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1.
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy ; 13(3):111-121, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236787

ABSTRACT

Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is the mainstay of Indonesian agricultural products which is the largest CPO producing country in the world. The high market share of Indonesian CPO exports reflects the high competitiveness of Indonesian CPO in the global market. The purpose of this study is to determine the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO, the concentration of the Indonesian CPO industry, and analyze the factors that are suspected to affect the competitiveness of the CPO industry in Indonesia. The data used in this study are secondary data with a five-digit ISIC (10432) using time series data for 2001-2020 and the analytical techniques used in this study include Revealed Competitive Advantage (RCA), Gini Coefficient, and Error Correction Model (ECM). The results showed that Indonesian CPO has high competitiveness in the international market, the Indonesian CPO industry is not concentrated, in the short term the variables that affect competitiveness are CPO prices, subsidized solar prices policy, and industrial concentrations, while in the long term the influential variables are biodiesel policy, subsidized diesel oil policy and industrial concentration

2.
Tribology & Lubrication Technology ; 79(5):22-24, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2316847

ABSTRACT

The shipping industry has faced two major challenges during 2019-2022: the implementation of International Maritime Organization (IMO) norms on the maximum allowed sulfur concentration to be 0.5% in marine fuel, which also are known as IMO 2020 norms, from Jan 1, 2020, and the COVID-19 pandemic, which disrupted normal operations. The next challenges that the shipping industry is expected to face are the decarbonization 2030 and 2050 norms. This article will focus on the aftermaths of the IMO 2020 norms and the COVID-19 pandemic on the marine lubricants industry and how it is likely to evolve in the future as the shipping industry tries to meet the decarbonization targets.

3.
Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics ; 48(2):361-375,S1-S3, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2314723

ABSTRACT

Despite this focus on pandemic-related supply chain disruptions, fewer empirical studies have sought to isolate short-term price impacts in food and nonfood agricultural commodity markets.1 Understanding the drivers of short-term commodity price impacts is critical to understanding future susceptibility to major market shocks and to informing policies related to shock mitigation. Declines in ethanol production reached an estimated 2 billion gallons lost from March to November 2020, leading to a corresponding decline of 700 million bushels of corn usage and a loss of billions of dollars of ethanol producer surplus (Renewable Fuels Association, 2020b;Schmitz, Moss, and Schmitz, 2020). Increases in corn-based ethanol production that started in 2005 have linked agricultural commodity prices and energy markets as US ethanol production increased rapidly from 3.9 billion gallons in 2005 to 13.3 billion by 2010 and 15.8 billion by 2019 (Chakravorty, Hubert, and Nøstbakken, 2009;Wright, 2011;Roberts and Schlenker, 2013;Asgari, Saghaian, and Reed, 2020;US Department of Agriculture, 2021). Given that over 90% of US ethanol is used in mixtures of E10 gasoline and the US market reached a 10% "blend wall" in 2016, any reduction in gasoline use will cause proportional decreases in ethanol use (US Energy Information Administrationa, 2020;US Department of Agriculture, 2021).

4.
Agriculture ; 12(8):1221, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023053

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine and compare different psychological and sociodemographic factors for contracting sweet potato production for farmers with different statuses based upon the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Sustainable production provides contract owners with a sufficient amount of both food crops and a source of bioethanol clean energy. The impact of such factors on potential farmers based on the TPB for a particular contract type is estimated with the data collected in three major sweet potato production cities/counties in Taiwan through the probit model and multinomial logit model. The average size of the surveyed farms is 1.64 ha. The results consistently show that the factors of attitude toward the advantages of contract farming, subjective norms regarding contract farming, perceived contract farming control, and behavior intention have very significant impacts on the selection of contract farming types for professional farmers and brokers. These results indicate that the contract owners will gain the greatest advantage through commanding any factor in TBP for these two groups of farmers, as they have an incentive to manage the sources of sweet potatoes at the best conditions before they have the agreement with the contract owners, either as the supply of bioethanol energy raw materials, supply of food crops, or supply of food processing materials.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9047, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994151

ABSTRACT

Historically, carbon dioxide emissions from transport have been a globally discussed and analyzed problem. The adoption of flex fuel vehicles designed to run ethanol–gasoline blends is important to mitigate these emissions. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the ethanol–gasoline price ratio on different vehicle models, and discuss the opportunities to increase ethanol consumption from this perspective. Our analysis shows that the use of a unique fuel economy ratio for all flex–fuel vehicles in the country significantly reduces the opportunity of some customers to purchase hydrous ethanol. The paper also discusses possible actions to provide adequate information that may increase the possibility of fuelling vehicles with a high-level ethanol blend.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(13):7913, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934242

ABSTRACT

Indagation in the sphere of nanoparticle utilisation has provided commendatory upshots in discrete areas of application varying from medicinal use to environmental degradation alleviation. This study incorporates alumina nanoparticles as additives to diesel and biodiesel blends. The prime objective of the present study was the scrutinisation of the denouement of Al2O3 nanoparticle incorporation in diesel–biodiesel blends on a diesel engine’s performance and emission characteristics. Test fuel samples were prepared by blending different proportions of biodiesel and dispersing two concentrations of alumina nanoparticles (25 and 50 ppm) in the diesel. Dispersion was made without the use of a nanoparticle stabiliser to meet real-world feasibility. High-speed shearing was employed to blend the biodiesel and diesel, while nanoparticles were dispersed in the blends by ultrasonication. The blends so devised were tested using a single-cylinder diesel engine at fixed RPM and applied load for three compression ratios. Upshots of brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for fuel samples were measured with LabView-based software, whereas CO emissions and unburnt hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions were computed using an external gas analyser attached to the exhaust vent of the engine. Investigation revealed that the inclusion of Al2O3 nanoparticles culminates in the amelioration of engine performance along with the alleviation of deleterious exhaust from engine. Furthermore, the incorporation of alumina nanoparticles assisted in the amelioration of dwindled performance attributed to biodiesel blending. More favourable results of nanoparticle inclusion were obtained at higher compression ratios compared to lower ones. Reckoning evinced that the Al2O3 nanoparticle is a lucrative introduction for fuels to boost the performance and dwindle the deleterious exhaust of diesel engines.

7.
Energies ; 15(13):4656, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934005

ABSTRACT

The management of the global energy resources has stimulated the emergence of various agreements in favor of the environment. Among the most famous are the Conference of Parties (COP) and Route 2030, which aim to limit global warming to 1.5 °C by reducing the energy consumption and global emission levels. In order to comply with the international standards for energy consumption and pollutant emissions, the Brazilian government has been promoting the expansion of biofuels in the national energy matrix. Considering this scenario, the development of a novel internal combustion engine for the exclusive use of ethanol as a fuel, equipped with state-of-the-art technologies and employing modern design concepts, consists of an innovative and promising pathway for future Brazilian mobility, from both environmental and technological outlooks. In this sense, this work presents a method to determine the main engine dimensions as part of the initial process for a new ethanol prototype engine development. The Brazilian biofuel was selected due to its physicochemical properties, which allow the engine to achieve higher loads, and also due to its large availability as a renewable energy source in the country. Furthermore, a port water injection system was fitted to the engine in order to assist the combustion process by mitigating the knock tendency. The predicted overall engine performance was obtained by carrying out a GT-PowerTM 1D-CFD simulation, whose results pointed to a maximum torque of 279 Nm from 2000 to 4000 rpm and an indicated peak power of 135 kW at 5500 rpm. With a maximum water-to-fuel ratio of 19.2%, the engine was able to perform its entire full load curve at the MBT condition, a fact that makes the WI approach along with the ethanol fuel a very attractive solution. As a result of the specific design and optimization of each geometric parameter for this unique ethanol engine, a maximum indicated fuel conversion efficiency of 45.3% was achieved. Moreover, the engine was capable of achieving over 40% of the indicated fuel conversion efficiency in almost its entire full load curve.

8.
Independent Journal of Management & Production ; 13(3):S361-S367, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1879678

ABSTRACT

Valentina Peleckiene and her research team observed and analyzed how economic growth of EU countries is accompanied by growth of motorization rate and fatalities during the last decades in terms of inventory number of motor vehicles and accidents in road traffic. The study by Oleksandr Klymchuk et al. highlights the historical processes, current trends, and prospects for the production and consumption of biodiesel in the world;modern approaches to the formation, development, and support of biodiesel production in the European Union are outlined;the economic efficiency of biodiesel production in Ukraine from different types of raw materials (rapeseed, sunflower, soybean) is considered, and modern approaches to efficient biodiesel production in Ukraine and perspective directions of formation of raw material base for the increase of biodiesel production are offered. The analytical study of Tetiana Prylipko's team is examining the search and development of effective ways to reduce the proportion of grain in feed due to non-grain raw materials and partial or complete replacement of such high-value ingredients as animal proteins, fats, phosphatides, macro-and micronutrients, and vitamin-mineral premixes through the use of natural resources of the local raw material base. In the research by Pavlina Fuhelo et al., an evaluation model of the sufficiency of financial support for territorial communities of Ukraine is considered and a ranked series of territorial units is constructed;the problems of the financial support system for territorial communities due to the existence of post-conflict and temporarily occupied territories are identified, and directions for improving the financial provision of territorial communities are proposed and alternative sources of funds for the budgets of territorial communities are considered.

9.
Recycling ; 7(2):23, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810095

ABSTRACT

Growing environmental concerns, increased population, and the need to meet the diversification of the source of global energy have led to increased demand for biofuels. However, the high cost of raw materials for biofuels production has continued to slow down the acceptability, universal accessibility, and affordability of biofuels. The cost of feedstock and catalysts constitutes a major component of the production cost of biofuels. Potato is one of the most commonly consumed food crops among various populations due to its rich nutritional, health, and industrial benefits. In the current study, the application of potato peel waste (PPW) for biofuel production was interrogated. The present state of the conversion of PPW to bioethanol and biogas, through various techniques, to meet the ever-growing demand for renewable fuels was reviewed. To satisfy the escalating demand for biohydrogen for various applications, the prospects for the synthesis of biohydrogen from PPW were proposed. Additionally, there is the potential to convert PPW to low-cost, ecologically friendly, and biodegradable bio-based catalysts to replace commercial catalysts. The information provided in this review will enrich scholarship and open a new vista in the utilization of PPW. More focused investigations are required to unravel more avenues for the utilization of PPW as a low-cost and readily available catalyst and feedstock for biofuel synthesis. The application of PPW for biofuel application will reduce the pump price of biofuels, ensure the appropriate disposal of waste, and contribute towards environmental cleanliness.

10.
Land ; 11(2):152, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715488

ABSTRACT

This study provides a thorough review and analysis of the evolution of the Greek vehicle fleet over the last ~30 years, which is next used for the generation of high granularity fleet projections, the assessment of associated air pollution and the estimation of relevant environmental benefits by 2030. The integrated methodology developed takes also into account vehicle clustering and the Brown’s Double Simple Exponential Smoothing technique that, together with the adoption of COPERT-based emission factors, allow for the estimation of the anticipated emissions in 2030. Expected 2030 emissions levels suggest a reduction across all pollutants compared to 2018, ranging from 3.7% for PM10 to 54.5% for NMVOC (and 46% for CO, 14% for SO2, 28% for NOX and 21% for CO2). We find that Greece is on track with national goals concerning the reduction of air pollution from the transportation sector, which designates the positive contribution anticipated by EVs and new, “greener” vehicles, and sets new challenges for the further improvement of the sector beyond the 2030 outlook.

11.
Catalysts ; 12(2):237, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715128

ABSTRACT

The transition from fossil to bio-based fuels is a requisite for reducing CO2 emissions in the aviation sector. Jet biofuels are alternative aviation fuels with similar chemical composition and performance of fossil jet fuels. In this context, the Hydroprocessing of Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) presents the most consolidated pathway for producing jet biofuels. The process for converting esters and/or fatty acids into hydrocarbons may involve hydrodeoxygenation, hydrocracking and hydroisomerization, depending on the chemical composition of the selected feedstock and the desired fuel properties. Furthermore, the HEFA process is usually performed under high H2 pressures and temperatures, with reactions mediated by a heterogeneous catalyst. In this framework, supported noble metals have been preferably employed in the HEFA process;however, some efforts were reported to utilize non-noble metals, achieving a similar performance of noble metals. Besides the metallic site, the acidic site of the catalyst is crucial for product selectivity. Bifunctional catalysts have been employed for the complete process of jet biofuel production with standardized properties, with a special remark for using zeolites as support. The proper design of heterogeneous catalysts may also reduce the consumption of hydrogen. Finally, the potential of enzymes as catalysts for intermediate products of the HEFA pathway is highlighted.

12.
Energies ; 15(3):1123, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1686671

ABSTRACT

City buses are one of the main means of public transport in cities. As they move in a limited and densely populated area and are intensively exploited, it is particularly important that they are environmentally friendly. There are many ways to reduce emissions from city buses, including the use of hybrid propulsion. Another way is to use low-emission fuels. This article presents the results of the emission tests of an 18 m articulated city bus with a serial hybrid drive fuelled comparatively by conventional diesel fuel and oxygenated fuel containing 10% v/v of triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME). The emission tests were carried out during the actual operation of the bus on a route in Poznań (Poland) and over the SORT cycles. The obtained test results were compared also with the results obtained for a conventional bus. The reduction in emissions of some exhaust components was found when the hybrid bus was fuelled with oxygenated fuel during its actual operation on the bus route. There was a reduction in CO emissions by ~50% and NOx emissions by ~10%. Almost identical levels of PM and HC emissions and smoke opacity were observed for both fuels. In the SORT cycles, the differences in the emissions obtained for both types of fuel were small. In general, for the hybrid bus, a lower influence of oxygenated fuel on emissions was recorded than for the conventional bus.

13.
Energies ; 15(3):858, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1686664

ABSTRACT

Combined heat and power (CHP) generation plants are an assessed valuable solution to significantly reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Nevertheless, the primary energy saving (PES) and CO2 reduction potentials of this solution are strictly related to the accurate definition and management of thermal and electric loads. Data-driven analysis could represent a significant contribution for optimizing the CHP plant design and operation and then to fully deploy this potential. In this paper, the use of a bi-level optimization approach for the design of a CHP is applied to a real application (a large Italian hospital in Rome). Based on historical data of the hospital thermal and electric demand, clustering analysis is applied to identify a limited number of load patterns representative of the annual load. These selected patterns are then used as input data in the design procedure. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming coupled with a Genetic Algorithm is implemented to optimize the energy dispatch and size of the CHP plant, respectively, with the aim of maximizing the PES while minimizing total costs and carbon emissions. Finally, the effects of integrating biogas from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD) of the Spent Coffee Ground (SCG) and Energy Storage (ES) technologies are investigated. The results achieved provide a benchmark for the application of these technologies in this specific field, highlighting performances and benefits with respect to traditional approaches. The effective design of the CHP unit allows for achieving CO2 reduction in the order of 10%, ensuring economic savings (up to 40%), when compared with a baseline configuration where no CHP is installed. Further environmental benefits can be achieved by means of the integration of AD and ES pushing the CO2 savings up to 20%, still keeping the economical convenience of the capital investment.

14.
Energies ; 14(24):8574, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1594179

ABSTRACT

This scientific publication is dedicated to the development of scientific methodological and practical recommendations about the formation of ecologistics approaches towards usage of the energetical potential of wooden biomass as a promising trend of economic activity subject development. The hierarchy of ecological chain build-up is established, which will allow one to effectively organize the logistics of supply of biomass to the place of energy production. The methodological approaches to modeling of economic and ecological evaluation of wooden mass supply chain were improved. It is aimed to the calculation of expanses and harmful emissions that depend on specific logistics processes in implementation of perspective actions of collection and recycling of wooden biomass and substitution of non-renewable energy sources by it, which, on the one hand, analyzes the actual state of affairs of knowledge in the field of ecological processes evaluation, and on the other hand, however, identifies restrictions on the amounts of potential provision of biomass. Due to the proposed model of economic and ecological evaluation of the supply chain of wooden biomass and the development of software with a database that covers information on specific logistics processes, it will be possible to conduct economic and ecological evaluation on each step of the logistics chain, present specific processes in cash equivalents, depict ecological effectiveness, and identify the most vulnerable points of the logistics system, opening vast opportunities for improvement of other supply systems.

15.
Applied Sciences ; 11(24):11981, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1593614

ABSTRACT

Many concepts and innovations aim to improve transport and mobility, while helping to decrease the externalities that transport imposes on society. Research and innovation monitoring tools are important to assess the current state of development so that research funding and policy making efforts can be aligned optimally. This paper presents a comprehensive approach which links technological developments in the transport sector in Europe to the objectives of the most recent policy developments, in particular, the 2020 European Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy. It does so by identifying and evaluating technologies from European Union-funded projects between 2007 and 2020, by means of a technology taxonomy. Information is provided at an aggregated level on funding characteristics of both projects and the technologies, while at the same time, the level of maturity of researched technologies in the most recent projects is identified. This study can aid policy makers to support the future development of transport technologies as part of pertinent policy strategies and identify research gaps.

16.
Energies ; 14(23):7987, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1561353

ABSTRACT

Ethanol is one of the most used fuels in Brazil, which is the second-largest producer of this biofuel in the world. The uncertainty of price direction in the future increases the risk for agents operating in this market and can affect a dependent price chain, such as food and gasoline. This paper uses the architecture of recurrent neural networks—Long short-term memory (LSTM)—to predict Brazilian ethanol spot prices for three horizon-times (12, 6 and 3 months ahead). The proposed model is compared to three benchmark algorithms: Random Forest, SVM Linear and RBF. We evaluate statistical measures such as MSE (Mean Squared Error), MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error), and accuracy to assess the algorithm robustness. Our findings suggest LSTM outperforms the other techniques in regression, considering both MSE and MAPE but SVM Linear is better to identify price trends. Concerning predictions per se, all errors increase during the pandemic period, reinforcing the challenge to identify patterns in crisis scenarios.

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