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1.
Ann Hematol ; 101(12): 2711-2717, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085356

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) show suboptimal responses to the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2; it has been shown though that a booster dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine may lead to a significant increase in the seroconversion rates of immunocompromised patients. We conducted a prospective, non-interventional study to evaluate the immunogenicity of a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in adult patients with CLL. Sera were tested before the first, after the second, and before and after the third dose for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) spike protein IgG (anti-RBD). Thirty-nine patients with CLL were included in the study. The seroconversion rate increased from 28.2% before the third dose to 64.1% after the third dose and was higher in treatment-naïve patients (72.7% versus 47.1% in actively treated patients, p = 0.042). All but one patient achieving a seroconversion after the second dose retained after the third, while eight patients not achieving a seroconversion after the second dose (38.1%), did so after the third. Moreover, patients actively treated with venetoclax had a higher seroconversion rate than those treated with ibrutinib (87.5% versus 14.3%, p = 0.001). This study confirms the beneficial effect of a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine on the seroconversion rate in patients with CLL. Our results also strongly suggest that the use of venetoclax is correlated with higher immunogenicity/seroconversion rates than that of ibrutinib, a finding that has been reported by another study. A treatment strategy change during the pandemic favoring the use of venetoclax may be suggested based on our results, although these results should be validated in larger studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Adult , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
2.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 12(5): 110-113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081656

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a patient who presented to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation one day after receiving the BNT162b2 COVID-19 booster vaccine. Laboratory studies indicated she was in a state of inflammation, but not infection. Other potential triggers, including cardiac and viral etiologies, were ruled out. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a COPD exacerbation following the administration of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine.

3.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 159(3): 116-123, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015835

ABSTRACT

Background: It is crucial to assess the levels of protection generated by natural infection or SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, mainly in individuals professionally exposed and in vulnerable groups. Measuring T-cell responses may complement antibody tests currently in use as correlates of protection. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of a validated assay of T-cell responses. Methods: Twenty health-care-workers (HCW) were included. Antibody test to SARS-CoV-2 N and S-proteins in parallel with a commercially available whole-blood-interferon-gamma-release-assay (IGRA) to S-peptides and two detection methods, CLIA and ELISA were determined. Results: IGRA test detected T-cell responses in naturally exposed and vaccinated HCW already after first vaccination dose. The correlation by the two detection methods was very high (R > 0.8) and sensitivity and specificity ranged between 100 and 86% and 100-73% respectively. Even though there was a very high concordance between specific antibody levels and the IGRA assay in the ability to detect immune response to SARS-CoV-2, there was a relatively low quantitative correlation. In the small group primed by natural infection, one vaccine dose was sufficient to reach immune response plateau. IGRA was positive in one, with Ig(S) antibody negative vaccinated immunosuppressed HCW illustrating another advantage of the IGRA-test. Conclusion: Whole-blood-IGRA-tests amenable to automation and constitutes a promising additional tool for measuring the state of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2; they are applicable to large number of samples and may become a valuable correlate of protection to COVID-19, particularly for vulnerable groups at risk of being re-exposed to infection, as are health-care-workers.


Introducción: Es fundamental evaluar los niveles de protección inmune en infectados o tras la vacunación frente a SARS-CoV-2. La cuantificación de la respuesta inmune celular T puede complementar la determinación de anticuerpos. Evaluamos la viabilidad de un ensayo comercial validado de respuesta celular T específica frente a SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: Se incluyeron veinte trabajadores sanitarios (TS). Medimos anticuerpos contra las proteínas N y S de SARS-CoV-2 y realizamos el ensayo de liberación de interferón-gamma (IFNγ) en sangre completa (IGRA) frente a péptidos de la proteína S. IFNγ se determinó mediante dos métodos de detección: CLIA y ELISA. Resultados: IGRA detectó respuesta celular T en TS tanto infectados como vacunados. La correlación de los dos métodos de detección de IFNγ fue muy alta (R >0,8) y la sensibilidad y la especificidad variaron entre 100 y 86% y 100-73% respectivamente. Hubo una concordancia muy alta entre los niveles de anticuerpos específicos y el ensayo IGRA aunque la correlación cuantitativa fue relativamente baja. En el grupo de infectados, una dosis de vacuna fue suficiente para alcanzar el «plateau¼ de respuesta inmune. IGRA fue claramente positivo en un profesional vacunado inmunosuprimido que presentaba anticuerpos contra la proteína S negativos. Conclusiones: IGRA frente a péptidos de la proteína-S es susceptible de automatización y constituye una herramienta prometedora para medir la respuesta inmune celular frente a SARS-CoV-2; es aplicable a un gran número de muestras y puede servir para valorar la protección, particularmente en los grupos vulnerables en riesgo de volver a exponerse a la infección, como los TS.

4.
Intern Med ; 61(21): 3205-3210, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002394

ABSTRACT

Objectives The influential factors for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike protein antibody (S-ab) levels were assessed after the administration of BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine at short and medium terms. Methods A total of 470 healthcare workers (118 males, mean age 41.0±11.9 years) underwent serum S-ab level measurement at 3 and 8 months after two inoculations of BNT162b2 vaccine given 3 weeks apart, who had no history of COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. The changes and differences after vaccination due to gender and adverse reactions of S-ab were analyzed. Results Systemic adverse reactions incidence (48%) was significantly higher after the second dose than after the first dose (8%). S-ab levels decreased as the age increased (from the 20s to 60s) in both measurements. S-ab level 8 months after the second inoculation [median 476.3 (interquartile range (IQR) 322.4-750.6) U/mL] was significantly lower than that after 3 months [977.5 (637.2-1,409.0) U/mL; p<0.001]. The median decrease rate of S-ab levels in 5 months was 50.3% (IQR 40.3-62.6) and those differences were not observed among all generations. Gender-associated differences in S-ab levels were not observed; however, a significant relationship between higher S-ab levels and the systemic adverse reactions was observed at both measurements. Conclusions The systemic adverse reaction is an independent factor for higher S-ab levels at short and medium terms after BNT162b2 vaccination as demonstrated in our data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines
5.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(8)2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997798

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on cardiovascular manifestation, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students aged 13-18 years from two schools, who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms. We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow-up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular signs and symptoms were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). One participant could have more than one sign and/or symptom. Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular manifestations were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia or palpitation to myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. In conclusion, Cardiovascular manifestation in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild and temporary, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for cardiovascular side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S51-S60, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunization of vulnerable populations with distinct immunity often results in suboptimal immunogenicity, durability, and efficacy. METHODS: Safety and immunogenicity profiles of BNT162b2 messenger RNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine, among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), were evaluated in 28 perinatally HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 65 healthy controls (HCs) with no previous history of COVID-19. Thus, we measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific humoral and CD4+ T cell responses. Samples were collected before vaccination (baseline, day [D] 0), at the second dose (D21), and at 4 weeks (D28) and 6 months (D180) after D0. Proteomic profiles at D0 and D28 were assessed with a multiplexed proximity extension assay (Olink) on plasma samples. RESULTS: All HIV-infected patients mounted similar anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses to those of HCs, albeit with lower titers of anti-trimeric S at D28 (P = .01). Only peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected patients demonstrated at D28 an impaired ability to expand their specific (CD40L+) CD4+ T-cell populations. Similar humoral titers were maintained between the 2 groups at 6-months follow-up. We additionally correlated baseline protein levels to either humoral or cellular responses, identifying clusters of molecules involved in immune response regulation with inverse profiles between the 2 study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Responses of ART-treated HIV-infected patients, compared to those of HCs, were characterized by distinct features especially within the proteomic compartment, supporting their eligibility to an additional dose, similarly to the HC schedule.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Proteomics , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954115

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to assess the immunogenicity of the third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Comirnaty) in a cohort of 129 health-care workers in Greece whose anti-S1 RBD IgG titers were monitored over the course of nine months. Titers were measured for each participant just before the third dose (nine months after the second dose) and also one month after the third dose. Of the 129 participants, 19 had been previously infected before starting the vaccination scheme. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay on the Architect System was employed to longitudinally assess the titers of IgG against the receptor-binding domain of the S1 subunit of the spike protein (anti-S1 RBD). Boosters raised Geometric Mean Concentrations (GMCs) by a factor of approximately 47 relative to levels at 9 months and by a factor of approximately 23 relative to levels at 6 months. The immune response one month after the third dose was significantly higher than the response achieved one month after the second dose (p = 0.008). In conclusion, our findings verify the potent immunogenicity elicited by the third dose in all age and prior COVID-19 status groups, suggesting that the timely administration of the third (booster) dose maximizes the immunogenic potential of the vaccine.

8.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 5056-5060, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898904

ABSTRACT

Real-world data suggest that protection against COVID-19 declines a few months after vaccination, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Our study aimed to analyze the humoral response induced by a third supplemental dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in a mixed group of immunocompromised individuals by determining anti-spike (anti-S) IgG antibody titers at baseline (pre-third vaccine dose) and 4 weeks after the dose. Serum samples were obtained from a total group of 85 immunocompromised individuals (history of cancer: n = 20, lymphoma: n = 4, leukemia: n = 3, transplant recipients: n = 4, autoimmune disease: n = 42, inflammatory disease: n = 6, autoimmune diabetes type 1: n = 6) all of whom had previously received a two-dose schedule of the vaccine. The average number of days between second and third dose was 139.6145 (±41.39071). The overall IgG GMCs 4 weeks postvaccination were increased by more than 35 times (fold change = 35.30, p < 0.001). Fold changes were not significantly correlated with underlying condition, age, sex nor with days between second and third dose. Considering the predominance of omicron variants in the current period and the results of studies showing a decrease in the effectiveness of the third dose after 10 weeks we highly recommend a fourth dose to this vulnerable population group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ther Adv Hematol ; 13: 20406207221090150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869000

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Immunization of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with vaccines against several infectious diseases has proven insufficient. Data on seroconversion of patients with CLL after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are still young, but accumulating evidence shows low seroconversion rates. Methods: We conducted a prospective, noninterventional study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine, administered 21 days apart in consecutive adult patients with CLL. Patients vaccinated with other vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, with a history of confirmed Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), with known human immunodeficiency virus infection, or with an inability to provide written informed consent were excluded. Sera were tested before the first and after the second dose of the vaccine for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) spike protein IgG (anti-RBD), using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA), with a cutoff value for seroconversion at 50 AU/ml. Results: Sixty-one patients (28 males/33 females) with CLL, with a median age of 61 years, were included in the study. The majority of the patients (82.0%) were lower (0-2) stage per the RAI staging system. The seroconversion rate at 14 days after the second dose was 45% and was correlated with RAI stage (0-2 versus 3-4; 51.0% versus 18.3%, p = 0.047), the treatment status (treatment naïve, previously treated, or actively treated patients; 63.0% versus 40.0% versus 26.1%, respectively, p = 0.031), the number of previous treatment lines (0-2 versus >2; 55.3% versus 8.3%, p = 0.004), and the platelet count of the patients (over or under 100 × 109/L; 52.9% versus 10.0%, p = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive linear relationship between the antibody titers and the gamma-globulin levels (r = 0.182, p = 0.046) and platelet count (r = 0.277, p = 0.002). Finally, patients actively treated with venetoclax had higher antibody titers than those treated with ibrutinib (15.8 AU/ml versus 0.0 AU/ml, p = 0.047). No safety issues were identified while the emergence of adverse events was not correlated with immunogenicity. Discussion: This study confirms results from previous studies on the low seroconversion rates in patients with CLL vaccinated with the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine and on the detrimental effect of advanced disease and multiple treatment lines on seroconversion, while it is suggested that treatment with venetoclax may offer a chance for higher antibody titers, suggesting a treatment strategy change during the pandemic provided that this result is confirmed by larger studies specifically designed to address this issue.

10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2059308, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774281

ABSTRACT

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the emergency use authorization for the BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) for children aged 12-15 years on 10 May 2021. To date, less than a year has passed since vaccination against COVID-19 has been used in children and adolescents, and the overall effects and safety of these vaccines are still being assessed. The BNT162b2 vaccine originally had a favorable profile in 12-17-year-old recipients compared with older ages, and no serious adverse events had previously been reported. Despite various adverse events, the benefit of reducing the infection rate or the frequency of severe COVID-19 has been evaluated to outweigh the harm caused by COVID-19 vaccination. Additionally, several cases of sudden development of new-onset or relapsing glomerular diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI), have been reported in adults following the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Herein, we present two cases of adolescents who developed AKI following the second administration of the BNT162b2. These are the first pediatric cases of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis temporarily linked to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Nephritis, Interstitial , Adolescent , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nephritis, Interstitial/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Neurol Sci ; 43(5): 2947-2949, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies investigated the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with natalizumab (NTZ) and found a short-term efficient humoral response; however, there are no studies assessing the levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in pwMS treated with NTZ over time. METHODS: Humoral immune response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was assessed in a group of 26 pwMS on NTZ up to 6 months after a full COVID-19 vaccination cycle and compared it with 43 age- and sex-matched group of HC. Serum samples were collected before the first dose (T0), and 4 weeks (T1) and 6 months (T2) after the first dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS-IgG assay (DiaSorin-S.p.A.) was employed for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (cutoff for positive IgG antibodies: 33.8 BAU/mL). RESULTS: At T1 and T2, both groups showed an efficient humoral response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. A significant reduction of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was detected at T2 both in pwMS and in HC, but SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were still above the cutoff limit in all participants. CONCLUSIONS: pwMS on NTZ develop and maintain a long-term humoral response after a full COVID-19 vaccination cycle comparable to their healthy peers, and these findings are relevant for clinicians called to counsel about COVID-19 mRNA vaccine timing and booster doses in pwMS treated with NTZ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
Chest ; 161(2): e71-e73, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664778

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive scar tissue formation. An acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) is a clinically significant respiratory decompensation that accounts for a significant proportion of IPF-related morbidity and mortality. AE-IPF can be idiopathic or associated with pulmonary embolism, infection, aspiration, surgery, and drug toxicity. In this novel case report, we describe a potential association between AE-IPF and BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination that was successfully treated with a short course of glucocorticoids. While our aim is to raise awareness for this yet-to-be-described adverse event, immunization against vaccine-preventable disease remains widely recommended in vulnerable patients with chronic lung disease such as IPF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , /adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Drug Tapering/methods , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 40-44, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the longitudinal evolution of neutralizing antibody titres (NtAb) in three different cohorts of healthcare workers (HCWs), including vaccinated HCWs with and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and previously infected unvaccinated HCWs. COVID-19 was mild or asymptomatic in those experiencing infection. METHODS: NtAb was tested before BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (V0), 20±2 days after the first dose (V1_20), 20±3 days (V2_20) and 90±2 days (V2_90) after the second dose in vaccinated HCWs and after about 2 months (N_60), 10 months (N_300) and 13 months (N_390) from natural infection in unvaccinated HCWs. NtAb were measured by authentic virus neutralization with a SARS-CoV-2 B.1 isolate circulating in Italy at HCW enrolment. RESULTS: Sixty-two HCWs were enrolled. NtAb were comparable in infected HCWs with no or mild disease at all the study points. NtAb of uninfected HCWs were significantly lower with respect to those of previously infected HCWs at V1_20, V2_20 and V2_90. The median NtAb fold decrease from V2_20 to V2_90 was higher in the uninfected HCWs with respect to those with mild infection (6.26 vs 2.58, p=0.03) and to asymptomatic HCWs (6.26 vs 3.67, p=0.022). The median Nabt at N_390 was significantly lower than at N_60 (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In uninfected HCWs completing the two-dose vaccine schedule, a third mRNA vaccine dose is a reasonable option to counteract the substantial NtAb decline occurring at a significantly higher rate compared with previously infected, vaccinated HCWs. Although low, Nabt were still at a detectable level after 13 months in two-thirds of previously infected and unvaccinated HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Health Personnel , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
14.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 428-431, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612087

ABSTRACT

Currently approved anti-COVID-19 vaccines have been found to be safe and effective and almost 60% of Israeli residents are already vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine. This observational study was designed to evaluate the adverse events of vaccine reported by 61 healthcare workers at least 7 days after the 2nd vaccination, and to investigate the correlation of adverse events and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels. The median participant's age was 51.25 years, 16 men and 45 women; 77% (44% of male and 84.5% of female participants) reported adverse events. Injection site pain, fatigue and fever were the most common symptoms, and significantly higher antibody levels (average 19,387 AU/mL) were found in participants who had fever compared to those who did not experience fever (average antibody levels of 9,977 AU/mL, p < 0.001). This finding corresponds to previous observations of higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels in COVID-19 patients presented with fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572692

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are secreted into human milk of infected or vaccinated lactating women and might provide protection to the breastfed infant against COVID-19. Differences in antibody response after these types of exposure are unknown. In this longitudinal cohort study, we compared the antibody response in human milk following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection. We analyzed 448 human milk samples of 28 lactating women vaccinated with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2 as well as 82 human milk samples of 18 lactating women with a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA in human milk were determined over a period of 70 days both after vaccination and infection. The amount of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA in human milk was similar after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and infection. After infection, the variability in IgA levels was higher than after vaccination. Two participants with detectable IgA prior to vaccination were analyzed separately and showed higher IgA levels following vaccination compared to both groups. In conclusion, breastfed infants of mothers who have been vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine receive human milk with similar amounts of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies compared to infants of previously infected mothers.

16.
Respir Investig ; 60(2): 248-255, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) vaccination is progressing globally. Several adverse reactions have been reported with vaccination against COVID-19. It is unknown whether adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccination are severe in individuals with allergies. METHODS: We administered the COVID-19 vaccine to the medical staff at Yamagata University Hospital from March to August 2021. Subsequently, we conducted an online questionnaire-based survey to investigate the presence of allergy and adverse reactions after vaccination and examine the association between allergy and adverse reactions after immunization. RESULTS: Responses were collected from 1586 to 1306 participants after the first and second administration of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, respectively. Adverse reactions included injection site pain, injection site swelling, fever, fatigue or malaise, headache, chills, nausea, muscle pain outside the injection site, and arthralgia. The frequency of some adverse reactions and their severity were higher, and the duration of symptoms was longer in participants with allergies than in those without allergies. Although several participants visited the emergency room for treatment after the first and second vaccinations, no participant was diagnosed with anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the frequency and severity of adverse reactions after injection of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine were higher in individuals with allergy; however, no severe adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis or death were observed. These results indicate that individuals with allergic histories may tolerate the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Medical Staff , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541543

ABSTRACT

Short-term humoral and cellular immune responses are diminished after BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccination in Covid-19 naive nursing home residents, a population particularly vulnerable to the disease. We found both responses to decline after four weeks and remain lower than those of healthcare workers after twenty-four weeks, with an estimated half-life of the antibody response of 47 days. At four weeks, older age was significantly associated with a decreased humoral response, and diabetes mellitus and active malignancy with a decreased cellular response. Our results imply that Covid-19 naive nursing home residents are a target group for booster vaccination trials.

18.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 11: 100236, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An excess risk of Bell's palsy has been suggested after mRNA vaccines. We examined the association between the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and Bell's palsy. METHODS: Using the database of the largest healthcare provider in Israel, we retrieved data from different periods in 2018-2021. Observed cases of Bell's palsy occurring within 21-days after the first vaccine dose and within 30-days after the second vaccine dose were compared to the expected cases, based on the experience of the population in 2019. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and attributable risks (ARs) were computed. FINDINGS: Overall, 132 cases of Bell's palsy were reported in 2,594,990 vaccinees with the first dose, and 152 cases in 2,434,674 vaccinees after the second dose. The age and sex weighted SIRs were 1.36(95% CI, 1.14-1.61) and 1.16(0.99-1.36) after the first and second vaccine dose, respectively. SIRs tended to be higher in older age groups after the first and second vaccine doses. The estimates were more pronounced in older females after the first vaccine dose; SIR=1.71(1.10-2.54) at age 45-64, and 2.51(1.65-3.68) at age ≥65 years. The highest AR was 4.46 per 100,000 vaccinees detected in females aged ≥65 years. In patients with previous history of Bell's palsy, only 4 cases of Bell's palsy were reported in 7,567 vaccinees and 10 cases in 7,045 vaccinees after the first and the second dose, respectively. The age and sex weighted SIRs were 1.15(0.36-2.76) and 2.15(1.09-3.83) after the first and second vaccine dose, respectively. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine might be associated with increased risk of Bell's palsy. The small estimated attributable risks suggest that the impact on public health is relatively minor. The benefits of vaccinations explicitly outweigh the possible link to Bell's palsy that has high recovery rate if timely treated with corticosteroids. FUNDING: No external funding was available for this study.

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 760047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485069

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is important for reducing hospitalization and mortalities. Both Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) and the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccines are used in Saudi Arabia and in many parts of the world. Post-vaccinal side effects were recorded, so we aimed to screen different complaints after vaccination among vaccinees in Saudi Arabia. Methods: An online questionnaire was designed to screen the local, systemic, and allergic post vaccination reactions for vaccinees who received either one or two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine or one dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine. The number and percentage were recorded for each response and analyzed using cross-tab and Chi square tests. The degree of the severity of post vaccination reactions were analyzed using Roc curve. The cofactors that may affect the severity of post-vaccinal reactions including previous COVID-19 infection, age, sex, body mass index, and comorbidities were investigated. Results: During our study, 4,170 individuals reported their responses: 2,601 received one dose of BNT162b2, of whom 456 completed the second dose, and 1,569 received a single dose of ChAdOx1. The side effects were reported in 85.6% of BNT162b2 vaccinees and 96.05% of ChAdOx1 vaccinees who voluntarily responded to a survey about post-vaccination side effects. The side effects were more severe in BNT162b2 than ChAdOx1. ChAdOx1 vaccinees reported mild, moderate, severe and critical side effects in 30.13, 28.62, 29.73, and 1.53%, respectively. In contrast, mild side effects were recorded among the majority of BNT162b2 vaccinees (63.92%) while moderate, severe, and critical side effects were 27.67, 7.68, and 0.72%, respectively. Both local and systemic side effects were recorded more frequently in ChAdOx1 in comparison to BNT162b2 vaccinees. Palpitation was among the new systemic side effects reported in the current study in high frequency. Abnormal menstrual cycle (delaying/increase hemorrhages or pain) was also reported in 0.98% (18/1846) of Pfizer-BioNTech and 0.68% (7/1028) of ChAdOx1 vaccinees, while deep vein thrombosis was only reported in a single case vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine. Conclusion: Both vaccines induced post-vaccinal side effects; however, ChAdOx1 induces a higher frequency of post-vaccinal systemic side effects than BNT162b2.

20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477821

ABSTRACT

Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
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