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1.
Bioinformation ; 18(9):730, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030276

ABSTRACT

The CoViD-19 pandemic has demonstrated the need for future developments in anti-viral immunology. We propose that artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, and in particular fractal analysis could play a crucial role in that context. Fractals - never-ending repeats of self-similar shapes whose composite tend to resemble the whole - are found in most natural biological structures including immunoglobulin and antigenic epitopes. Increased knowledge of the fractalomic properties of the idiotype/anti-idiotypic paradigm should help develop a novel and improved simplified artificial model of the immune system. Case in point, the regulation and dampening of antibodies as well as the synergetic recognition of an antigen by multiple idiotypes are both immune mechanisms that require further analysis. An enhanced understanding of these complexities could lead to better data analysis for novel vaccines to improve their sensitivity and specificity as well as open other new doors in the field of immunology.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences ; 25(9):867-874, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030108

ABSTRACT

Background and

3.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754657
4.
Osmaniye Korkut Ata Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu Dergisi / Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ; 5(2):1041-1052, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2026789

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) is a new type of coronavirus known as an infectious upper respiratory tract infection disease. The coronavirus, which poses a great threat to human health worldwide, emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The most important reason for coronavirus epidemics to become a pandemic that the disease was easily transmitted by droplets in close proximity with infected people. The disease spread rapidly all over the world within a few months and it was declared a worldwide epidemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. It poses a risk for severe diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease and chronic kidney disease in the advanced age group. Considering the mortality rates to date, great efforts have been made both worldwide and in our country to manufacture successful drugs and vaccines against Covid-19 infection. The main purpose of this review is to assist in an immune response and preventive work for Covid-19, thanks to the available information about the coronavirus epidemic that deeply affects humanity and the diseases it causes.

6.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2026228

ABSTRACT

Since its sudden outbreak in December 2019 in Wuhan, A pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has been announced. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin with anti-oxidant and immunity-boosting properties. Vitamin C acts as a nutritional supplement profoundly impacting the immune response to the second or third wave of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Vitamin C efficacy as an adjuvant treatment for inflammation and symptoms associated with COVID-19 infection should be investigated further. This report sheds light on the available information on the current clinical trials and pharmacotherapy related to COVID-19. Information available on Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science databases and EU clinical trials regarding the use of therapeutic agents in patients with COVID-19 was used to perform analysis. Data was taken from 18 clinical trials available in the U.S. National Library of Medicine. All trials that are active, completed, or in the process of recruiting are included in data. Because of majority of clinical trials are still ongoing, specific results and high-quality clinical evidence are lacking. Before being standardised for use, the protocol must undergo large randomised clinical studies using a variety of existing medications and potential therapies. The pivotal role played by vitamins C in maintaining our immune system, is quite apparent. This review is an attempt to summarize the available information regarding the use of vitamin C as an adjuvant therapy in COVID-19 patients.

7.
Microorganisms ; 10(8):1631, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023929

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging viruses have been a challenge in public health in recent decades. Host-targeted antivirals (HTA) directed at cellular molecules or pathways involved in virus multiplication represent an interesting strategy to combat viruses presently lacking effective chemotherapy. HTA could provide a wide range of agents with inhibitory activity against current and future viruses that share similar host requirements and reduce the possible selection of antiviral-resistant variants. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the more exploited host metabolic pathways as a potential antiviral target for several human viruses. This review focuses on the antiviral properties of the inhibitors of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide biosynthesis, with an emphasis on the rate-limiting enzymes dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) for which there are old and new drugs active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic viruses.

8.
Life ; 12(8):1287, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023876

ABSTRACT

Exploration of the traditional medicinal plants is essential for drug discovery and development for various pharmacological targets. Various phytochemicals derived from medicinal plants were extensively studied for antiviral activity. This review aims to highlight the role of medicinal plants against viral infections that remains to be the leading cause of human death globally. Antiviral properties of phytoconstituents isolated from 45 plants were discussed for five different types of viral infections. The ability of the plants’ active compounds with antiviral effects was highlighted as well as their mechanism of action, pharmacological studies, and toxicological data on a variety of cell lines. The experimental values, such as IC50, EC50, CC50, ED50, TD50, MIC100, and SI of the active compounds, were compiled and discussed to determine their potential. Among the plants mentioned, 11 plants showed the most promising medicinal plants against viral infections. Sambucus nigra and Clinacanthus nutans manifested antiviral activity against three different types of viral infections. Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea augustofolia, Echinacea pallida, Plantago major, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, and Cistus incanus exhibited antiviral activity against two different types of viral infections. Interestingly, Nicotiana benthamiana showed antiviral effects against mosquito-borne infections. The importance of phenolic acids, alkamides, alkylamides, glycyrrhizin, epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), protein-based plant-produced ZIKV Envelope (PzE), and anti-CHIKV monoclonal antibody was also reviewed. An exploratory approach to the published literature was conducted using a variety of books and online databases, including Scopus, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and PubMed Central, with the goal of obtaining, compiling, and reconstructing information on a variety of fundamental aspects, especially regarding medicinal plants. This evaluation gathered important information from all available library databases and Internet searches from 1992 to 2022.

9.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:968991, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022753

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 induces a spectrum of clinical conditions ranging from asymptomatic infection to life threatening severe disease. Host microRNAs have been involved in the cytokine storm driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection and proposed as candidate biomarkers for COVID-19. Methods: To discover signatures of circulating miRNAs associated with COVID-19, disease severity and mortality, small RNA-sequencing was performed on serum samples collected from 89 COVID-19 patients (34 severe, 29 moderate, 26 mild) at hospital admission and from 45 healthy controls (HC). To search for possible sources of miRNAs, investigation of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs in relevant human cell types in vitro. Results: COVID-19 patients showed upregulation of miRNAs associated with lung disease, vascular damage and inflammation and downregulation of miRNAs that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, angiogenesis, and stress response. Compared with mild/moderate disease, patients with severe COVID-19 had a miRNA signature indicating a profound impairment of innate and adaptive immune responses, inflammation, lung fibrosis and heart failure. A subset of the DE miRNAs predicted mortality. In particular, a combination of high serum miR-22-3p and miR-21-5p, which target antiviral response genes, and low miR-224-5p and miR-155-5p, targeting pro-inflammatory factors, discriminated severe from mild/moderate COVID-19 (AUROC 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.95, p<0.0001), while high leukocyte count and low levels of miR-1-3p, miR-23b-3p, miR-141-3p, miR-155-5p and miR-4433b-5p predicted mortality with high sensitivity and specificity (AUROC 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.00, p<0.0001). In vitro experiments showed that some of the DE miRNAs were modulated directly by SARS-CoV-2 infection in permissive lung epithelial cells. Conclusions: We discovered circulating miRNAs associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. The identified DE miRNAs provided clues on COVID-19 pathogenesis, highlighting signatures of impaired interferon and antiviral responses, inflammation, organ damage and cardiovascular failure as associated with severe disease and death.

10.
Front Immunol ; 13:819574, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022700

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is a complex disease which immune response can be more or less potent. In severe cases, patients might experience a cytokine storm that compromises their vital functions and impedes clearance of the infection. Gamma delta (γδ) T lymphocytes have a critical role initiating innate immunity and shaping adaptive immune responses, and they are recognized for their contribution to tumor surveillance, fighting infectious diseases, and autoimmunity. γδ T cells exist as both circulating T lymphocytes and as resident cells in different mucosal tissues, including the lungs and their critical role in other respiratory viral infections has been demonstrated. In the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, γδ T cell responses are understudied. This review summarizes the findings on the antiviral role of γδ T cells in COVID-19, providing insight into how they may contribute to the control of infection in the mild/moderate clinical outcome.

11.
Orvosi Hetilap ; 163(36):1415-1421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022103

ABSTRACT

Elevation of serum hepatic enzymes are common during the course of COVID-19. There are three possible mechanisms behind this phenomenon: 1) direct and indirect cytotoxic effects of SARS-CoV-2, 2) pharmacological side effects of COVID-19 drugs (e.g., remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, baricitinib, systemic corticosteroids, etc.) and 3) the progression of chronic hepatic diseases. Both the differential diagnosis and the clinical decision-making may pose difficulty for the the astute clinician, as an inappropriate treatment may result in COVID-19 progression or liver function deterioration. This review aims to provide basic guidance on the clinical decision-making for physicians managing patients with COVID-19. Orv Hetil. 2022;163(36): 1415-1421.

12.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(8):e0273430, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021918

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been fueled by SARS-CoV-2 novel variants of concern (VOC) that have increased transmissibility, receptor binding affinity, and other properties that enhance disease. The goal of this study is to characterize unique pathogenesis of the Delta VOC strain in the K18-hACE2-mouse challenge model. Challenge studies suggested that the lethal dose of Delta was higher than Alpha or Beta strains. To characterize the differences in the Delta strain's pathogenesis, a time-course experiment was performed to evaluate the overall host response to Alpha or Delta variant challenge. qRT-PCR analysis of Alpha- or Delta-challenged mice revealed no significant difference between viral RNA burden in the lung, nasal wash or brain. However, histopathological analysis revealed high lung tissue inflammation and cell infiltration following Delta- but not Alpha-challenge at day 6. Additionally, pro-inflammatory cytokines were highest at day 6 in Delta-challenged mice suggesting enhanced pneumonia. Total RNA-sequencing analysis of lungs comparing challenged to no challenge mice revealed that Alpha-challenged mice have more total genes differentially activated. Conversely, Delta-challenged mice have a higher magnitude of differential gene expression. Delta-challenged mice have increased interferon-dependent gene expression and IFN-gamma production compared to Alpha. Analysis of TCR clonotypes suggested that Delta challenged mice have increased T-cell infiltration compared to Alpha challenged. Our data suggest that Delta has evolved to engage interferon responses in a manner that may enhance pathogenesis. The in vivo and in silico observations of this study underscore the need to conduct experiments with VOC strains to best model COVID-19 when evaluating therapeutics and vaccines.

13.
Nursing ; 52(9):64-64, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2018186

ABSTRACT

Paxlovid drug interaction... Eprontia oral solution concentration conversion... Different concentrations of oral liquid Baclofen

14.
OMICS ; 26(9):473-488, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2017663

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a systemic disease affecting multiple organ systems and caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic and after the introduction of several vaccines, the pandemic continues to evolve in part owing to global inequities in access to preventive and therapeutic measures. We are also witnessing the introduction of antivirals against COVID-19. Against this current background, we review the progress made with nanotechnology-based approaches such as nanoformulations to combat the multiorgan effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection from a systems medicine lens. While nanotechnology has previously been widely utilized in the antiviral research domain, it has not yet received the commensurate interest in the case of COVID-19 pandemic response strategies. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 and nanomaterials are similar in size ranging from 50 to 200 nm. Nanomaterials offer the promise to reduce the side effects of antiviral drugs, codeliver multiple drugs while maintaining stability in the biological milieu, and sustain the release of entrapped drug(s) for a predetermined time period, to name but a few conceivable scenarios, wherein nanotechnology can enable and empower preventive medicine and therapeutic innovations against SARS-CoV-2. We conclude the article by underlining that nanotechnology-based interventions warrant further consideration to enable precision planetary health responses against the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Nature ; 608(7924):653, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2016627
16.
MMW Fortschritte der Medizin ; 164(15):63, 2022.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014582
17.
Methods in Molecular Biology ; 2547:187-199, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013831

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been the subject of intense pharmacological research. Various pharmacotherapeutic approaches including antiviral and immunotherapy are being explored. A pandemic, however, cannot depend on the development of new drugs;the time required for conventional drug discovery and development is far too lengthy. As such, repurposing drugs is being used as a viable approach for identifying pharmacological agents for COVID-19 infections. Evaluation of repurposed drug candidates with pharmacogenomic analysis is being used to identify near-term pharmacological remedies for COVID-19.

18.
Urmia Medical Journal ; 32(10):782-792, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2012533

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Favipiravir is an antiviral drug that is widely used in patients with Covid-19. The aim of this study was to review the systematic review and meta-analysis studies of Favipiravir in patients with Covid-19. Materials & Methods: An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases until December 2021. In addition, other databases were searched. A manual search of studies and other sources was also conducted to find evidence. The Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire tool was used to evaluate the quality of articles.

19.
American Nurse Today ; 17(8):8-1, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2012402
20.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(8):1271-1275, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 continues to spread globally, which poses a significant threat to global public health security. Recently, the emergence of new variant strains of SARS-CoV-2 complicates the containment of COVID-19 due to its rapid transmission, high infectivity, high viral load, atypical symptoms and high number of severe cases. In order to further understand the transmission route, pathogenesis and pathological changes of COVID-19, and accelerate the research and development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, animal models of COVID-19 have played an important role in this process. The status of research on different animal models of COVID-19 was reviewed, the characteristics were compared among the models so as to provide theoretical basis for selecting appropriate animal models of COVID-19.

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