoV-2 infection under waning antibody concentrations. With each recovered patient standing at a unique time point along the decline curve of antibodies, precise estimation of COVID-19 cumulative incidence remains a challenge. Since future surveillance studies will be targeting more than ever heterogenous cohorts, selecting the appropriate immunoassay is crucial in order to assure reliable decisions about an individual's previous infection status.

5.
J Virol ; : e0055822, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962090

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve, several variants of concern (VOCs) have arisen which are defined by multiple mutations in their spike proteins. These VOCs have shown variable escape from antibody responses and have been shown to trigger qualitatively different antibody responses during infection. By studying plasma from individuals infected with either the original D614G, Beta, or Delta variants, we showed that the Beta and Delta variants elicit antibody responses that are overall more cross-reactive than those triggered by D614G. Patterns of cross-reactivity varied, and the Beta and Delta variants did not elicit cross-reactive responses to each other. However, Beta-elicited plasma was highly cross-reactive against Delta Plus (Delta+), which differs from Delta by a single K417N mutation in the receptor binding domain, suggesting that the plasma response targets the N417 residue. To probe this further, we isolated monoclonal antibodies from a Beta-infected individual with plasma responses against Beta, Delta+, and Omicron, which all possess the N417 residue. We isolated an N417-dependent antibody, 084-7D, which showed similar neutralization breadth to the plasma. The 084-7D MAb utilized the IGHV3-23*01 germ line gene and had somatic hypermutations similar to those of previously described public antibodies which target the 417 residue. Thus, we have identified a novel antibody which targets a shared epitope found on three distinct VOCs, enabling their cross-neutralization. Understanding antibodies targeting escape mutations, such as K417N, which repeatedly emerge through convergent evolution in SARS-CoV-2 variants, may aid in the development of next-generation antibody therapeutics and vaccines. IMPORTANCE The evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in variants of concern (VOCs) with distinct spike mutations conferring various immune escape profiles. These variable mutations also influence the cross-reactivity of the antibody response mounted by individuals infected with each of these variants. This study sought to understand the antibody responses elicited by different SARS-CoV-2 variants and to define shared epitopes. We show that Beta and Delta infections resulted in antibody responses that were more cross-reactive than the original D614G variant, but they had differing patterns of cross-reactivity. We further isolated an antibody from Beta infection which targeted the N417 site, enabling cross-neutralization of Beta, Delta+, and Omicron, all of which possess this residue. The discovery of antibodies which target escape mutations common to multiple variants highlights conserved epitopes to target in future vaccines and therapeutics.

6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether inactivated COVID-19 vaccine influences the profile of prothrombotic autoantibodies and induces thrombotic events in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients. METHODS: We enrolled 39 primary APS patients who received two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBPCorV, Sinopharm, Beijing, China) voluntarily in this prospective cohort. Prothrombotic autoantibodies were determined before vaccination and four weeks after the 2nd dose of vaccination. Thrombotic disorders were evaluated via hospital site visits and assessments. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the presence of all eleven autoantibodies detected before and four weeks after vaccination: for aCL, IgG (14 vs. 16, P= 0.64), IgM (13 vs. 19, P= 0.34), IgA (2 vs. 3, P= 0.64); anti-ß2GP1, IgG (12 vs. 12, P= 1.00), IgM (5 vs. 8, P= 0.36), IgA (4 vs. 3, P= 0.69); aPS/PT IgG (13 vs. 16, P= 0.48), IgM (17 vs. 22, P= 0.26); LAC (22 vs. 28, P= 0.16); aPF4-heparin (0 vs. 0, P= 1.00), and antinuclear antibody (ANA) (23 vs. 26, P= 0.48). Notably, the distribution of aPL profile in pre- and post- vaccination cohort was not affected by SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: for patients with low-risk aPL profile (11 vs. 10, P= 0.799) and patients with high-risk aPL profile (28 vs. 29, P= 0.799), respectively. Furthermore, no case exhibited symptoms of the thrombotic disorder during a minimum follow-up period of 12 weeks. There was no adjustment to the ongoing treatment regimens following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine does not influence the profile of antiphospholipid antibodies and anti-PF4-heparin antibodies nor induces thrombotic events in primary APS patients.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac282, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961128

ABSTRACT

We completed a real-world analysis of 498 consecutive high-risk nonimmunocompromised and immunocompromised patients who received sotrovimab during the B.1.1.529 surge. Emergency department visits/hospitalizations and 30-day all-cause mortality between the 2 groups were similar. When administered early, sotrovimab is effective at preventing coronavirus disease 2019 progression in immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised patients.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The open-label RECOVERY study reported improved survival in hospitalized, SARS-CoV-2 seronegative patients treated with casirivimab and imdevimab (CAS + IMD). METHODS: In this phase I/II/III, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted prior to widespread circulation of Delta and Omicron, hospitalized COVID-19 patients were randomized (1:1:1) to 2.4 g or 8.0 g CAS + IMD or placebo, and characterized at baseline for viral load and SARS-CoV-2 serostatus. RESULTS: 1336 patients on low-flow or no supplemental (low-flow/no) oxygen were treated. The primary endpoint was met: in seronegative patients, the least-squares mean difference (CAS + IMD versus placebo) for time-weighted average change from baseline in viral load through day 7 was -0.28 log10 copies/mL (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.05; P = .0172). The primary clinical analysis of death or mechanical ventilation (death/MV) from day 6-29 in patients with high viral load had a strong positive trend but did not reach significance. CAS + IMD numerically reduced all-cause mortality in seronegative patients through day 29 (relative risk reduction, 55.6%; 95% CI, 24.2-74.0). No safety concerns were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized COVID-19 patients on low-flow/no oxygen, CAS + IMD reduced viral load and likely improves clinical outcomes in the overall population, with the benefit driven by seronegative patients, and no harm observed in seropositive patients.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961057

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) emerged 20 years ago presaging a series of subsequent infectious disease epidemics of international concern. The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has underscored the importance of targeted preparedness research to enable rapid countermeasure development during a crisis. In December 2021 NIAID, building upon the successful strategies developed during the SARS-CoV-2 response and to prepare for future pandemics, published a pandemic preparedness plan that outlined a research strategy focused on priority pathogens, technology platforms, and prototype pathogens. To accelerate the discovery, development, and evaluation of medical countermeasures against new or previously unknown pathogens of pandemic potential, we present here a strategy of research directed at select prototype pathogens. In this manner, leveraging a prototype pathogen approach may serve as a powerful cornerstone in biomedical research preparedness to protect public health from newly emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

10.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 17(1): 40, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines [BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)] have shown high efficacy, with very modest side effects in limiting transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and in preventing the severe COVID-19 disease, characterized by a worrying high occupation of intensive care units (ICU), high frequency of intubation and ultimately high mortality rate. At the INT, in Naples, only the BNT162b2/Pfizer vaccine has been administered to cancer patients and healthcare professionals aged 16 and over. In the present study, the antibody response levels and their decline were monitored in an interval of 6-9 months after vaccine administration in the two different cohorts of workers of the INT - IRCCS "Fondazione Pascale" Cancer Center (Naples, Italy): the group of individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccinated with a single dose; and that of individuals negative for previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated with two doses 21 days apart. METHODS: Specific anti-RBD (receptor-binding domain) titers against trimeric spike glycoprotein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 by Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S ECLIA immunoassay were determined in serum samples of 27 healthcare workers with a previously documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 123 healthcare workers without, during antibody titers' monitoring. Moreover, geometric mean titers (GMT) and relative fold changes (FC) were calculated. RESULTS: Bimodal titer decline was observed in both previously infected and uninfected SARS-CoV-2 subjects. A first rapid decline was followed by a progressive slow decline in the 6/9 month-period before the further vaccine boost. The trend was explained by 2 different mathematical models, exponential and power function, the latter revealing as predictive of antibody titer decline either in infected or in not previously infected ones. The value of the prolonged lower vaccine titer was about 1 log below in the 6/9-month interval after the single dose for previously infected individuals with SARS-CoV-2 and the two doses for those not previously infected. The titer change, after the boost dose administration, on the other hand, was ≥ 1.5 FC higher than the titers at the 6/9-month time-points in both cohorts. A similar quantitative immune titer was observed in both cohorts 8 days after the last boost dose. The subsequent immunoresponse trend remains to be verified. DISCUSSION: The results show that a very rapid first decline, from the highest antibody peak, was followed by a very slow decline which ensured immune protection lasting more than 6 months. The apparent absence of adverse effects of the rapid decline on the vaccine's immune protective role has been related to a large majority of low avidity antibodies induced by current vaccines. High avidity antibodies with prolonged anti-transmission efficacy show a longer half-life and are lost over a longer interval period. The cellular immunity, capable of preventing severe clinical diseases, lasts much longer. The unbalanced dual activity (cellular vs humoral) while effective in limiting ICU pressure and overall mortality, does not protect against transmission of SARS-CoV-2, resulting in high circulation of the virus among unvaccinated subjects, including the younger population, and the continuous production of variants characterized by changes in transmissibility and pathogenicity. The high mutation rate, peculiar to the RNA virus, can however lead to a dual opposite results: selection of defective and less efficient viruses up to extinction; risk of more efficiently transmitted variants as the current omicron pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion the current bimodal antibody-titer decline, following BNT162b2 mRNA anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, needs a further extended analysis to verify the protective borderline levels of immunity and the optimal administration schedule of vaccine boosters. Our current results can contribute to such goal, besides a direct comparison of other FDA-approved and candidate vaccines.

11.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 233, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether living in a household with children is associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in adults and investigated interacting factors that may influence this association. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 serology testing was performed in randomly selected individuals from the general population between end of October 2020 and February 2021 in 11 cantons in Switzerland. Data on sociodemographic and household characteristics, employment status, and health-related history was collected using questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of living with children <18 years of age (number, age group) and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Further, we assessed the influence of reported non-household contacts, employment status, and gender. RESULTS: Of 2393 working age participants (18-64 years), 413 (17.2%) were seropositive. Our results suggest that living with children and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity are likely to be associated (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval [0.98-1.52], adjusted OR 1.25 [0.99-1.58]). A pattern of a positive association was also found for subgroups of children aged 0-11 years (OR 1.21 [0.90-1.60]) and 12-17 years (OR 1.14 [0.78-1.64]). Odds of seropositivity were higher with more children (OR 1.14 per additional child [1.02-1.27]). Men had higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection when living with children than women (interaction: OR 1.74 [1.10-2.76]). CONCLUSIONS: In adults from the general population living with children seems associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. However, child-related infection risk is not the same for every subgroup and depends on factors like gender. Further factors determining child-related infection risk need to be identified and causal links investigated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN18181860 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Male , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 645, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) prevent COVID-19 progression when administered early. We compared mAb treatment outcomes among vaccinated and unvaccinated patients during Delta wave and assessed the feasibility of implementing stricter eligibility criteria in the event of mAb scarcity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of casirivimab/imdevimab recipients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infection in an emergency department or outpatient infusion center (July 1-August 20, 2021). Primary outcome was all-cause hospital admission within 30 days post-treatment between vaccinated vs. unvaccinated patients during Delta surge in the Bronx, NY. RESULTS: A total of 250 patients received casirivimab/imdevimab (162 unvaccinated vs. 88 vaccinated). The median age was 39 years for unvaccinated patients, and 52 years for vaccinated patients (p < 0.0001). The median number of EUA criteria met was 1 for unvaccinated and 2 for vaccinated patients (p < 0.0001). Overall, 6% (15/250) of patients were admitted within 30 days post-treatment. Eleven unvaccinated patients (7%) were admitted within 30-days compared to 4 (5%) vaccinated patients (p = 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: All-cause 30-day admission was not statistically different between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. When federal allocation of therapies is limited, programs must prioritize patients at highest risk of hospitalization and death regardless of vaccination status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Retrospective Studies
14.
Pharm Res ; 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959062

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neutralizing antibodies, administrated through intravenous infusion, have shown to be highly efficacious in treating mild and moderate COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung. However, antibodies do not transport across the plasma-lung barrier efficiently, and up to 100 mg/kg dose was used in human causing significant supply and cost burdens. This study was to explore the feasibility of nebulized antibodies inhalation delivery as an alternative route. METHODS: HB27, a potent RBD-specific humanized monoclonal antibody (Zhu et al. in National Sci Rev. 8:nwaa297, 2020), showed excellent protection against SARS-CoV-2 in animal model and good safety profile in clinical studies. The pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety of HB27 administrated through the respiratory tract were studied in mice and cynomolgus monkeys here. RESULTS: At a single 5 mg/kg dose, the peak HB27 concentration in mice pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) reached 857.8 µg/mL, 670-fold higher than the PRNT90 value of 1.28 µg/mL, and maintained above PRNT90 over 240 h. In contrast, when administrated by intravenous injection at a 5 mg/kg dose, the antibody concentrations in mice ELF were below PRNT90 value throughout, and were about 50-fold lower than that in the serum. In cynomolgus monkeys administrated with a single dose through inhalation, the antibody concentration in ELF remained high within 3 days. No drug-related safety concerns were observed in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that nebulized neutralizing antibody delivery though inhalation could be a more efficient and efficacious alternative approach for treating COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases, and warrants further evaluation in clinical studies.

15.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958661

ABSTRACT

B cells recognize antigens via membrane-expressed B cell receptors (BCR) and antibodies. Similar human BCR sequences are frequently found at a significantly higher frequency than that theoretically calculated. Patients infected with SARS-CoV2 and HIV or with autoimmune diseases share very similar BCRs. Therefore, in silico reconstitution of BCR repertoires and identification of stereotypical BCR sequences related to human pathology have diagnostic potential. Furthermore, monitoring changes of clinically-significant BCR sequences and isotype conversion has prognostic potential. For BCR repertoire analysis, peripheral blood (PB) is the most convenient source. However, the optimal human PB volume for in silico reconstitution of the BCR repertoire has not been studied in detail. Here, we sampled 5 mL, 10 mL, and 20 mL PB from the left arm and 40 mL PB from the right arm of two volunteers, reconstituted in silico PB BCR repertoires, and compared their composition. In both volunteers, PB sampling over 20 mL resulted in slight increases in functional unique sequences (FUS) or almost no increase in repertoire diversity. All FUSs with a frequency above 0.08% or 0.03% in the 40 mL PB BCR repertoire were detected even in the 5 mL PB BCR repertoire from each volunteer. FUSs with higher frequency were more likely to be found in BCR repertoires from reduced PB volume, and those co-existing in two repertoires showed a statistically-significant correlation in frequency irrespective of sampled anatomical site. The correlation was more significant in higher frequency FUSs. These observations support the potential of BCR repertoire analysis for diagnosis.

16.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 94(5):1757-2307, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1957722

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 74 articles (2 commentaries, 17 letters to the editor, 8 reviews, 40 research articles, 7 short communications) that discusses topics related to COVID-19 and its variants. Topics include new drugs against COVID-19, detection of variants, antibody response, evolution and phylogeny, monoclonal antibodies, symptoms, among others.

17.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(4): 388-394, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957585

ABSTRACT

Comparative validation and clinical performance data are essential for the reliable interpretation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody test results. This study aimed to assess the performance of six SARS-CoV-2 IgG immunoassays in the context of different disease severities. Four automated chemiluminescence immunoassays (Access [Beckman Coulter], Architect [Abbott], Atellica-IM [Siemens], and Elecsys [Roche]) as well as two ELISA assays (SARS-CoV-2 IgG-S1-based and NCP IgG [Euroimmun]) were evaluated using samples from 143 patients as well as 50 pre-pandemic control serum samples. Accuracy and precision tests were performed for validation purposes. Overall sensitivity ranged between 73.38-88.65% and was higher in spike protein-based assays, while the specificity was ≥98% in all immunoassays. The clinical performance of the immunoassays differed depending on disease severity and target antigen. For instance, the IgG response was lower for samples taken <20 days post-symptom onset (87.30%) compared with those taken ≥20 days post-symptom onset (94.80%). Moreover, moderate disease levels led to the highest levels of IgG. Higher levels of antibodies were detected in the clinically moderate disease group. In asymptomatic and mild groups, more antibody positivity was detected with spike protein-based assays. All the assays tested could be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG. However, spike-based assays revealed relatively higher sensitivity rates than nucleoprotein-based assays, particularly in cases of asymptomatic and mild disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoassay , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957466

ABSTRACT

In a few months, the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. In Poland, 6 million cases of the disease and 113,000 deaths from COVID-19 have been reported. Healthcare workers (HCWs) constitute one of the main COVID-19 risk groups. The Microblot-Array COVID-19 IgG assay was used to detect antibodies against three major SARS-CoV-2 antigens: nucleocapsid (NCP), RBD, and Spike 2 (S2). The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence and titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies-NCP, RBD, and S2-as markers of the humoral response in vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. The study included 203 persons who were divided into four groups: "COVID-19 Vaccinated", "COVID-19 Unvaccinated", "Non-COVID-19 Vaccinated", and "Non-COVID-19 Unvaccinated". The obtained results indicate that both seroprevalence and the antibody titer are the highest in the "COVID-19 Vaccinated" group. There is no so-called sterile vaccination, and after 6 months from the second dose of vaccine, most vaccinated people have a fairly high level of antibodies. We suggest that multiple vaccination and continuous testing are necessary. The Microblot-Array assay can distinguish between antibodies acquired after infection and/or vaccination.

19.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957370

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a highly aggressive angio-invasive disease of humans caused by fungi in the zygomycete order, Mucorales. Though a number of different species can cause mucormycosis, the principal agent of the disease worldwide is Rhizopus arrhizus, which accounts for the majority of rhino-orbital-cerebral, pulmonary, and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. It is also the main cause of life-threatening infections in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and in corticosteroid-treated patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, where it causes the newly described disease, COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Diagnosis currently relies on non-specific CT, a lengthy and insensitive culture from invasive biopsy, and a time-consuming histopathology of tissue samples. At present, there are no rapid antigen tests for the disease that detect biomarkers of infection, and which allow point-of-care diagnosis. Here, we report the development of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), KC9, which is specific to Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus (syn. Rhizopus oryzae) and Rhizopus arrhizus var. delemar (Rhizopus delemar), and which binds to a 15 kDa extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigen secreted during hyphal growth of the pathogen. Using the mAb, we have developed a competitive lateral-flow device (LFD) that allows rapid (30 min) and sensitive (~50 ng/mL running buffer) detection of the EPS biomarker, and which is compatible with human serum (limit of detection of ~500 ng/mL) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (limit of detection of ~100 ng/mL). The LFD, therefore, provides a potential novel opportunity for the non-invasive detection of mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus.

20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957248

ABSTRACT

This study examined the neutralizing activity and receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody levels against wild-type and omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants in individuals who received three doses of COVID-19 vaccination. The relationship between the anti-RBD IgG against wild-type and live virus neutralizing antibody titers against omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants was examined. In total, 310 sera samples from individuals after booster vaccination (third-dose) were tested for specific IgG wild-type SARS-CoV-2 RBD and the omicron BA.1 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). The live virus neutralization assay against omicron BA.1 and BA.2 was performed using the foci-reduction neutralization test (FRNT50). The anti-RBD IgG strongly correlated with FRNT50 titers against BA.1 and BA.2. Non-linear regression showed that anti-RBD IgG at the cut-off value ≥148 BAU/mL and ≥138 BAU/mL were related to the threshold for FRNT50 titers ≥20 against BA.1 and BA.2, respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between the sVNT and FRNT50 titers. At FRNT50 titers ≥20, the predicted sVNT for BA.1 and BA.2 was ≥10.57% and ≥11.52%, respectively. The study identified anti-RBD IgG and sVNT levels that predict detectable neutralizing antibodies against omicron variants. Assessment and monitoring of protective immunity support vaccine policies and will help identify optimal timing for booster vaccination.

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