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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885915

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 provides humoral immunity to fight COVID-19; however, the acquired immunity gradually declines. Booster vaccination restores reduced humoral immunity; however, its effect on newly emerging variants, such as the Omicron variant, is a concern. As the waves of COVID-19 cases and vaccine programs differ between countries, it is necessary to know the domestic effect of the booster. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from healthcare workers (20-69 years old) in the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine program at the Toyama University Hospital 6 months after the second dose (6mA2D, n = 648) and 2 weeks after the third dose (2wA3D, n = 565). The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody level was measured, and neutralization against the wild-type and variants (Delta and Omicron) was evaluated using pseudotyped viruses. Data on booster-related events were collected using questionnaires. RESULTS: The median anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was >30.9-fold elevated after the booster (6mA2D, 710.0 U/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 443.0-1068.0 U/mL]; 2wA3D, 21927 U/mL [IQR: 15321.0->25000.0 U/mL]). Median neutralizing activity using 100-fold sera against wild-type-, Delta-, and Omicron-derived variants was elevated from 84.6%, 36.2%, and 31.2% at 6mA2D to >99.9%, 99.1%, and 94.6% at 2wA3D, respectively. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were significantly elevated in individuals with fever ≥37.5 °C, general fatigue, and myalgia, local swelling, and local hardness. CONCLUSION: The booster effect, especially against the Omicron variant, was observed in the Japanese population. These findings contribute to the precise understanding of the efficacy and side effects of the booster and the promotion of vaccine campaigns.

2.
J Autoimmun ; 131: 102848, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885882

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to investigate the responses to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in a cohort of immunosuppressed patients affected by immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID). METHODS: we have measured humoral and cellular immunity using quantitative IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody (anti-S-IgG), neutralization assays and specific interferon-gamma (IFN-g) release assay (IGRA) before and after the third dose of BNT162b2. The response of those on anti-CD20 (n = 18) was then compared with healthy controls (HC, n = 18) and IMID naïve to anti-CD20 drugs (n = 13). RESULTS: a third BNT162b2 dose is highly immunogenic in IMID patients naïve to anti-CD20, as 100% of the subjects seroconverted compared to the 55% in anti-CD20. The rate of IGRA response was of 79% in anti-CD20, 50% in IMID naïve to anti-CD20, 100% in HC. Among those who have seroconverted, IMID patients had significantly reduced anti-S-IgG and neutralization titers compared to HC, whereas no significant difference was observed when comparing anti-CD20 and HC. Furthermore, 13% of anti-CD20 and 7.7% of IMID were simultaneously negative for both neutralizing antibodies and IGRA after three doses. CONCLUSION: these data draw attention to the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in treated IMID, taking specific groups into consideration for vaccination program.

3.
Vaccines ; 10(5):17, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884453

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the best way to limit the extent of the COVID pandemic. Knowledge of the duration of the immune response will allow the planning of a vaccination protocol. This study aims to validate the complete (humoral and cellular) immune responses over time in large population groups following the full vaccination of healthcare professionals in real-life conditions and to assess the relationship between antibody levels and T-cell activity in relation to the characteristics of the study group. The samples for the study were obtained from volunteers (staff of two hospitals) on three occasions: before vaccination, T0, then 4-9 weeks after full vaccination (two doses BNT162b2), T1, and 7-9 months after vaccination, T2. The humoral response was investigated by the titre of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to S1 protein. Assays were performed three times at intervals. The cellular response was assessed in a subgroup of 189 subjects by QuanT-Cell SARS-CoV-2 (IGRA). The assay was performed once. A group of 344 subjects fully vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine were included in the study. The humoral response was observed in 100% of subjects at both 4-7 weeks and 7-9 months, but antibody titres fell by almost 90% in this interval. The cellular response was observed in 94% (177/189) of subjects 7-9 months after the second dose of vaccine. In subjects with a negative cellular response, eight out of 12 smoked. A factor associated with greater immunogenicity of vaccination was past SARS-CoV-2 infection. The administration of full BNT162b2 vaccination (two doses) induces humoral and cellular responses detectable even more than six months after vaccination. Smoking may be a factor associated with impaired cellular response to vaccination.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884445

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has severely impacted on public health, mainly on immunosuppressed patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. Vaccination represents a valuable tool for the prevention of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines has been evaluated in transplanted patients. In this study, we investigated the role of a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients, analyzing both humoral and cell-mediated responses. We observed an increased immune response after the third dose of the vaccine, especially in terms of Spike-specific T cell response. The level of seroconversion remained lower than 50% even after the administration of the third dose. Mycophenolate treatment, steroid administration and age seemed to be associated with a poor immune response. In our cohort, 11/45 patients experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection after the third vaccine dose. HLA antibodies appearance was recorded in 7 out 45 (15.5%) patients, but none of the patients developed acute renal rejection. Further studies for the evaluation of long-term immune responses are still ongoing, and the impact of a fourth dose of the vaccine will be evaluated.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884439

ABSTRACT

In the era of globally predominant omicron strains, a COVID-19 booster vaccine is needed. Our study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of a half-dose BNT162b2 booster after AZD1222 in healthy adults. A randomized trial of volunteers aged 18-69 years who received two-dose AZD1222 was conducted. The participants were randomized to receive the BNT162b2 vaccine intramuscularly-half (15 µg) vs. standard dose (30 µg). The immunogenicity was evaluated by a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) against omicron variants and anti-spike-receptor-binding-domain IgG (anti-S-RBD IgG). From November-December 2021, 100 adults with a median age of 59.3 years (IQR 33.4-65.5) were enrolled. A booster dose was given at median of 98 days (IQR 92-128) after AZD1222. At day 14, the geometric means (GMs) of anti-S-RBD IgG in half- vs. standard-dose group were 2329.8 vs. 2574.7 BAU/mL, with a geometric mean ratio (GMR) of 0.90 (0.77-1.06). The GMs of sVNT against the omicron variant in the half- and standard-dose groups were 74.4% inhibition (95% CI 68.8-80.5) and 67.3% inhibition (57.9-78.1), respectively, with GMR of 0.95 (0.69-1.30). At day 90, the sVNT indicated 22.3% inhibition (95% CI 14.9-33.4) and 20.4% inhibition (13.1-32.0), respectively, with GMR of 1.09 (0.60-1.98). The fractional low-dose BNT162b2 mRNA booster vaccine provided non-inferior immunogenicity responses. During a shortage of vaccine supply, a fractional low dose should be considered for a booster vaccination program.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884435

ABSTRACT

The BNT162b2 Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was the first emergency approved vaccine during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the variations in the humoral immune response induced by the administration of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, the elderly, and those with comorbidities and immunosuppression states. Additionally, we analyzed the effect of generated neutralizing antibodies against the new variants of concern of SARS-CoV-2. Pubmed, Science Direct, Mendeley, and WorldWide Science were searched between 1 January 2020 and October 2021 using the keywords "BNT162b2", "serology", "comorbidity", "immunosuppression", and "variants of concern"dA total of 20 peer-reviewed publications were selected. The analysis showed that those individuals with previous infections have a considerably higher antibody response after the administration of BNT162b2 vaccine in contrast with seronegative individuals. With regard to variation in immune responses, elderly individuals, patients with cancer, or patients who had undergone a kidney transplant, dialysis, or who were pregnant had a lower antibody response in comparison to healthy individuals. Finally, antibodies developed against the S protein produced by the BNT162b2 vaccine, possessed lower neutralizing activity against the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants of SARS-CoV-2. In conclusion, patients with immunodeficiencies and comorbidities have a lesser antibody response, about which further studies need to be performed in order to analyze the effectiveness and duration of the humoral immunity associated with vaccination in these specific populations.

7.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884392

ABSTRACT

To mitigate the massive COVID-19 burden caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), several vaccination campaigns were initiated. We performed a single-center observational trial to monitor the mid- (3 months) and long-term (10 months) adaptive immune response and to document breakthrough infections (BTI) in healthcare workers (n = 84) upon BNT162b2 vaccination in a real-world setting. Firstly, serology was determined through immunoassays. Secondly, antibody functionality was analyzed via in vitro binding inhibition and pseudovirus neutralization and circulating receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific B cells were assessed. Moreover, the induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells was investigated by an interferon-γ release assay combined with flowcytometric profiling of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Within individuals that did not experience BTI (n = 62), vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses were not correlated. Interestingly, waning over time was more pronounced within humoral compared to cellular immunity. In particular, 45 of these 62 subjects no longer displayed functional neutralization against the delta variant of concern (VoC) at long-term follow-up. Noteworthily, we reported a high incidence of symptomatic BTI cases (17.11%) caused by alpha and delta VoCs, although vaccine-induced immunity was only slightly reduced compared to subjects without BTI at mid-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , 59828 , Belgium , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
8.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884386

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize the antibody response induced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in a cohort of healthcare workers. A total of 2247 serum samples were analyzed using the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-test (Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland). Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), arterial hypertension, smoking and time between infection and/or vaccination and serology were considered the confounding factors. Regarding the medians, subjects previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 who preserved their response to the nucleocapsid (N) protein showed higher humoral immunogenicity (BNT162b2: 6456.0 U/mL median; mRNA-1273: 2505.0 U/mL) compared with non-infected (BNT162b2: 867.0 U/mL; mRNA-1273: 2300.5 U/mL) and infected subjects with a lost response to N protein (BNT162b2: 2992.0 U/mL). After controlling for the confounders, a higher response was still observed for mRNA-1273 compared with BNT162b2 in uninfected individuals (FC = 2.35, p < 0.0001) but not in previously infected subjects (1.11 FC, p = 0.1862). The lowest levels of antibodies were detected in previously infected non-vaccinated individuals (39.4 U/mL). Clinical variables previously linked to poor prognoses regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as age, BMI and arterial hypertension, were positively associated with increasing levels of anti-S protein antibody exclusively in infected subjects. The mRNA-1273 vaccine generated a higher antibody response to the S protein than BNT162b2 in non-infected subjects only.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884384

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Our aim is the evaluation of the neutralizing activity of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-induced antibodies in different in vitro cellular models, as this still represents one of the surrogates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 viral variants. (2) Methods: The entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in three cell lines (Vero E6, Vero E6/TMPRSS2 and Calu-3) were evaluated with both pseudoviruses and whole virus particles. The neutralizing capability of sera collected from vaccinated subjects was characterized through cytopathic effects and Real-Time RT PCR. (3) Results: In contrast to Vero E6 and Vero E6/TMPRSS2, Calu-3 allowed the evaluation of both viral entry mechanisms, resembling what occurs during natural infection. The choice of an appropriate cellular model can decisively influence the determination of the neutralizing activity of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Indeed, the lack of correlation between neutralizing data in Calu-3 and Vero E6 demonstrated that testing the antibody inhibitory activity by using a single cell model possibly results in an inaccurate characterization. (4) Conclusions: Cellular systems allowing only one of the two viral entry pathways may not fully reflect the neutralizing activity of vaccine-induced antibodies moving increasingly further away from possible correlates of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic , Vero Cells
10.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-338530

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2020, prior to COVID-19 vaccine rollout, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations and Brighton Collaboration created a priority list, endorsed by the World Health Organization, of potential adverse events relevant to COVID-19 vaccines. We leveraged the Brighton Collaboration list to evaluate serious adverse events of special interest observed in phase III randomized trials of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: Secondary analysis of serious adverse events reported in the placebo-controlled, phase III randomized clinical trials of Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (NCT04368728 and NCT04470427), focusing analysis on potential adverse events of special interest identified by the Brighton Collaboration. Results: Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events of special interest, with an absolute risk increase of 10.1 and 15.1 per 10,000 vaccinated over placebo baselines of 17.6 and 42.2 (95% CI -0.4 to 20.6 and -3.6 to 33.8), respectively. Combined, the mRNA vaccines were associated with an absolute risk increase of serious adverse events of special interest of 12.5 per 10,000 (95% CI 2.1 to 22.9). The excess risk of serious adverse events of special interest surpassed the risk reduction for COVID-19 hospitalization relative to the placebo group in both Pfizer and Moderna trials (2.3 and 6.4 per 10,000 participants, respectively). Discussion: The excess risk of serious adverse events found in our study points to the need for formal harm-benefit analyses, particularly those that are stratified according to risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes such as hospitalization or death.

11.
Mod Rheumatol Case Rep ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883027

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 24-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic with bilateral lower extremity pain and dark urine, which developed two weeks after receiving the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Laboratory tests indicated rhabdomyolysis. Lower extremity magnetic resonance imaging was compatible with myositis. Myositis-related antibodies were negative. Biopsy taken from gastrocnemius muscle revealed muscle necrosis and striking expression of major histocompatibility complex class I antigen. He was successfully treated, and his complaints resolved. One week later at follow-up, he reported new-onset exertional dyspnea with palpitations. ST-segment depressions were spotted on electrocardiography. Troponin T was found elevated as 0.595 ng/mL (normal <0.014 ng/mL). Echocardiography showed hypokinetic left ventricle with ejection fraction of 40%, and pericardial effusion of 2mm. An appropriate treatment plan was formulated for the diagnosis of myocarditis, eventually the patient recovered within ten days. BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was felt to cause the aforementioned condition since no other etiology could be identified. Although it is known that BNT162b2 may induce myocarditis, myositis concomitant myocarditis appears to be a very rare adverse effect of this vaccine.

12.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882208

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors affecting seropositivity and antibody levels after SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with cancer because they were excluded from clinical studies of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study included 290 patients with solid tumors followed up in our medical oncology clinic between March 2021 and August 2021. SARS-CoV-2 antibody status was determined before the first dose of vaccine. Fifty-one patients with positive prevaccine baseline antibody tests were excluded from the study, regardless of whether they had previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity. To determine the quantitative IgG antibody response of the vaccines, blood samples were collected at least 28 days after each dose of vaccine. Quantitative IgG levels against virus spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA). Demographic and clinical features affecting seropositivity were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one (69.3%) patients were vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac followed by one dose of BNT162b2 (Biontech) (group 1). Sixty-seven (30.7%) patients were vaccinated with three doses of BNT162b2 (group 2). The proportion of patients who developed seropositivity was significantly higher in group 2 (78.6% vs. 54.9%, p < 0.012). Antibody response increased significantly after the second dose of vaccine in both groups. Female sex, being younger than 65 years, and chemotherapy status were significantly related to higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels (p = 0.033, p = 0.036, and p = 0.047, respectively). Antibody levels were significantly higher in patients who had previously received chemotherapy than in patients receiving active chemotherapy (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to evaluate basal SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels before the first dose of vaccine and after three doses in patients with solid tumors. The rate of development of seropositivity with two doses of mRNA vaccine was found to be higher than with two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. More attention should be paid to preventive measures in addition to vaccination in patients aged over 65 years and men with cancer diagnoses.

13.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(756):1858-1859, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880745
14.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(758):1954-1955, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880583
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant has spread rapidly throughout the world since being identified in South Africa in November 2021. Few studies have assessed primary series and booster vaccine effectiveness against Omicron among US health care workers. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative case-control design to estimate BNT162b2 and mRNA1273 primary vaccination and booster effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptomatic Covid-19 during an Omicron surge among employees of the University of Pennsylvania Health System. The study period was between 7/1/21-4/5/22. We defined the Delta period as 7/1/21-12/12/21 and the Omicron period as beginning 12/20/21. RESULTS: Our sample included 14,520 tests (2,776 [19%] positive)-7,422 (506 [7%] positive) during Delta, and 7,098 (2270 [32%] positive) during Omicron. Benchmarked against Delta, vaccine effectiveness of two vaccine doses was lower during Omicron, with no significant protection against infection. Booster doses added significant protection, although they also showed reduced effectiveness during Omicron. Compared to employees who had received two vaccine doses, three BNT162b2 doses had a relative effectiveness of 50% (95% CI 42-56%) during Omicron, relative to 78% (95% CI 63-87%) during Delta; three mRNA1273 doses had a relative effectiveness of 56% (95% CI 45-65%) during Omicron, relative to 96% (95% CI 82-99%) during Delta. Restricting the sample to symptomatic tests yielded similar results to our primary analysis. After initial waning in BNT162b2 booster protection against infection, it remained largely stable for at least 16 weeks after vaccination. DISCUSSION: Our findings provide a strong rationale for boosters among healthcare workers in the Omicron era.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 327-331, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the postvaccination variation in immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptor-binding domain (RBD) produced in non-SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with nephropathy and renal replacement therapy. METHODS: This is a follow-up study of the humoral response to the BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid COVID-19 vaccine in patients with nephropathy, comparing it with itself at different times and with the healthy population. RESULTS: In patients with nephropathy, a very striking decrease in IgG RBD was observed compared with the healthy population (P<0.001) at three months after the second dose. In patients with nephropathy, the response rate ≥590 binding antibody units/ml (4154 AU/ml) was detected in 45% of patients, 15 days after the second dose, whereas at 3 months, this decreased to 9% (P<0.05) and then increased to 86% after the third dose (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with nephropathy and renal replacement therapy, it is necessary to administer a third-dose vaccination within 3 months after the second dose. It is important to continue monitoring the humoral response to obtain a better SARS-CoV-2 vaccination schedule.

17.
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health ; 53(3):217-231, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876779

ABSTRACT

Several coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been used to reduce COVID-19 infections, transmissions, hospitalizations, and death. Rare adverse events have been reported after vaccination. We report here the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed acute encephalopathy-like symptoms nine days after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 (mRNA) vaccine. She initially experienced high fever, headaches, and drowsiness and then developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures that progressed to status epilepticus. Management included anti-convulsant medication, endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Work-up revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) test but she did not meet the criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Her seizures improved with immunosuppressive therapy. She was finally discharged home but had residual memory problems interfering with functioning. The etiology of this patient’s condition is unclear but could be autoimmune encephalitis due to her vaccination. We review here the literature for similar cases following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess the association between autoimmune disease and mRNA vaccination to determine if there is a significant association and if there is what factors may be significant in that association. © 2022, SEAMEO TROPMED Network. All rights reserved.

18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1375-1383, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875358

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive technological advances in recent years, objective and continuous assessment of physiologic measures after vaccination is rarely performed. We conducted a prospective observational study to evaluate short-term self-reported and physiologic reactions to the booster BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech, https://www.pfizer.com) vaccine dose. A total of 1,609 participants were equipped with smartwatches and completed daily questionnaires through a dedicated mobile application. The extent of systemic reactions reported after the booster dose was similar to that of the second dose and considerably greater than that of the first dose. Analyses of objective heart rate and heart rate variability measures recorded by smartwatches further supported this finding. Subjective and objective reactions after the booster dose were more apparent in younger participants and in participants who did not have underlying medical conditions. Our findings further support the safety of the booster dose from subjective and objective perspectives and underscore the need for integrating wearables in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , 59828 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Self Report , Vaccination
19.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874397

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.

20.
J Cyst Fibros ; 21(3): e184-e187, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873121

ABSTRACT

Data regarding immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are limited. We prospectively measured total (TAbs-RBD; U/ml) and neutralizing (NAbs-RBD; %) antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 spike-receptor binding domain (RBD) protein in 33 CF patients and 66 healthy controls with median age (IQR): 19.6 (17.6-24.3) years and 31 (29-36) years, respectively and investigated possible associations with epidemiological and clinical parameters. Compared to healthy controls, CF patients had higher levels of TAbs-RBD and NAbs-RBD after both doses (P-value < 0.001). One month after the second dose, CF patients and controls had TAbs-RBD: median (IQR): 3396 (2443) and 1452 (1231) U/ml, respectively. Similarly, the NAbs-RBD (%) were: 97.30 (1.00) and 95.70 (3.71) %, respectively. CF patients also had fewer local and systemic adverse events (AEs) (P-value < 0.001). Among CF patients, no significant differences in immunogenicity were detected regarding the phenotype, genotype, medications, or severity of the disease. BNT162b2 vaccine was immunogenic with limited reactogenicity in CF patients regardless of the phenotype or severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Vaccines , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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