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Webology ; 19(3):1242-1261, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1940172


The study analyses the Scientometric analysis of the Quantitation techniques on the Publications trend has been measured in the field of Palaeontology based on the Scopus data for the period of study between 2005 and 2019. The topmost productive year was 2019 with 998 records (8.28%). Similarly the least productive year was 2005 with 371 records (3.08%). The publications, from 2005 to 2012 (8 years) 45.82% publications were found;whereas from 1913 to 2019 (7 years) 54.18% publications were found. The maximum number of citations in the year 2011 comprises 24683 citations and the minimum number of citations is 3115 in 2019. The maximum number of citations per paper is 39.28 in 2006. The highest exponential growth rate was found to be 1.23 in the year 2010 with 909 publications. The highest AGR was found in the year 2010 (23) followed by the year 2007 (21.83). The maximum RGR value is found to be 0.79 in the year 2006 and the minimum value is found to be 0.08 in the year 2018. Here the correlation coefficient of these two variables is 0.96. The highest CC 0.61 is reported in the year 2019. The overall CC =0.53 which is far from 0. The highest MCC 0.61 has been reported in the year 2019. The lowest MCC 0.40 has been reported in the year in 2006. The overall MCC is 0.53. The journal titled "Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology" occupied the first position with 1494 publications. The second most productive journal was " PLoS ONE " with 471 publications.

Pain Physician ; 24(S1):S209-S232, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1813052


BACKGROUND: Transforaminal epidural injections have been used since the late 1990s to treat lumbar radicular pain. They have been the subject of considerable attention, with varying conclusions from systematic reviews as to their efficacy. Transforaminal injections have been associated with rare but major complications. Further, the use of transforaminal injections has increased since the passage of the Affordable Care Act. Finally, with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been heightened concern regarding the risk associated with steroid injections. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and update the effectiveness of transforaminal injections for 4 indications: radicular pain;from spinal stenosis;from failed back surgery syndrome;and for axial low back pain;and to evaluate the safety of the procedure. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of transforaminal injections. METHODS: The available literature on transforaminal injections was reviewed and the quality assessed. The level of evidence was classified on a 5-point scale based on the quality of evidence developed by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and modified by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP). Data sources included relevant literature from 1966 to April 2020, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. Pain relief and functional improvement were the primary outcome measures. A minimum of 6 months pain relief follow-up was required. RESULTS: For this systematic review, 66 studies were identified. Eighteen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. No observational studies were included. Eleven randomized controlled trials dealt with various aspects of transforaminal injections for radicular pain owing to disc herniation. Based on these studies, there is Level 1 evidence supporting the use of transforaminal injections for radicular pain owing to disc herniation. A meta-analysis showed that at both 3 and 6 months, there was highly statistically significant improvement in both pain and function with both particulate and nonparticulate steroids. For radicular pain from central stenosis there is one moderate quality study, with Level IV evidence. For radicular pain caused by failed back surgery syndrome there is one moderate quality study, with Level IV evidence. For radicular pain from foraminal stenosis and for axial pain there is Level V evidence, opinion-based/consensus, supporting the use of transforaminal injections. Transforaminal injections are generally safe. However, they have been associated with major neurologic complications related to cord infarct. Causes other than intraluminal injection of particulates appear to be at play. The use of an infraneural approach and of blunt needles appear to offer the greatest patient safety. Because of concern over the role of particulate steroids, multiple other injectates have been evaluated, including nonparticulate steroids, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) inhibitors, and local anesthetics without steroids. No injectate has been proven superior. If there is concern about immunosuppression because of risk of COVID-19 infection, either the lowest possible dose of steroid or no steroid should be used. LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by the paucity of literature for some indications. CONCLUSIONS: There is Level I evidence for the use of transforaminal injections for radicular pain from disc herniations.