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1.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(6):671-678, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975502

ABSTRACT

In present study, in order to develop a new and effective porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)vaccine, three B cell epitopes and the truncated S1 gene of PEDV spike protein were combined and inserted into the immunodominant region of the HBcAg. Then the constructed recombinant plasmid HBcAg-PE was transformed to E. coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. After purification and identification by Western-blot, the expressed recombinant proteins HBPE were injected into BALB/c mice as vaccine antigen with different doses through intramuscular injection and its immune effect were preliminary evaluated. The results showed that the recombinant proteins HBPE was expressed as precipitation form and it could reacted specifically with PEDV-positive serum after purification and renaturation. Besides, the RH could induce anti-PEDV specific antibodies and the related Thl and Th2 cytokines in mice. The above results indicate that the recombinant compound epitope antigen of PEDV was successfully constructed. and its immunogenicity as a new vaccine candidate was evaluated in the mice in this study. The results of this study provided a new idea for the development of PEDV genetic engineering vaccine in the future.

2.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(4):1173-1181, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975364

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to establish a blocking ELISA antibodies detection method for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The purified N protein was used as the coating antigen, and the ELISA reaction conditions were optimized by the chess rboard titration. A blocking ELISA method for detecting PEDV antibodies was established, and its specificity, sensitivity and repeatability tests were carried out. One hundred and forty clinical serum samples were tested, and the results were compared with commercially IDvet PEDV indirect ELISA antibodies detection kit. The results showed that the best antigen coating concentration was 625 ng.mL-1, and the best dilution ratio of serum was 1:1;The best dilution of the HRP-conjugated antibody working solution was 1:5 000;There was no cross-reaction with healthy pig serum and the positive sera of common pig disease pathogens, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The sensitivity of PEDV positive serum was 1:16, which was equivalent to that of IDvet ELISA kit (titer 1:32). The coefficient of variation of within-run and between-run repeatability test is less than 10%, so it showed that the blocking ELISA established in this study had good repeatability and stability;the kappa value of detected 140 clinical porcine serum using this method was 0.87 when compared with IDvet ELISA. The above results indicated that the established blocking ELISA method for detecting PEDV antibodies in this study could be applied to the prevention and control of PEDV, epidemiological investigation and the monitoring of antibody levels after vaccine immunization.

3.
Veterinary Times ; 50(24):6-6, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1970949
4.
SwissHerdbook Bulletin ; 2:6-13, 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1970111

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the strategies done by the dairy sector in Switzerland to maintain and even have surplus milk supply during the Covid-19 pandemic. Some of the strategies implemented during the pandemic are milk production tests, inspection of the origin of milk, registration of calves, and insemination using top performing dairy bulls.

5.
Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi ; 34(2):160-165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964892

ABSTRACT

In this study, 650 tissue samples which were collected from 16 pig farms in Hubei Province, were used to detect porcine circovirus (PCV) and Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The results showed that the positive rates of PCV1, PCV2, PCV3 and PEDV single infection were 1.08%, 4.15%, 2.46% and 6.46%, respectively. In the double infections, PEDV+PCV2 had the highest positive rate of 3.54%, followed by PCV2+PCV3, with a positive rate of 1.54%. In multiple infections, PEDV+PCV2+PCV3 had the highest positive rate of 2.00%. The results indicated that the positive rates of PEDV and PCV were decreased compared with the previous studies, but the prevalence of PEDV and PCV was still wide in Hubei Province, and most of which were co-infection.

6.
Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition ; 42(6):48-53, 2021.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964809

ABSTRACT

As a member of the family Picornaviridae, porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is often infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, teschovirus and so on. In recent years, PSV has been isolated from porcine in many provinces of China. It suggests that it is necessary to strengthen the research on PSV. In this study, according to the sequence of PSV HuN2 strain, VP1 gene was inserted into the pGEX-6 P-1 vector, and expressed the recombinant protein. BALB/c mice aged 6-8 weeks were immunized according to the standard procedure. After the third immunization, the mouse orbital blood was collected to identify the antibody level. The highly positive mouse spleen cells were selected for cell fusion. The positive hybridoma cells and two subclones were screened by IFA method, and then a PSV VP1 monoclonal antibody was obtained, named as 33-2 A. The results of IFA showed that PSV could be recognized by 33-2 A MAb, and specific green fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm;The results of WB and IP showed that PSV infected porcine cell could specifically bind to 33-2 A, and there was a specific band at 32 ku. We also identified the B-cell antigen epitope of 33-2 A, it was at amino acids 40-46 of PSV VP1 protein, and the polypeptide sequence was 40PALTAAE46. The results showed that the monoclonal antibody can react with PSV VP1 protein. The epitope was analyzed with the PSV sequences uploaded in NCBI, 33-2 A antibody can react with most PSV strains and has a certain universal to PSV. This study laid a foundation for the study of the etiology and pathogenesis of PSV.

7.
Animal Husbandry and Feed Science ; 43(4):14-18, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964618

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To identify the B-cell epitope peptide of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S2 gene by combinative use of bioinformatics software and monoclonal antibody technology. [Method] The B-cell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was screened using CLC Sequence viewer 6.8 software and IEDB online database, and the obtained epitope peptide was synthesized artificially. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with the conjugate of epitope peptide and keyhole hemocyanin (KLH) as antigen. Mice with higher antibody titers were identified by ELISA assay and then received an additional immunization. The spleen of the mice was taken 3 days post immunization to prepare the splenocyte suspension for cell fusion. The cells were grown on HAT selective medium to screen for effective hybridoma cells. The positive clones screened by ELISA assay were then used for expanding culture. Positive hybridoma cells were intraperitoneally injected to mice and ascites were collected. ELISA assay was used to determine the antibody titers in mice ascites and in the supernatants of monoclonal cell strains. The cells with the highest antibody titers was used as cell strain for subsequent use. [Result] The selected B-cell epitope peptide sequence was MQYVYTPTYYML Following immunization with the peptide antigen, the serum antibody titer before cell fusion reached 1:2 000. The ELISA assay of ascites from BALB/c mice and the supernatants from monoclonal cell strain cultures demostrated that the antibody liter reached 1:4 000. [Conclusion] The B-ell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was identified, which may be helpful for the vector construction of a epitope based peptide vaccine against PEDV.

8.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

9.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

10.
Harran Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi ; 11(1):120-127, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934962

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infections are widespread in newborn calf diarrhea, which is one of the critical problems in cattle breeding. This study aims to investigate BCoV infection in calves with diarrhea in Sanliurfa province. In this study, 94 calves with diarrhea (3 months) following clinical examination were sampled. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of BCoV antigen. A total of 5 stool samples were found to be BCoV positive (5.32%). This result showed that BCoV was low in calves with diarrhea in Sanliurfa province. However, considering the rapid spread of the infection in cattle populations, it is thought that it may cause significant economic losses due to treatment costs and calf deaths.

11.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):6-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924716

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 epidemic on China's pig. industry was analyzed from pig production. pork consumption and pig prices. The results showed that the epidemic led to the poor circulation of feed and livestock products. the increase of operating costs of breeding enterprises, the difficulty of starting work of feed enterprises and slaughtering enterprises etc., which significantly hindered the. recovery process of pig production capacity, and affect the realization of the goal of pig production capacity recovery throughout the year;the total consumption and outdoor consumption of pork decreased significantly, but the proportion of pork consumption added indirectly With the consumption of poultry meal and eggs increased, the price of pigs increased in general and the regional price gap widened. In the shun term. [he pig industry would face the problems of the situation that prevention of Africa swine fever was still severe and the support policies fall into the "difficulties of grass-roots implementation", and so on. Based on this. policy suggestions were put forward.

12.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):1-5, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1919033

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of COVID-19 on beef cattle production in China, in February 2020, 263 beef cattle farms 21 provinces of China were surveyed, covering the main areas of beef cattle production. The results showed that COVID-19 had a serious impact on Chinese beef cattle industry. In forage stock, 48% of the beef cattle farms had surpluses for I month;45% had less than 2 months of forage, and 95% had run out of by-products, such as distiller's grains. In fattening production. 95% of fattening cattle farms cannot buy stocker cattle as planned. The delay to sell fattening cattle increased the consumption of feed and forage. The markets for live cattle were closed, causing the decrease of cattle prices. In reproduction, brood cows missed one or two estrus cycles. In disease prevention and control, 70% of cattle farms almost ran out of medicines, and immunities cannot be carried out as planned. To solve these prominent problems, it was suggested that beef cattle farms should seriously implement the prevention and control requirements to ensure safety;prepare alternative plans for epidemic prevention and control in advance;improve the tine feeding and management system and standardized workflow, adjust the business strategy, etc. Additionally, it was also suggested that all layers of governments should open green channels for the farms to ensure the transportation of production means and products, supply special subsidy policies, and provide loans to help farm enhance confidence and resume production.

13.
Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 57(1):27-40, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905390

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the efficacy of a commercialized mixed herbal medicine in alleviating diarrhea in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. The study involved 15 diarrheic water buffalo calves regardless of sex and with less than a year old from one farm divided into three treatments using randomized block design. Treatment 1 was served as control given with antibiotics and intestinal protectants.;Treatment 2 was mixed herbal medicine and probiotics and lastly, Treatment 3 was mixed herbal medicine only. The calves were treated three times a day for seven days for Treatments 2 and 3 while Treatment 1 (control) were treated once a day for 7 days. The animals were ob served and scoring of diarrhea were done and recorded daily for the next 7 days. Results of the study showed significant decrease in diarrhea scores on Day 6 and 7 post-treatment in Treatments 1 and 2 compared to the control. At Day 8 post-treatment, all calves showed soft to apparently normal stool. Genetic analysis of the possible causative agent of diarrhea revealed infection caused by rotavirus A, bovine coronavirus, BVDV, and ETEC. Results revealed that diarrhea caused by these pathogens can be alleviated by the herbal medicine and herbal medicine in addition of probiotics parallel to antibiotic treatment.

14.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

15.
Epidemiologie et Sante Animale ; 78:1-131, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904311

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 14 papers from the AEEMA Meeting focusing on the theme entitled "What changes for the management of animals' health crises". Topics of papers include: the management of animals' health crises and introduction to the meeting;evolution of societies perception and social acceptability of sanitary control measures;evolution of the health governance: to adapt the French health system to the new challenge;new challenges for risk management of animal health;evolution of preparedness for the management of animal disease crisis;feedback from the fipronil crisis;towards bovine tuberculosis eradication in Republic of Ireland, including European badgers' vaccination (a review);management of foot-and-mouth disease in Mauritius and Rodrigues: a vaccine strategy for eradication;health and biodiversity during anthropocene;Covid-19 and wild animals;Covid-19 and companion animals;Covid-19 and farmed animals;Covid-19 and laboratory animals;and Preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals to human beings.

16.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism ; 19(2):27-41, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897807

ABSTRACT

The objective of this article is to explore the readiness of the tourism industry in Greece during the Covid-19 pandemic. Specifically, this study examines employees' readiness in issues related to the implementation of health protocols or emergency management (such as COVID-19 pandemic), the employers' satisfaction from their employees in dealing with the pandemic and emergency issues, and the necessity of appropriate employees' training in such topics for the most efficient operation of tourism businesses. To satisfy the aforementioned objectives three empirical studies were conducted, involving 457 employers, 455 employees and 12 stakeholders of the tourism industry in Greece and in particular hotels, food businesses and travel agencies. As regards the methodological context, this study was based on the combination of qualitative and quantitative research. According to the key findings of these studies, employers of tourism businesses consider that their staff is sufficiently prepared in dealing with emergencies (such as pandemic Covid-19), while employees consider that they are not adequately trained in dealing with such issues. In terms of employers' satisfaction from their employees' readiness in dealing with emergencies, employers are quite satisfied by them. Moreover, both employers and employees as well as tourism stakeholders acknowledge the necessity of trained staff in emergency periods for the effective operation of tourism businesses. The findings of this study provide useful insights to policy makers, tourism industry and tourism educators in order to provide the necessary strategic plans for tourism education and training and its adjustment in the meta-Covid-19 era.

17.
Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 38(2):422-428, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1893038

ABSTRACT

In this study, we detected the viral load and protein expression of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) after overexpression and inhibition of integrin avbeta1 on the surface of Vero cells, and then cleared the role of integrin avbeta1 in the PEDV infection process. The results showed that the viral load and protein expression were significantly increased in the Vero cells which overexpressed integrin avbeta1, and the viral load and protein expression were significantly reduced in the Vero cells with silent integrin avbeta1 gene. Integrin avbeta1 promotes PEDV to infect Vero cells.

18.
Surveillance ; 48(4):10-24, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887621

ABSTRACT

Exotic pest and disease investigations are managed and reported by the Ministry for Primary Industries' (MPI's) Diagnostic and Surveillance Directorate. This article presents a summary of investigations of suspect exotic and emerging pests and diseases in New Zealand during the period from July to September 2021.

19.
Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal ; 68(173):10-15, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876353

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out for rapid etiological diagnosis of neonatal calf diarrhea by using immunochromatographic test kits in the Esme district of Usak. The animal material of the study consisted of 100 1-28 days old neonatal calves of different breeds and genders in the Esme district of Usak. Stool samples were taken from calves with diarrhea as a result of clinical examination. When stool samples were examined by a rapid diagnostic test, none of the disease factors sought in the study were found in 10 (10%) of 100 calves, while one or more disease factors were detected in 90 (90%) of calves. Rotavirus was detected in 27 (27%) calves, Escherichia coli 14 (14%) calves, Coronavirus in 8 (8%) calves, Clostridium perfringens in 19 (19%) calves, Cryptosporidium spp. in 17 (17%) calves, Rotavirus + Coronavirus in 2 (2%) calves, Rotavirus + Clostridium perfringens in 1 (1%) calf, Rotavirus + Cryptosporidium spp. in 1 (1%) calf, and Escherichia coli - Clostridium perfringens in 1 (1%) calf. As a result, data on the presence and distribution of enterogenous pathogens that cause diarrhea in neonatal calves in the Esme district of Usak were presented, and it was concluded that it would shed light on future studies on diarrheal calves in the Esme.

20.
INRA Productions Animales ; 35(1):1-20, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876329

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic is a major global event. A reflection on the first implications of this sanitary crisis for the world agricultural economy and the animal sectors of three geographical areas is proposed in this article. The agri-food systems have been strongly affected by this crisis, whose global economic impacts (a 3.5% drop in world gross domestic product and a 5.3% drop in international trade in goods between 2019 and 2020) are affecting the purchasing power of final consumers. However, they have resisted the crisis well, both in terms of supply (stability or slight growth in the volumes of meat and milk produced on a global scale) and trade. In 2021, the sharp rise in international prices for agricultural products and the rapid resumption of economic growth, particularly in the three zones more specifically studied here (China, the United States and the European Union), suggest that agriculture should remain under pressure from sustained world demand. More than Covid-19, the impact of African swine fever in China has had a major impact on international meat trade flows for several years. In addition, the growing Chinese appetite for dairy products is playing a central role in the development of international dairy markets, to the benefit of exporting areas including the EU and the US.

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