Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
1.
Polymers from Renewable Resources ; 14(1):3-15, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2195499

ABSTRACT

Nanocomposite gels are novel materials mainly used in the medical field for the control drug release and distribution. In this study, the effect of the concentration of galactomannan/zinc oxide nanocomposite in a polymeric Carbopol matrix to obtain a functional nanocomposite gel was studied. The swelling, thermogravimetric, rheological, and antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The results indicate that there is a direct effect between the amount of the employed nanocomposite and the properties studied in the gels. In this regard, we present a formulation that demonstrates that the prepared nanocomposite gel has ideal properties to be used in the medical field as an antibacterial agent.

2.
Smart Materials in Medicine ; 4:337-355, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2183324

ABSTRACT

The nervous system is a crucial part of the human body that is damaged by traumatic injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies also have shown that neurodegenerative diseases are associated with a subsequently increased risk of COVID-19-related death. Presently used pharmacological and therapeutic strategies are only the symptomatic treatments that involve the disruption of axonal tracts and are unable to repair and regenerate damaged CNS tissue thereby leading to significant unmet clinical needs involved in neural degeneration. The use of stem cell based regenerative medicine approaches is also limited due to heavy cost, ethical concerns and graft rejection. To address all these limitations, the neural tissue engineering philosophy has been developed that focuses on exploring and developing smart biomaterials for neural tissue repair and regeneration. A scaffold based upon natural and synthetic polymers has meant a very potential role to mimic the extracellular matrix of cells and permit the growth of different types of cells thereby improving the biological behavior in vitro and in vivo effects. They treat neurological disorders without the classic drug delivery limitations. Among these biopolymers, the collagen-based hydrogel is successfully applied conduits for clinical trials that ultimately replicate the native physiological environment of the neural tissues and control cell behavior and favor the regeneration of the damaged nerve tissue. The main objective of this review is to investigate the recent approaches and applications of next-generation polymeric biomaterials useful in the management of neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss the outlook of the polymeric scaffolds that could pave the way for successful clinical practices. © 2022 The Authors

3.
Sensing Tools and Techniques for COVID-19: Developments and Challenges in Analysis and Detection of Coronavirus ; : 57-82, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149104

ABSTRACT

Polymeric-based interfaces are inseparable from immobilization strategies and biosensor platforms. They have recently attracted attention as an emerging sensory material due to their easy fabrication, the ability for signal amplification, and convenient nature for detection. Due to their biocompatibility, optical, electrical, and mechanical advantages, polymers have great properties to be utilizedas interface of biosensors. Polymer-based materials have been fabricated in many biosensors such as electrochemical, optical, field-effect transistor, and lateral flow assays. Moreover, high conductive polymer-related materials in the form of composite, gel or beads have been produced to enhance surface to volume ratios and allow different kinds of surface modification with an ease and establish high stability and selectivity. The polymeric materials should be biocompatible and cost-effective. The presence of biopolymers can improve the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors, which is pivotal for clinical applications. COVID-19 diagnosis can be accelerated by polymer embedded biosensors. In addition, their biodegradable/biocompostable nature will help to lower the burden of COVID-19 pandemic on environment, compared to other polymers, since biosensors are being used heavily during the pandemic. In this chapter, polymer-based approaches are summarized with an emphasis of biopolymers and their composites to be used in COVID-19 biosensors. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4.
Science of The Total Environment ; : 160463, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122794

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has been the talk of the globe, as it swept across the world population, changing enumerable aspects. The pandemic affected all sectors directly or indirectly. The food sector took a direct hit. The food packaging sector rose to the occasion to serve and feed the pandemic affected, but there were interactions, reactions, and consequences that evolved through the course of the journey through the pandemic. The aim of this perspective is to address the importance of the food packaging industry (from the COVID-19 point of view) and to highlight the unpreparedness of the food packaging materials, for times as these. As the world has been asked to learn to live with Corona, improvisations are definitely necessary, the lapses in the system need to be rectified, and the entire packaging industry has to go through fortification to co-exist with Corona or confront something worse than Corona. This discussion is set out to understand the gravity of the actual situation, assimilating information available from the scattered shreds of reports. Food packaging materials were used, and plastic wastes were generated in bulks, single-use plastics for fear of contamination gained prominence, leading to an enormous turnover of wastes. Fear of Corona, sprayed overloads of sanitizers and disinfectants on food package material surfaces for surface sterilization. The food packages were tailored for food containment needs, never were they planned for sanitizer sprays. The consequences of these sanitization procedures are unprecedented, neglected and in the post-COVID-19 phase no action appears to have been taken. Corona took us by surprise this time, but next time atleast the food packaging industry needs to be fully equipped. Speculated consequences have been reviewed and plausible suggestions have been proposed. The need for extensive research focus in this direction in exploring the ground-reality has been highlighted.

5.
Novel Platforms for Drug Delivery Applications ; : 569-606, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2120338

ABSTRACT

Nasal and pulmonary drug delivery are attractive routes for the administration of a growing number of drugs for topical and systemic treatment as well as for prevention by vaccines. This is of particular interest for drugs with poor bioavailability, as the gastrointestinal passage and hepatic first pass effect can be avoided. The development of drugs, vehicles, and devices made substantial progress. The drug delivery research is focused on transmucosal absorption enhancers such as surfactants, enzyme inhibitors, biopolymers, tight junction modulators, cyclodextrins, and gelling systems and on nasal and pulmonary carrier systems like nanoparticles, microspheres, nano- or microemulsions, and liposomes. Many approaches are still in early development and need further investigation. The trend for devices is going to nasal dry powder inhalers and smart pulmonary nebulizers. A new research area includes inhalable vaccines, biological drugs, and coronavirus treatments.

6.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ; 36(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994718

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, personal protective equipment (mainly masks) increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The raw materials used for the facemasks production are non-biodegradable synthetic polymers. Objective: Therefore, their discharge on the streets, in public areas, and seawater generates dangerous effects on the environment (flora and fauna) and human health. Methods: Their degradation occurs under the action of ultraviolet radiation, heat intensity, and mechanical stress by producing fragments and microplastics that have detrimental effects on marine fauna and human health (via the relative’s food chain). Conclusion and recommendation: This review describes the dangerous effect of the facemasks on the environment (marine and soil) and on human health. In addition, some essential approaches for reducing pollution, such as the PPP disinfection and the use of biopolymers in personal protective equipment (PPEs) technology, have been intensely discussed. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2022;36(1):000-000] © 2022. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. All Rights Reserved.

7.
Polymer Reviews ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1984894

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development is among the critical issues for ceasing the COVID-19 pandemic. This review discusses the current usage of biomaterials in vaccine development and provides brief descriptions of the vaccine types and their working mechanisms. New types of vaccine platforms (next-generation vaccines and DNA- or mRNA-based vaccines) are discussed in detail. The mRNA vaccine encoding the spike protein viral antigen can be produced in a cell-free system, suggesting that mRNA vaccines are safer than “classic vaccines” using live or inactivated virus. The mRNA vaccine efficacy is typically high at approximately 95%. However, most mRNA vaccines need to be maintained at −20 or −70 degrees for storage for long periods (half a year) and their transportation because of mRNA vaccine instability in general, although mRNA vaccines with unmodified and self-amplifying RNA (ARCT-154, Arcturus), which have a lyophilized form, have recently been reported to be kept at room temperature. mRNA vaccines are typically entrapped in lipid nanoparticles composed of ionizable lipids, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol. These components and their composition affect mRNA vaccine stability and efficacy and the size of the mRNA vaccine. The development of an improved mRNA vaccine entrapped in sophisticated biomaterials, such as novel lipid nanoparticles, using new types of biopolymers or lipids is necessary for high efficacy, safe transportation and long-term storage of the next generation of mRNA vaccines under mild conditions. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

8.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1052(1):012077, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960950

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization recommends limiting the consumption of processed and red meat products due to the increased risk of developing cancer of the gastrointestinal tract of people and a decrease in immunity with a new coronavirus infection. An alternative to red meat is rabbit meat, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which prevent carcinogenesis, causing apoptosis, control the cell cycle and the production of eicosanoids. For the production of meat products, dietary supplements are traditionally used to improve the consistency and increase the yield of finished products, which in some cases do not meet safety requirements. In this context, the use of rationally selected biopolymer plant complexes in combination with a protein component of animal origin is promising and can be safely used in the production cycle of products of various compositions. To obtain meat products based on rabbit meat using biotechnological approaches, protein-carbohydrate complexes containing sprouted forms of legumes, jerusalem artichoke dietary fibers and composites of animal and vegetable origin have been developed. Protein-carbohydrate complexes contained 17.2 – 23.7% protein, 2.20 – 4.70% fat and 18.2 – 21.8% dietary fiber in their composition. And conducting a biological assessment on a test culture indicates that the developed protein-carbohydrate complexes are physiological for biotest, that is, they have the necessary level of safety, which allows them to be recommended for enriching meat-based food systems and expanding the range of products produced by meat processing enterprises.

9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(13)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934188

ABSTRACT

Lutein is an important antioxidant that quenches free radicals. The stability of lutein and hence compatibility for food fortification is a big challenge to the food industry. Encapsulation can be designed to protect lutein from the adverse environment (air, heat, light, pH). In this study, we determined the impact of mixed biopolymer systems based on bovine and caprine caseins, yeast ß-glucan, and maltodextrin as wall systems for microencapsulating lutein dispersed in emulsified lipid carriers by spray drying. The performance of these wall systems at oil/water interfaces is a key factor affecting the encapsulation of lutein. The highest encapsulation efficiency (97.7%) was achieved from the lutein microcapsules prepared with the mixed biopolymer system of caprine αs1-II casein, yeast ß-glucan, and maltodextrin. Casein type and storage time affected the stability of lutein. The stability of lutein was the highest (64.57%) in lutein microcapsules prepared with the mixed biopolymer system of caprine αs1-II casein, yeast ß-glucan, and maltodextrin, whereas lutein microcapsules prepared with the biopolymer system of bovine casein, yeast ß-glucan, and maltodextrin had the lowest (56.01%). The stability of lutein in the lutein microcapsules dramatically decreased during storage time. The antioxidant activity of lutein in the lutein microcapsules was closely associated with the lutein concentration.

10.
Polysaccharides ; 3(1):83, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760802

ABSTRACT

Didymosphenia geminata is a species of freshwater diatom that is known as invasive and is propagating quickly around the world. While invasive species are generally considered a nuisance, this paper attempts to find useful applications for D. geminata in the biomedical field and wastewater remediation. Here, we highlight the polysaccharide-based stalks of D. geminata that enable versatile potential applications and uses as a biopolymer, in drug delivery and wound healing, and as biocompatible scaffolding in cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, this review focuses on how the polysaccharide nature of stalks and their metal-adsorption capacity allows them to have excellent wastewater remediation potential. This work also aims to assess the economic impact of D. geminata, as an invasive species, on its immediate environment. Potential government measures and legislation are recommended to prevent the spread of D. geminata, emphasizing the importance of education and collaboration between stakeholders.

11.
National Technical Information Service; 2021.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service | ID: grc-753724

ABSTRACT

The recurrent zoonotic spillover of coronaviruses (CoVs) into the human population underscores the need for broadly active countermeasures. We employed a directed evolution approach to engineer three SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for enhanced neutralization breadth and potency. One of the affinity-matured variants, ADG-2, displays strong binding activity to a large panel of sarbecovirus receptor binding domains (RBDs) and neutralizes representative epidemic sarbecoviruses with high potency. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that ADG-2 employs a distinct angle of approach to recognize a highly conserved epitope overlapping the receptor binding site. In immunocompetent mouse models of SARS and COVID-19, prophylactic administration of ADG-2 provided complete protection against respiratory burden, viral replication in the lungs, and lung pathology. Altogether, ADG-2 represents a promising broad-spectrum therapeutic candidate against clade 1 sarbecoviruses.

12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715620

ABSTRACT

Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polymer derived from the exoskeleton of crustaceans. Because of its biocompatibility and non-biotoxicity, chitosan is widely used in the fields of medicine and agriculture. With the latest technology and technological progress, different active functional groups can be connected by modification, surface modification, or other configurations with various physical, chemical, and biological properties. These changes can significantly expand the application range and efficacy of chitosan polymers. This paper reviews the different uses of chitosan, such as catheter bridging to repair nerve broken ends, making wound auxiliaries, as tissue engineering repair materials for bone or cartilage, or as carriers for a variety of drugs to expand the volume or slow-release and even show potential in the fight against COVID-19. In addition, it is also discussed that chitosan in agriculture can improve the growth of crops and can be used as an antioxidant coating because its natural antibacterial properties are used alone or in conjunction with a variety of endophytic bacteria and metal ions. Generally speaking, chitosan is a kind of polymer material with excellent development prospects in medicine and agriculture.

13.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715617

ABSTRACT

This study aims to provide an overview of the latest research studies on the use of biopolymers in various textile processes, from spinning processes to dyeing and finishing treatment, proposed as a possible solution to reduce the environmental impact of the textile industry. Recently, awareness of various polluting aspects of textile production, based on petroleum derivatives, has grown significantly. Environmental issues resulting from greenhouse gas emissions, and waste accumulation in nature and landfills, have pushed research activities toward more sustainable, low-impact alternatives. Polymers derived from renewable resources and/or with biodegradable characteristics were investigated as follows: (i) as constituent materials in yarn production, in view of their superior ability to be decomposed compared with common synthetic petroleum-derived plastics, positive antibacterial activities, good breathability, and mechanical properties; (ii) in textile finishing to act as biological catalysts; (iii) to impart specific functional properties to treated textiles; (iv) in 3D printing technologies on fabric surfaces to replace traditionally more pollutive dye-based and inkjet printing; and (v) in the implants for the treatment of dye-contaminated water. Finally, current projects led by well-known companies on the development of new materials for the textile market are presented.

14.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637132

ABSTRACT

In this work, the strains Bacillus megaterium RAZ 3, Azotobacter chrocococcum Az 3, Bacillus araybhattay RA 5 were used as an effective producer of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate P(3HB). The purpose of the study was to isolate and obtain an effective producer of P(3HB) isolated from regional chestnut soils of northern Kazakhstan. This study demonstrates the possibility of combining the protective system of cells to physical stress as a way to optimize the synthesis of PHA by strains. Molecular identification of strains and amplification of the phbC gene, transmission electron microscope (TEM), extracted and dried PHB were subjected to Fourier infrared transmission spectroscopy (FTIR). The melting point of the isolated P(3HB) was determined. The optimal concentration of bean broth for the synthesis of P(3HB) for the modified type of Bacillus megaterium RAZ 3 was 20 g/L, at which the dry weight of cells was 25.7 g/L-1 and P(3HB) yield of 13.83 g/L-1, while the percentage yield of P(3HB) was 53.75%. The FTIR spectra of the extracted polymer showed noticeable peaks at long wavelengths. Based on a proof of concept, this study demonstrates encouraging results.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(24)2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593015

ABSTRACT

The main challenge of the economy is counteracting the adverse effects of progressive industrialisation on the environment around the world. Economic development that accompanies this trend correlates to production increase in not only consumer articles but also special application articles that are difficult to remanufacture, such as medical supplies. For many researchers, discovering innovative materials for special applications that could become an essential element of circular economy production is important. Measures to reduce the production of industrial materials whose waste is difficult to recycle are more and more apparent to manufacturers, especially when faced with the new financial situation in European Union, as one of its priorities is to implement the principles of circular economy. The purpose of the article is to analyse the current state of research on special-application biomaterials within the context of the circular economy. Empirical analysis is conducted for Poland compared to the rest of the European Union (EU) within the time-frame of 2014-2020, which is the most recent financial timeframe of the EU. The submitted studies are based on secondary data obtained mainly from European databases, as well as primary data resulting from the research works at Lukasiewicz Research Network-Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres.

16.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512545

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of various quantities of sorbitol and glycerol plasticizers (0%, 30%, 45%, and 60%) on cornstarch-based film were examined to develop a novel polymer for usage with biodegradable materials. The film was prepared using the casting process. According to the test findings, the application of the plasticizer concentrations affected the thickness, moisture content, and water absorption of the film. When plasticizer concentrations were increased to 60%, the tensile stress and Young's modulus of plasticized films dropped regardless of plasticizer type. However, the thin film with addition of 30% sorbitol plasticizer demonstrated a steady value of Young's modulus (60.17 MPa) with an increase in tensile strength (13.61 MPa) of 46%, while the lowest combination of tensile strength and Young's modulus is the film that was plasticized with 60% glycerol, with 2.33 MPa and 16.23 MPa, respectively. In summary, the properties and performance of cornstarch-based film were greatly influenced by plasticizer types and concentrations. The finest set of features in this research appeared in the film plasticized with 30% sorbitol, which achieved the best mechanical properties for food packaging applications.

17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480921

ABSTRACT

Food is an integral part of everyone's life. Disposable food serving utensils and tableware are a very convenient solution, especially when the possibility of the use of traditional dishes and cutlery is limited (e.g., takeaway meals). As a result, a whole range of products is available on the market: plates, trays, spoons, forks, knives, cups, straws, and more. Both the form of the product (adapted to the distribution and sales system) as well as its ecological aspect (biodegradability and life cycle) should be of interest to producers and consumers, especially considering the clearly growing trend of "eco-awareness". This is particularly important in the case of single-use products. The aim of the study was to present the current trends regarding disposable utensils intended for contact with food in the context of their biodegradability. This paper has summarized not only conventional polymers but also their modern alternatives gaining the attention of manufacturers and consumers of single-use products (SUPs).

18.
Clean Eng Technol ; 4: 100218, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322032

ABSTRACT

On the eve of the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a tremendous increase in the production of facemasks across the world. The primary raw materials for the manufacturing of the facemasks are non-biodegradable synthetic polymers derived from petrochemicals. Disposal of these synthetic facemasks increases waste-load in the environment causing severe ecological issues for flora and fauna. The synthesis processes of the polymers from the petrochemical by-products were also not eco-friendly, which releases huge greenhouse and harmful gases. Therefore, many research organizations and entrepreneurs realize the need for biodegradable facemasks to render similar performance as the existing non-biodegradable masks. The conventional textile fabrics made of natural fibers like cotton, flax, hemp, etc., can also be used to prepare facemasks with multiple layers in use for general protection. Such natural textile masks can be made anti-microbial by applying various herbal anti-microbial extracts like turmeric, neem, basil, aloe vera, etc. As porosity is the exclusive feature of the masks for arresting tiny viruses, the filter of the masks should have a pore size in the nanometre scale, and that can be achieved in nanomembrane manufactured by electrospinning technology. This article reviews the various scopes of electrospinning technology for the preparation of nanomembrane biomasks. Besides protecting us from the virus, the biomasks can be useful for skin healing, skincare, auto-fragrance, and organized cooling which are also discussed in this review article.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL