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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-52, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107219

ABSTRACT

Increasing spread by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants challenges existing vaccines and broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against COVID-19. Here we determine the diversity, potency, breadth and structural insights of bNAbs derived from memory B cells of BNT162b2-vaccinee after homogeneous Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection. The infection activates diverse memory B cell clonotypes for generating potent class I/II or III bNAbs with new epitopes mapped to receptor-binding domain (RBD). The top eight bNAbs neutralize wildtype and BA.1 potently but display divergent IgH/IgL sequences and neuralization profiles against other variants of concern (VOCs). Two of them (P2D9 and P3E6) belonging to class III NAbs display comparable potency against BA.4/BA.5, although structural analysis reveals distinct modes of action. P3E6 neutralizes all variants tested through a unique bivalent interaction with two RBDs. Our findings provide new insights into hybrid immunity on BNT162b2-induced diverse memory B cells in response to Omicron breakthrough infection for generating diverse bNAbs with distinct structural basis.

2.
Mol Immunol ; 152: 215-223, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095806

ABSTRACT

Identification of immunologic epitopes against SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the discovery of diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive targets. In this study, we used a pan-coronavirus peptide microarray to screen for potential B-cell epitopes and validated the results with peptide-based ELISA. Specifically, we identified three linear B-cell epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, which were recognized by convalescent plasma from COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, two epitopes (S 809-823 and R1ab 909-923) strongly reacted to convalescent plasma collected at the early phase (< 90 days) of COVID-19 symptom onset, whereas one epitope (M 5-19) reacted to convalescent plasma collected > 90 days after COVID-19 symptom onset. Neutralization assays using antibody depletion with the identified spike (S) peptides revealed that three S epitopes (S 557-571, S 789-803, and S 809-823) elicited neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 patients. However, the levels of virus-specific antibody targeting S 789-803 only positively correlated with the neutralizing rates at the early phase (<60 days) after disease onset, and the antibody titers diminished quickly with no correlation to the neutralizing activity beyond two months after recovery from COVID-19. Importantly, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19-recovered patients with these SARS-CoV-2 S peptides resulted in poor virus-specific B cell activation, proliferation, differentiation into memory B cells, and production of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, despite the B-cells being functionally competent as demonstrated by their response to non-specific stimulation. Taken together, these findings indicate that these newly identified SARS-CoV-2-specific B-cell epitopes can elicit neutralizing antibodies, with titers and/or neutralizing activities declining significantly within 2-3 months in the convalescent plasma of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been extensively characterized in immunocompetent hosts and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised populations. Among the latter, patients treated for B-cell malignancies have immunosuppression generated by B-cell lymphodepletion/aplasia resulting in an increased susceptibility to respiratory virus infections and poor response to vaccination. The consequence is that these patients are likely to develop severe or critical COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To examine the overall impact of COVID-19 in patients treated for a B-cell malignancy or receiving chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) immunotherapy administered in case of relapsed or refractory disease. SOURCES: We searched in the MEDLINE database to identify relevant studies, trials, reviews, or meta-analyses focusing on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or COVID-19 management in patients treated for a B-cell malignancy or recipients of CAR-T cell therapy up to 8 July 2022. CONTENT: The epidemiology and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with B-cell malignancy and CAR-T cell recipients are summarized. Vaccine efficacy in these subgroups is compiled. Considering the successive surges of variants of concern, we propose a critical appraisal of treatment strategies by discussing the use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma therapy, direct-acting antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, and immunomodulators. IMPLICATIONS: For patients with B-cell malignancy, preventive vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 remains essential and the management of COVID-19 includes control of viral replication because of protracted SARS-CoV-2 shedding. Passive immunotherapy (monoclonal neutralizing antibody therapy and convalescent plasma therapy) and direct-active antivirals, such as remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir are the best currently available treatments. Real-world data and subgroup analyses in larger trials are warranted to assess COVID-19 therapeutics in B-cell depleted populations.

4.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094586

ABSTRACT

A patient with immunodeficiency due to a B-cell lymphoma has repeatedly been tested positive for SARS-CoV­2 during the ongoing SARS-CoV­2 pandemic and has twice received in-hospital treatment. Chronic and recurrent SARS-CoV­2 infections are a threat to the individual health of immunodeficient patients. Only few therapeutic options are available especially due to emerging virus variants with immune escape mechanisms. The medical care of immunodeficient patients with SARS-CoV­2 infections is a great challenge to the treating physician in the ongoing pandemic.

5.
Elife ; 112022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090832

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV infection dysregulates the B cell compartment, affecting memory B cell formation and the antibody response to infection and vaccination. Understanding the B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 in people living with HIV (PLWH) may explain the increased morbidity, reduced vaccine efficacy, reduced clearance, and intra-host evolution of SARS-CoV-2 observed in some HIV-1 coinfections. Methods: We compared B cell responses to COVID-19 in PLWH and HIV negative (HIV-ve) patients in a cohort recruited in Durban, South Africa, during the first pandemic wave in July 2020 using detailed flow cytometry phenotyping of longitudinal samples with markers of B cell maturation, homing, and regulatory features. Results: This revealed a coordinated B cell response to COVID-19 that differed significantly between HIV-ve and PLWH. Memory B cells in PLWH displayed evidence of reduced germinal centre (GC) activity, homing capacity, and class-switching responses, with increased PD-L1 expression, and decreased Tfh frequency. This was mirrored by increased extrafollicular (EF) activity, with dynamic changes in activated double negative (DN2) and activated naïve B cells, which correlated with anti-RBD-titres in these individuals. An elevated SARS-CoV-2-specific EF response in PLWH was confirmed using viral spike and RBD bait proteins. Conclusions: Despite similar disease severity, these trends were highest in participants with uncontrolled HIV, implicating HIV in driving these changes. EF B cell responses are rapid but give rise to lower affinity antibodies, less durable long-term memory, and reduced capacity to adapt to new variants. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of HIV on SARS-CoV-2 immunity, particularly as new variants emerge. Funding: This work was supported by a grant from the Wellcome Trust to the Africa Health Research Institute (Wellcome Trust Strategic Core Award [grant number 201433/Z/16/Z]). Additional funding was received from the South African Department of Science and Innovation through the National Research Foundation (South African Research Chairs Initiative [grant number 64809]), and the Victor Daitz Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , South Africa , Antibodies, Viral
6.
J Med Virol ; : e28258, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085072

ABSTRACT

Waning antibody levels against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the emergence of variants of concern highlight the need for booster vaccinations. This is particularly important for the elderly population, who are at a higher risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. While studies have shown increased antibody responses following booster vaccination, understanding the changes in T and B cell compartments induced by a third vaccine dose remains limited. We analyzed the humoral and cellular responses in subjects who received either a homologous messenger RNA(mRNA) booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + BNT162b2; ''BBB") or a heterologous mRNA booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + mRNA-1273; ''BBM") at Day 0 (prebooster), Day 7, and Day 28 (postbooster). Compared with BBB, elderly individuals (≥60 years old) who received the BBM vaccination regimen display higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against the Wuhan and Delta strains along with a higher boost in immunoglobulin G memory B cells, particularly against the Omicron variant. Circulating T helper type 1(Th1), Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper responses were also increased in elderly individuals given the BBM regimen. While mRNA vaccines increase antibody, T cell, and B cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 1 month after receiving the third dose booster, the efficacy of the booster vaccine strategies may vary depending on age group and regimen combination.

7.
Intern Med ; 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079921

ABSTRACT

An 81-year-old man underwent rituximab-containing chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Thirteen years after his last chemotherapy, he was diagnosed with hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. He was then treated with entecavir, and improvement was seen in his liver injury. He developed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after improvement in his hepatitis. Despite chemotherapy, he contracted the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and died of COVID-19. We suspect that HBV reactivation was triggered by DLBCL. When HBV reactivation occurs a long time after chemotherapy has concluded, the onset of DLBCL should be considered.

8.
New Microbiologica ; 45(1):62-72, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068238

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy might be effective in patients with haematological malignancies and B-cell depletion. We report a single-centre experience of COVID-19 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and absence of B-cells as a consequence of anti-CD20 therapy successfully treated with CP from October 2020 to May 2021. CP was given in the presence of pneumonia with respiratory failure despite standard treatment and consisted of three infusions on an alternate-day basis. A review of the current literature on this topic was also performed. Six patients were identified (median age 59.5 years (range 50-73)). The last anti-CD20 drug administration occurred 60 days before infection (range 0-360). CP was administered after a median of 51 days (range 9-120) from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, with an early improvement in all but one subject. We suggest a possible clinical benefit of convalescent CP treatment in COVID-19 patients with haematological malignancies and B-cell depletion having persistent/recurrent pneumonia.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066122

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 to prevent COVID-19 is highly recommended for immunocompromised patients with autoimmune rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (aiRMDs). Little is known about the effect of booster vaccination or infection followed by previously completed two-dose vaccination in aiRMDs. We determined neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and applied flow cytometric immunophenotyping to quantify the SARS-CoV-2 reactive B- and T-cell mediated immunity in aiRMDs receiving homologous or heterologous boosters or acquired infection following vaccination. Patients receiving a heterologous booster had a higher proportion of IgM+ SARS-CoV-2 S+ CD19+CD27+ peripheral memory B-cells in comparison to those who acquired infection. Biologic therapy decreased the number of S+CD19+; S+CD19+CD27+IgG+; and S+CD19+CD27+IgM+ B-cells. The response rate to a booster event in cellular immunity was the highest in the S-, M-, and N-reactive CD4+CD40L+ T-cell subset. Patients with a disease duration of more than 10 years had higher proportions of CD8+TNF-α+ and CD8+IFN-γ+ T-cells in comparison to patients who were diagnosed less than 10 years ago. We detected neutralizing antibodies, S+ reactive peripheral memory B-cells, and five S-, M-, and N-reactive T-cells subsets in our patient cohort showing the importance of booster events. Biologic therapy and <10 years disease duration may confound anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific immunity in aiRMDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD40 Ligand , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccination
10.
Chest ; 162(4):A954, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060740

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has shown rare and varied presentations of known pathology and infectious processes. We discuss the case of a patient developing bronchial tree ulcerations in the backdrop of SARS-CoV-2 and superimposed infections. CASE PRESENTATION: This was a 59-year-old male with past medical history of B-cell lymphoma, diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted with shortness of breath and increased oxygen requirement. In brief, his hospital course included bilevel positive airway pressure noninvasive ventilation along with steroids, baricitinib and therapeutic anticoagulation. His clinical status worsened to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and he progressed to mechanical ventilation. While on the ventilator he was treated with paralysis and proning. Due to worsening hypoxia and secretions, he underwent bronchoscopy showing copious thick mucoid white patches and secretions in trachea extending to the right and left mainstem bronchi and extensive mucus plugging. Baricitinib was discontinued and he was placed on empiric micafungin, broad spectrum antibiotics while results were pending. He required repeat bronchoscopy for therapeutic suctioning of recurrent copious thick white secretions with mucus plugging. Cultures resulted as aspergillus fumigatus and micafungin was switched to voriconazole. Two weeks later, in an ongoing prolonged intubated state, he developed cuff leak requiring tube exchange and repeat bronchoscopy, which showed development of multiple bilateral ulcerations with central necrosis and sloughing in the right and left bronchial tree. Repeat lab evaluation of the bronchoscopy samples now resulted in growth of nocardia along with aspergillus species. DISCUSSION: Ulceration of bronchial tree may be seen in malignant lesions, autoimmune conditions, poisoning or toxicology cases. Occurrence of pulmonary ulcerations are rare in infectious cases as sequalae in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Patient's immunocompromised state, with history of B-cell lymphoma, prolonged steroid and JAK inhibitor administration, predisposes to higher propensity of infections. Bronchial tree ulceration also leads to suspicion of viral infections such as herpes, varicella which were found to be negative from bronchial samples. It remains difficult to ascertain if the prolonged aspergillus infection led to progression of white plaques into ulcerations, or the newly diagnosed secondary infection of nocardia caused bronchial tree ulcers. Historically, aspergillus has been associated with blackened ulcerations as opposed to the findings here. Also, patient had been receiving treatment with voriconazole for 2 weeks prior to diagnosis of ulcers, therefore raising suspicion for a rare nocardial etiology as well. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged intubation in immunocompromised patients may lead to superimposed nocardial and aspergillus infections causing airway ulcerations and increased mortality. Reference #1: Judson MA, Sahn SA. Endobronchial lesions in HIV-infected individuals. Chest. 1994;105(5):1314-1323. doi:10.1378/chest.105.5.1314 Reference #2: Abdel-Rahman N, Izhakian S, Wasser WG, Fruchter O, Kramer MR. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient [published correction appears in Case Rep Pulmonol. 2016;2016:1950463]. Case Rep Pulmonol. 2015;2015:970548. doi:10.1155/2015/970548 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Habiba Hussain No relevant relationships by Matthew Sehring

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2474-2484, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051171

ABSTRACT

BBIBP-CorV exerts efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, waning vaccine-induced humoral immune responses after two-dose vaccination have significantly undermined durable immuno-protection. In this study, we have demonstrated that although anti-spike (S) antibody responses in BBIBP-CorV vaccinees exhibited three serotypes after 6 months, including de novo sero-negative, sero-positive, and sero-decay features, S-specific interferon-γ release as well as Th1 cytokine production in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were comparable, especially in vaccinees without detectable neutralizing antibodies. Notably, regardless of dramatic increases in humoral immunity after booster vaccination, T cell responses targeting S protein from either wild type or Omicron remained stable before and after booster vaccination in all three serotype vaccinees. No severe cases were observed even in the sero-decay group during the Omicron epidemic in Shanghai. Our results thus illustrate that unlike fluctuating humoral responses, viral-specific T cell responses are extremely stable after booster vaccination. Sustained T cell responses might be dedicated to the rapid restoration of antibody responses after booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Front Med ; 16(5): 815-826, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048518

ABSTRACT

Oral drugs such as ibrutinib play an important role in the treatment of mature B-cell lymphoma (BCL) due to their reliable efficacy, manageable safety, high accessibility, and convenience for use. Still, no guidelines or consensus focusing on oral drug therapies for BCL is available. To provide a reference of oral agent-based treatment for mature BCL, a panel of experts from the Lymphocyte Disease Group, Chinese Society of Hematology, Chinese Medical Association conducted an extensive discussion and reached a consensus on oral drugs for Chinese BCL patients on the basis of the current application status of oral drugs in China, combined with the latest authoritative guidelines in the world and current research reports. This consensus reviewed the application of oral drugs in the treatment of BCL and the latest research and provided appropriate recommendations on the use of oral drugs for indolent or aggressive BCL patients. With the deepening of research and the development of standardized clinical applications, oral medications will bring better treatment to BCL patients, enabling more patients to benefit from them.


Subject(s)
Lymphoma, B-Cell , Humans , Consensus , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , China
13.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 21(9):1119-1124, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2047145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of miR-221-3p on the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) by targeting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase- 2 (TIMP-2).

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044053

ABSTRACT

The high mortality rate due to COVID-19 has necessitated the mass vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 to induce protective humoral and cellular immunity. (1) Objective: To study the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2-specific B cells after two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. (2) Methods: Immunophenotyping and cellular cultures were used to determine the kinetics of B-cell subpopulations and vaccine responses in volunteers before and seven days, three months and seven months after the second dose in Spain (n = 19). (3) Results: Seven days after immunisation, memory B cells and plasmablasts expressing receptors for factors implicated in the maturation of plasma cells were augmented in blood. Three months after vaccination, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific plasmablasts disappeared from circulation while spike-specific memory-B cells circulated, with heterogeneous dynamics among individuals. (4) Conclusion: After vaccination, specific plasmablasts equipped with receptors for maturation factors were quickly generated and disappeared rapidly from the blood, while specific memory B cells circulated for at least seven months.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044026

ABSTRACT

More than a year after the first vaccines against the novel SARS-CoV-2 were approved, many questions still remain about the long-term protection conferred by each vaccine. How long the effect lasts, how effective it is against variants of concern and whether further vaccinations will confer additional benefits remain part of current and future research. For this purpose, we examined 182 health care employees-some of them with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection-12 months after different primary immunizations. To assess antibody responses, we performed an electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) to determine anti-spike IgGs, followed by a surrogate virus neutralization assay against Wuhan-Hu-1 and B.1.1.529/BA.1 (Omicron). T cell response against wild-type and the Omicron variants of concern were assessed via interferon-gamma ELISpot assays and T-cell surface and intracellular cytokine staining. In summary, our results show that after the third vaccination with an mRNA vaccine, differences in antibody quantity and functionality observed after different primary immunizations were equalized. As for the T cell response, we were able to demonstrate a memory function for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells alike. Importantly, both T and antibody responses against wild-type and omicron differed significantly; however, antibody and T cell responses did not correlate with each other and, thus, may contribute differentially to immunity.

16.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 68: 104195, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, B cell depleting therapies pose a clinical concern for patients with neuroimmune conditions, as patients may not mount a sufficient immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccinations. Studies to-date have reported conflicting results on the degree of antibody production post-SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccinations in B cell depleted patients, focusing primarily on short-term immune profiling. Our objective was to follow longitudinal immune responses in COVID-19 B cell depleted patients with neuroimmune disorders post-COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2-vaccination. METHODS: CD20 B cell depleted autoimmune patients and age/sex-matched controls positive for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited at Dell Medical School, UT Austin between 2020 and 2021, followed prospectively for 12 months and evaluated at multiple time points for spike S1 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody titers, B and T cell composition, and frequency of T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 antigens. RESULTS: Immune responses post-SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination were evaluated in a cohort of COVID-19 B cell depleted neuroimmune patients (n = 5), COVID-19 non-B cell depleted autoimmune patients (n = 15), COVID-19 immunocompetent patients (n = 117), and healthy controls (n = 6) for a total of 259 samples in 137 participants. 4/5 B cell-depleted patients developed detectable anti-spike RBD antibodies, which were boosted by vaccination in 2 patients. While spike RBD antibodies were associated with presence of CD20+ B cells, very few B cells were required. In contrast, patients whose B cell compartment primarily consisted of CD19+CD20- Bcells during acute COVID-19 disease or vaccination did not seroconvert. Interestingly, circulating Bcells in B cell depleted patients were significantly CD38high with co-expression of CD24 and CD27, indicating that B cell depletion may impact B cell activation patterns. Additionally, all B cell depleted patients mounted a sustained T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, regardless of seroconversion. Specifically, all patients developed naïve, central memory, effector memory, and effector memory RA+ T cells, suggesting intact T cell memory conversion in B cell depleted patients compared to controls. DISCUSSION: We present the longest COVID-19 immune profiling analysis to date in B cell depleted patients, demonstrating that both humoral and cellular immune responses can be generated and sustained up to 12 months post SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. Notably, failure to establish humoral immunity did not result in severe disease. We also highlight specific T and B cell signatures that could be used as clinical biomarkers to advise patients on timing of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations.

17.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 20(1): 136, 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which has brought a great challenge to public health. After the first emergence of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in the city of Wuhan, China, in December 2019. As of March 2020, SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in Bangladesh and since then the country has experienced a steady rise in infections, resulting in 13,355,191 cases and 29,024 deaths as of 27 February 2022. Bioinformatics techniques are used to predict B cell and T cell epitopes from the new SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in order to build a unique multiple epitope vaccine. The immunogenicity, antigenicity scores, and toxicity of these epitopes were evaluated and chosen based on their capacity to elicit an immune response. RESULT: The best multi-epitope of the possible immunogenic property was created by combining epitopes. EAAAK, AAY, and GPGPG linkers were used to connect the epitopes. In several computer-based immune response analyses, this vaccine design was found to be efficient, as well as having high population coverage. CONCLUSION: This research is entirely reliant on the development of epitope-based vaccines, and these in silico findings would represent a major step forward in the development of a vaccine that might eradicate SARS-CoV-2 in Bangladeshi patients.

18.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 11(1): 60, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038944

ABSTRACT

Targeting B-cell receptor signalling using Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors (BTKis) has become a highly successful treatment modality for B-cell malignancies, especially for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. However, long-term administration of BTKis can be complicated by adverse on- and/or off-target effects in particular cell types. BTK is widely expressed in cells of haematopoietic origin, which are pivotal components of the tumour microenvironment. BTKis, thus, show broad immunomodulatory effects on various non-B immune cell subsets by inhibiting specific immune receptors, including T-cell receptor and Toll-like receptors. Furthermore, due to the off-target inhibition of other kinases, such as IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and the TEC and SRC family kinases, BTKis have additional distinct effects on T cells, natural killer cells, platelets, cardiomyocytes, and other cell types. Such mechanisms of action might contribute to the exceptionally high clinical efficacy as well as the unique profiles of adverse effects, including infections, bleeding, and atrial fibrillation, observed during BTKi administration. However, the immune defects and related infections caused by BTKis have not received sufficient attention in clinical studies till date. The broad involvement of BTK in immunological pathways provides a rationale to combine BTKis with specific immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitor or chimeric antigen receptor-T-cell therapy, for the treatment of relapsed or refractory diseases. This review discusses and summarises the above-mentioned issues as a reference for clinicians and researchers.

19.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037153

ABSTRACT

Recently the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pervasive threat to generic health. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein plays a fundamental role in binds and fusion to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The multi-epitope peptide vaccines would be able to elicit both long-lasting humoral and cellular immune responses, resulting the eliminating SARS-CoV-2 infections as asymptomatic patients are in large numbers. Recently, the omicron variant of the SARS-CoV-2 became a variant of concern that contained just 15-point mutations in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein. In order to eliminate new evidence on coronavirus variants of concern detected through epidemic intelligence, the conserved epitopes of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and spike cleavage site is the most probable target for vaccine development to inducing binds and fusion inhibitors neutralizing antibodies respectively. In this study, we utilized bioinformatics tools for identifying and analyzing the spike (S) glycoprotein sequence, e.g. the prediction of the potential linear B-cell epitopes, B-cell multi­epitope design, secondary and tertiary structures, physicochemical properties, solubility, antigenicity, allergenicity, the molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation for the promising vaccine candidate against all variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2. Among the epitopes of the RBD region are surface-exposed epitopes SVYAWNRKRISNCV and ATRFASVYAWNRKR as the conserved sequences in all variants of concern can be a good candidate to induce an immune response. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

20.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 114(3):S134-S135, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2036087

ABSTRACT

This study sought to assess whether there is a radiotherapy (RT) dose response for bulky tumors in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL). Patients with r/r DLBCL (age ≥18 years) treated with salvage- or palliative-intent RT (2008-2020) at a single institution were included. Course-level data were examined to assess in-field responses of index lesions. Courses used for either post-therapy consolidation, CNS or skin disease, and TBI conditioning were excluded. Index lesion size ≥7.5 cm was considered bulky. EQD2s (α/β = 10) were calculated to accurately compare biologic effective doses between conventional and hypofractionated (≥2.5 Gy/fraction) schemes. Post-treatment responses of index lesions were classified using Lugano Criteria. Objective response rates (ORR), defined as achieving either CR or PR, were compared between non-bulky and bulky tumors using Fisher's exact test. Freedom from local progression (FFLP) and overall survival (OS, patient-level data) from RT start date were recorded. Bulky disease impacts on FFLP and OS were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression analyzes. 151 r/r DLBCL patients underwent 183 RT courses (median follow-up time: 6 months, IQR: 2-17 months). Median age at RT was 67 years (IQR: 56-72 years) with a male/female ratio of 55%/45%. Non-bulky and bulky tumors were treated in 109 (60%) and 74 (40%) cases, respectively. Intent was classified as salvage or palliative in 68 (37%) and 115 (63%) cases, respectively. Median EQD2 was 33 Gy (IQR: 23-39 Gy) with hypofractionation used in 84 (46%) cases. Of those with post-RT imaging (n = 146, 80%), there was a trend towards lower ORR for bulky vs. non-bulky tumors (50% vs. 65%, p = 0.087;CR: 21% vs. 42%, PR: 29% vs. 23%, SD: 28% vs. 14%, PD: 22% vs. 22%). For bulky tumors, RT regimens with EQD2s >30 Gy were associated with better ORR (≤30 Gy vs. >30 Gy: 27% vs. 64%, p = 0.014), whereas a lower EQD2 cut-off was sufficient for non-bulky tumors (<20 Gy vs. ≥20 Gy: 38% vs. 73%, p = 0.0076). In all courses, bulky tumors were significantly associated with shorter FFLP (median: 5.6 months vs. not reached, HR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.24-4.26, p = 0.0079) and OS (median: 3.7 vs. 10.1 months, HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.06-2.58, p = 0.025). Amongst bulky tumors, there was a trend towards improved FFLP with RT regimens with higher EQD2s (20-30 Gy vs. <20 Gy - median: 4.2 vs. 2.3 months, HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.09-1.62, p = 0.19;>30 Gy vs. <20 Gy - median: not reached vs. 2.3 months, HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.11-1.01, p = 0.053). In this study, bulky r/r DLBCL tumors were associated with less favorable outcomes in salvage and palliative settings. If durable local control of bulky tumors is needed, RT regimens using higher EQD2s (>30 Gy) should be considered, including cases where shortened, hypofractionated courses are opted for such as during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, bridging to CAR-T cell infusion, or prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

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