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1.
Current Nutrition & Food Science ; 18(2):132-143, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1896609

ABSTRACT

The immune system involves both active and passive immunization. The antibodies are developed against the antigens during active immunization and are permanently stored. But, in the case of passive immunization, the antibodies are exposed to the same antigens in every person who is already infected. In order to enhance the immune systems i.e. innate and adaptive immune responses, herbal plants are used as an immune booster. Some of the herbal plants have been proven clinically to enhance immunity that includes Morniga oleifera (Drumstick), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Withania somnifera (Aswagandha), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic), Curcuma longa (Turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Amla) etc. Compared to synthetic drugs, herbal drugs have fewer side effects and stimulate the immune system to defend against various foreign pathogens. Even though herbal medicines are usually considered as safe and effective therapy, it is clinically proven that if a drug is effective, it would have some side effects. But, sometimes, the antioxidant property of herbal medicines is helpful in reducing the toxicities produced by any toxic substances or any drugs. This review aims to encourage the study of various herbal constituents and their role in the treatment of different types of viral infections.

3.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(2): 336-338, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ashwagandha, an Indian Ayurvedic medicine is indicated to prevent COVID-19 infection. Because IL-6 and C-reactive protein are widely measured to determine risk of cytokine storm in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we studied potential interference of ashwagandha on these two assays. Previous studies indicated that ashwagandha may interfere with digoxin assay, so we also studied potential interference with digoxin assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained one ashwagandha product from India (liquid extract) and one product from US (Herb Pharma; liquid extract). We prepared two serum pool each for IL-6, C-reactive protein and digoxin by combining appropriate left-over specimens submitted to our hospital laboratory for such tests. Then aliquots of each pools were supplemented with 10, 25 or 50 µL of ashwagandha extract followed by re-analysis for appropriate analyte and comparing values with original pool. RESULTS: We observed negative interference of ashwagandha with IL-6 assay only (Indian product showed more negative interference) but C-reactive protein assay and digoxin assay were not affected. Negative interference of ashwagandha in IL-6 assay has not been reported before. CONCLUSION: We conclude ashwagandha caused negative interference in IL-6 assay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Withania , C-Reactive Protein , Digoxin , Humans , Immunoassay , Interleukin-6 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
4.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the patients with COVID-19 might be managed with traditional medicine like Ayurveda alone or in combination with standard allopathic treatment as Ayurveda is one of the oldest traditional medicinal systems followed by millions around the globe. METHODS: The literature was searched in databases such as LitCOVID, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EBSCO, Scopus, Web of science, EMBASE, and reference lists to identify articles relevant to the use of Ayurvedic medicines in the management of COVID-19. RESULTS: Several clinical studies have determined the efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines and formulations in the management of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The Ayurvedic medicines and formulations having antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties could be used along with standard allopathic medicines to assist in the earlier clearance of virus, speedy recovery of patients with COVID-19, faster discharge from hospitals, and the prevention of further deterioration.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 761655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731793

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccines have emerged as the most effective tool in the fight against COVID-19. Governments all over the world have rolled out the COVID-19 vaccine program for their populations. Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (COVISHIELD™) is widely used in India. A large number of Indian people have been consuming various traditional medicines in the hope of better protection against COVID-19 infection. Several studies have reported immunological benefits of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and its potential as a vaccine adjuvant. We propose to study the safety, immunogenicity and clinical protection offered by a 6-month regimen of Ashwagandha in participants who volunteer to be vaccinated against COVID-19 (COVISHIELDTM) in the ongoing national program of vaccination. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, two-arm, exploratory study on healthy volunteers receiving the COVISHIELDTM vaccine. The administration of Ashwagandha will begin within 7 days of the first or second dose of COVISHIELDTM. Primary outcome measure is immunogenicity as measured by SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) and RBD-specific IgG antibody titres. Secondary outcome measures are safety, protective immune response and quality of life measures. All adverse events will be monitored at each time throughout the study. Participants will be tracked on a daily basis with a user-friendly mobile phone application. Following power calculation 600 participants will be recruited per arm to demonstrate superiority by a margin of 7% with 80% power. Study duration is 28 weeks with interim analysis at the end of 12 weeks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained through the Central and Institutional Ethics Committees. Participant recruitment commenced in December 2021. Results will be presented in conferences and published in preprints followed by peer-reviewed medical journals. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [CTRI/2021/06/034496].

6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(15): 5668-5681, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390288

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 and has been declared as pandemic disease by World Health Organization. Lack of targeted therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-2019 have triggered the scientific community to develop new vaccines or drugs against this novel virus. Many synthetic compounds and antimalarial drugs are undergoing clinical trials. The traditional medical practitioners widely use Indian medicinal plant Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) natural constituents, called withanolides for curing various diseases. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a vital role in disease propagation by processing the polyproteins which are required for its replication. Hence, it denotes a significant target for drug discovery. In the present study, we evaluate the potential of 40 natural chemical constituents of Ashwagandha to explore a possible inhibitor against main protease of SARS-CoV-2 by adopting the computational approach. The docking study revealed that four constituents of Ashwagandha; Withanoside II (-11.30 Kcal/mol), Withanoside IV (-11.02 Kcal/mol), Withanoside V (-8.96 Kcal/mol) and Sitoindoside IX (-8.37 Kcal/mol) exhibited the highest docking energy among the selected natural constituents. Further, MD simulation study of 100 ns predicts Withanoside V possess strong binding affinity and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the protein active site and indicates its stability in the active site. The binding free energy score also correlates with the highest score of -87.01 ± 5.01 Kcal/mol as compared to other selected compounds. In conclusion, our study suggests that Withanoside V in Ashwagandha may be serve as a potential inhibitor against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 to combat COVID-19 and may have an antiviral effect on nCoV.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Withania , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Complement Ther Med ; 62: 102768, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy and safety of Withania somnifera (WS, Ashwagandha) in the prophylaxis against COVID-19 in high risk health care workers (HCW) in comparison to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). To evaluate the general physical and mental health benefits of Ashwagandha. METHODS: A 16 week randomized prospective, open-label, parallel efficacy, two arm, multi-centre study. The primary efficacy measure was 'failure of prophylaxis' as confirmed COVID-19 by quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) at any time during the study period. This study on 400 participants from three centres was designed to establish non-inferiority for WS to HCQ for prophylaxis against COVID-19 at 80 % power and significance p < 0.025, one-sided. The interim analysis was carried out on 160 participants after completion of 8 weeks. RESULTS: Participants in both the arms were well-matched at the baseline characteristics. Forty participants in the HCQ group and 26 participants in the WS group reported mild AE. The symptoms of confirmed COVID-19 were found to be 3.7 % (95 % CI 1.3-10.5 %) in the HCQ and 1.3 % (95 % CI 0.02-6.7 %) in the WS arm amongst the first 160 participants completing 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Our intent was to explore a safer option to HCQ. We report that WS was not found inferior to HCQ and its efficacy was within the 15 % non-inferiority margin set a priori. WS as an immunomodulator has other clinical benefits including reducing mental stress. The final report of this study is expected by end of August 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Withania , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Withania/adverse effects
8.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(12): 4510-4521, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317843

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has ravaged the world and is the greatest of pandemics in modern human history, in the absence of treatment or vaccine, the mortality and morbidity rates are very high. The present investigation identifies potential leads from the plant Withania somnifera (Indian ginseng), a well-known antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and a potent antioxidant plant, using molecular docking and dynamics studies. Two different protein targets of SARS-CoV-2 namely NSP15 endoribonuclease and receptor binding domain of prefusion spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 were targeted. Molecular docking studies suggested Withanoside X and Quercetin glucoside from W. somnifera have favorable interactions at the binding site of selected proteins, that is, 6W01 and 6M0J. The top-ranked phytochemicals from docking studies, subjected to 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) suggested Withanoside X with the highest binding free energy (ΔGbind = -89.42 kcal/mol) as the most promising inhibitor. During MD studies, the molecule optimizes its conformation for better fitting with the receptor active site justifying the high binding affinity. Based on proven therapeutic, that is, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles and plausible potential against n-CoV-2 proteins, Indian ginseng could be one of the alternatives as an antiviral agent in the treatment of COVID 19. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Panax , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 378, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary Objective • To assess the efficacy of Ayurveda interventions and Yoga in rehabilitation of COVID-19 cases suffering with long term effects of COVID 19 as compared to WHO Rehabilitation Self-Management after COVID-19- Related Illness. Secondary Objective • To assess the safety of Ayurvedic interventions in cases suffering with long term effects of COVID 19 TRIAL DESIGN: Multi-centric, randomized, controlled, parallel group, open-label, exploratory study. The study duration is 9 months and the intervention period is 90 days from the day of enrolment of the participant. PARTICIPANTS: Patients of either sex between 18 to 60 years, ambulatory, willing to participate, with history (not more than 4 weeks) of positive RT-PCR for COVID-19 or IgM antibodies positivity for SARS CoV-2, but having negative RT-PCR for COVID-19 at the time of screening will be considered eligible for enrolment in the study. Critically ill patients with ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), requiring invasive respiratory support in the intensive care unit, known case of any malignancy, immune-compromised state (e.g. HIV), diabetes mellitus, active pulmonary tuberculosis, past history of any chronic respiratory disease, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, impaired cognition, atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, severe arrhythmia, concurrent serious hepatic disease or renal disease, pregnant or lactating women, patients on immunosuppressive medications, history of hypersensitivity to the trial drugs or their ingredients, depressive illness (before COVID-19), diagnosed psychotic illnesses, substance dependence or alcoholism will be excluded. The trial will be conducted at two medical colleges in Maharashtra, India. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention Arm (Group-I): Ayurveda interventions including Agastya Haritaki six gram and Ashwagandha tablet 500 mg twice daily orally after meals with warm water and two sessions of yoga (morning 30 minutes and evening 15 minutes) daily for 90 days, as per the post-COVID-19 care protocol provided in National Clinical Management Protocol based on Ayurveda and Yoga for management of COVID-19 published by Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India. Comparator Arm (Group-II): WHO Rehabilitation Self-Management after COVID-19 related illness for 90 days. The trial drugs are being procured from a GMP certified pharmaceutical company. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Outcome: Change in respiratory function to be assessed by San Diego shortness of breath Questionnaire, 6-minutes walk test and pulmonary function test. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Change in High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Chest Change in Fatigue score assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale Change in Anxiety score assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Score Change in Sleep Quality assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Change in the quality of life assessed by COV19-QoL scale Safety of the interventions will be assessed by comparing hematological and biochemical investigations before and after the intervention period and Adverse Event/ Adverse drug reaction TIMELINES FOR OUTCOME ASSESSMENT: Subjective parameters and clinical assessment will be assessed at baseline, 15th day, 30th day, 60th day and 90th day. Laboratory parameters (CBC, LFT, KFT, HbA1c, Hs-CRP, D-dimer), Pulmonary function test and HRCT Chest will be done at baseline and after completion of study period i.e. 90th day. RANDOMISATION: Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0 is used to generate the random number sequences. The participants will be randomized to two study groups in the ratio of 1:1. BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label design. However, the outcome assessor will be kept blinded regarding the study group allocation of the participants. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE) SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size for the study is calculated assuming improvement in 6-minutes walk test by 40 meter in Group I and a change of 10 meter in Group II with a standard deviation of 50 meter based on the results of the previous studies, with 95% Confidence Level (α = 0.05) and 80% power and expecting a dropout rate of 20%. The number of participants to be enrolled in the study should be approximately 55 in each group. Hence, a total of 110 participants will be enrolled in the trial at each study site. TRIAL STATUS: Participants' recruitment started on 1st May 2021. Anticipated end of recruitment is August 2021. Protocol number: CCRAS-01 Protocol version number: 1.1, 13th January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is prospectively registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI) on 03rd March 2021 [ CTRI/2021/03/031686 ]. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Journal website (Additional file 1). This communication serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Yoga , Female , Humans , India , Lactation , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Herb Med ; 29: 100472, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240374

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Treatment for COVID-19 was ambiguous in the beginning of the pandemic. At that time, the conventional medical system was grappling to cope with the rapidly spreading pandemic. The potential of Ayurveda, one of the branches of traditional Indian medicine (TIM), with a 5000 year old history, employing medicines derived from plants and other natural sources, against COVID-19 has been explored through a comparative retrospective open-label study. METHODS: Reported here are the remedial effects of Ayurvedic medicines alone or in combination with Allopathic treatment on 59 asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients, across multiple COVID-19 care centers in Ahmedabad, India. The patients were confirmed for COVID-19 infection through RT-qPCR of nasopharyngeal swabs. With informed consents from the patients, the sourced data was divided into 'Allopathic and Ayurvedic' [AlloAyur] (n = 41) and 'Ayurvedic only'[Ayur] (n = 18) groups, based on the type of treatment the patients decided to receive, that is Ayurvedic medicines with Allopathic treatment or Ayurvedic medicines alone, respectively. Ayurvedic medicines included oral doses and nasal drops; the dosage and regime were decided based on the recommendations from Ayurvedic texts. The Allopathic medicines included Azithromycin, Vitamin-C and anti-histamines. Acetaminophen was also administered when necessary, by the attending physician. The patients were observed for symptomatic improvement. RESULTS: Primary outcome of this study was the symptomatic relief from COVID-19. Data collected over a period of two months, showed that more patients exhibited symptomatic relief in Ayur goup (83.33 %) than in the AlloAyur group (48.78 %) within the first 13 days of treatment. No visible adverse effects were observed. This indicated faster and safe symptomatic resolution among those treated with Ayurvedic medicines alone. CONCLUSION: Patients receiving only Ayurvedic medicines on average were symptomatically relieved faster than those receiving Allopathic and Ayurvedic medicines together.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 623795, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236735

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic is progressing, the therapeutic gaps in conventional management have highlighted the need for the integration of traditional knowledge systems with modern medicine. Ayurvedic medicines, especially Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, WS), may be beneficial in the management of COVID-19. WS is a widely prescribed Ayurvedic botanical known as an immunomodulatory, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and adaptogenic agent. The chemical profile and pharmacological activities of WS have been extensively reported. Several clinical studies have reported its safety for use in humans. This review presents a research synthesis of in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (WS) and discusses its potential for prophylaxis and management of COVID-19. We have collated the data from studies on WS that focused on viral infections (HIV, HSV, H1N1 influenza, etc.) and noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, diabetes, cancer, etc.). The experimental literature indicates that WS has the potential for 1) maintaining immune homeostasis, 2) regulating inflammation, 3) suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, 4) organ protection (nervous system, heart, lung, liver, and kidney), and 5) anti-stress, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic activities. Using these trends, the review presents a triangulation of Ayurveda wisdom, pharmacological properties, and COVID-19 pathophysiology ranging from viral entry to end-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The review proposes WS as a potential therapeutic adjuvant for various stages of COVID-19 management. WS may also have beneficial effects on comorbidities associated with the COVID-19. However, systematic studies are needed to realize the potential of WS for improving clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19.

12.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165102

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in China in December 2019 and its spread as worldwide pandemic has been a major global health crisis. Extremely high infection and mortality rate has severely affected all sectors of life and derailed the global economy. While drug and vaccine development have been prioritized and have made significant progression, use of phytochemicals and herbal constituents is deemed as a low-cost, safer and readily available alternative. We investigated therapeutic efficacy of eight withanolides (derived from Ashwagandha) against the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteins, a target cell surface receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and report results on the (i) computational analyses including binding affinity and stable interactions with ACE2, occupancy of ACE2 residues in making polar and nonpolar interactions with different withanolides/ligands and (2) in vitro mRNA and protein analyses using human cancer (A549, MCF7 and HSC3) cells. We found that among all withanolides, Withaferin-A, Withanone, Withanoside-IV and Withanoside-V significantly inhibited the ACE2 expression. Analysis of withanolides-rich aqueous extracts derived from Ashwagandha leaves and stem showed a higher ACE2 inhibitory potency of stem-derived extracts. Taken together, we demonstrated the inhibitory potency of Ashwagandha withanolides and its aqueous extracts against ACE2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

13.
Mater Today Proc ; 46: 3144-3147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142123

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis which has affected citizens of all nations. With more than a million death cases, this outbreak has already had a significant impact on the physical and mental wellbeing of mankind. Considerable amount of research is going on worldwide to find out effective drugs against the virus. Chloroquine phosphate, an antimalarial drug is currently used for the treatment. Studies on the harmful effects of chloroquine is in progress. India is rich in traditional medical practicing such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani etc. Ministry of AYUSH is trying to implement an interdisciplinary treatment encompassing all traditional methodologies. It is proven that Ashwagandha rasayana (Withania sominefera L.Dunal) has better functions than hydroxychloroquine. The ayurvedic formulations such as Sudarshan Ghanvati and Sanshamanivati are also used. The combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin is found to cure COVID-19 more effectively. Use of Tocilizumab is found to cure the respiratory disorders associated with COVID. Favilavir turns out to be yet another effective drug. The alternative medical system has effective prophylaxis and is considered better for the treatment of COVID-19. Ayurveda and yoga improve immunity thus maintaining good health. This review throws light on the mode of progression of the virus along with the various treatment protocols adopted to fight COVID-19.

14.
J Ovarian Res ; 13(1): 79, 2020 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657841

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and continued spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a preeminent global health threat that has resulted in the infection of over 11.5 million people worldwide. In addition, the pandemic has claimed the lives of over 530,000 people worldwide. Age and the presence of underlying comorbid conditions have been found to be key determinants of patient mortality. One such comorbidity is the presence of an oncological malignancy, with cancer patients exhibiting an approximate two-fold increase in mortality rate. Due to a lack of data, no consensus has been reached about the best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients. Interestingly, two independent research groups have discovered that Withaferin A (WFA), a steroidal lactone with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties, may bind to the viral spike (S-) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Further, preliminary data from our research group has demonstrated that WFA does not alter expression of ACE2 in the lungs of tumor-bearing female mice. Downregulation of ACE2 has recently been demonstrated to increase the severity of COVID-19. Therefore, WFA demonstrates real potential as a therapeutic agent to treat or prevent the spread of COVID-19 due to the reported interference in viral S-protein to host receptor binding and its lack of effect on ACE2 expression in the lungs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/drug effects , Withanolides/pharmacology , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cachexia/metabolism , Female , Humans , Mice , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
15.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(1): 1-13, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436584

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) initiated in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and became pandemic causing high fatality and disrupted normal life calling world almost to a halt. Causative agent is a novel coronavirus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV). While new line of drug/vaccine development has been initiated world-wide, in the current scenario of high infected numbers, severity of the disease and high morbidity, repurposing of the existing drugs is heavily explored. Here, we used a homology-based structural model of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), a cell surface receptor, required for entry of virus to the target host cell. Using the strengths of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we examined the binding potential of Withaferin-A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester to TPMRSS2 in comparison to its known inhibitor, Camostat mesylate. We found that both Wi-A and Wi-N could bind and stably interact at the catalytic site of TMPRSS2. Wi-N showed stronger interactions with TMPRSS2 catalytic residues than Wi-A and was also able to induce changes in its allosteric site. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of Wi-N on TMPRSS2 expression in MCF7 cells and found remarkable downregulation of TMPRSS2 mRNA in treated cells predicting dual action of Wi-N to block SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells. Since the natural compounds are easily available/affordable, they may even offer a timely therapeutic/preventive value for the management of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We also report that Wi-A/Wi-N content varies in different parts of Ashwagandha and warrants careful attention for their use.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Withanolides/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Serine , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
16.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(11): 3842-3854, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324383

ABSTRACT

The recent novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV) has caused a large number of deaths around the globe. There is an urgent need to understand this new virus and develop prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. Since drug development is an expensive, intense and time-consuming path, timely repurposing of the existing drugs is often explored wherein the research avenues including genomics, bioinformatics, molecular modeling approaches offer valuable strengths. Here, we have examined the binding potential of Withaferin-A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) (active withanolides of Ashwagandha) and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE, bioactive ingredient of propolis) to a highly conserved protein, Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. We found that Wi-N and CAPE, but not Wi-A, bind to the substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with efficacy and binding energies equivalent to an already claimed N3 protease inhibitor. Similar to N3 inhibitor, Wi-N and CAPE were interacting with the highly conserved residues of the proteases of coronaviruses. The binding stability of these molecules was further analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energies calculated using MM/GBSA for N3 inhibitor, CAPE and Wi-N were also comparable. Data presented here predicted that these natural compounds may possess the potential to inhibit the functional activity of SARS-CoV-2 protease (an essential protein for virus survival), and hence (i) may connect to save time and cost required for designing/development, and initial screening for anti-COVID drugs, (ii) may offer some therapeutic value for the management of novel fatal coronavirus disease, (iii) warrants prioritized further validation in the laboratory and clinical tests.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Caffeic Acids , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Withanolides
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