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1.
Harran Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi ; 11(1):120-127, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934962

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infections are widespread in newborn calf diarrhea, which is one of the critical problems in cattle breeding. This study aims to investigate BCoV infection in calves with diarrhea in Sanliurfa province. In this study, 94 calves with diarrhea (3 months) following clinical examination were sampled. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of BCoV antigen. A total of 5 stool samples were found to be BCoV positive (5.32%). This result showed that BCoV was low in calves with diarrhea in Sanliurfa province. However, considering the rapid spread of the infection in cattle populations, it is thought that it may cause significant economic losses due to treatment costs and calf deaths.

2.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology ; 22(6):1-5, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1919033

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of COVID-19 on beef cattle production in China, in February 2020, 263 beef cattle farms 21 provinces of China were surveyed, covering the main areas of beef cattle production. The results showed that COVID-19 had a serious impact on Chinese beef cattle industry. In forage stock, 48% of the beef cattle farms had surpluses for I month;45% had less than 2 months of forage, and 95% had run out of by-products, such as distiller's grains. In fattening production. 95% of fattening cattle farms cannot buy stocker cattle as planned. The delay to sell fattening cattle increased the consumption of feed and forage. The markets for live cattle were closed, causing the decrease of cattle prices. In reproduction, brood cows missed one or two estrus cycles. In disease prevention and control, 70% of cattle farms almost ran out of medicines, and immunities cannot be carried out as planned. To solve these prominent problems, it was suggested that beef cattle farms should seriously implement the prevention and control requirements to ensure safety;prepare alternative plans for epidemic prevention and control in advance;improve the tine feeding and management system and standardized workflow, adjust the business strategy, etc. Additionally, it was also suggested that all layers of governments should open green channels for the farms to ensure the transportation of production means and products, supply special subsidy policies, and provide loans to help farm enhance confidence and resume production.

3.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

4.
Epidemiologie et Sante Animale ; 78:1-131, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904311

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 14 papers from the AEEMA Meeting focusing on the theme entitled "What changes for the management of animals' health crises". Topics of papers include: the management of animals' health crises and introduction to the meeting;evolution of societies perception and social acceptability of sanitary control measures;evolution of the health governance: to adapt the French health system to the new challenge;new challenges for risk management of animal health;evolution of preparedness for the management of animal disease crisis;feedback from the fipronil crisis;towards bovine tuberculosis eradication in Republic of Ireland, including European badgers' vaccination (a review);management of foot-and-mouth disease in Mauritius and Rodrigues: a vaccine strategy for eradication;health and biodiversity during anthropocene;Covid-19 and wild animals;Covid-19 and companion animals;Covid-19 and farmed animals;Covid-19 and laboratory animals;and Preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals to human beings.

5.
Surveillance ; 48(4):10-24, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887621

ABSTRACT

Exotic pest and disease investigations are managed and reported by the Ministry for Primary Industries' (MPI's) Diagnostic and Surveillance Directorate. This article presents a summary of investigations of suspect exotic and emerging pests and diseases in New Zealand during the period from July to September 2021.

6.
Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal ; 68(173):10-15, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876353

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out for rapid etiological diagnosis of neonatal calf diarrhea by using immunochromatographic test kits in the Esme district of Usak. The animal material of the study consisted of 100 1-28 days old neonatal calves of different breeds and genders in the Esme district of Usak. Stool samples were taken from calves with diarrhea as a result of clinical examination. When stool samples were examined by a rapid diagnostic test, none of the disease factors sought in the study were found in 10 (10%) of 100 calves, while one or more disease factors were detected in 90 (90%) of calves. Rotavirus was detected in 27 (27%) calves, Escherichia coli 14 (14%) calves, Coronavirus in 8 (8%) calves, Clostridium perfringens in 19 (19%) calves, Cryptosporidium spp. in 17 (17%) calves, Rotavirus + Coronavirus in 2 (2%) calves, Rotavirus + Clostridium perfringens in 1 (1%) calf, Rotavirus + Cryptosporidium spp. in 1 (1%) calf, and Escherichia coli - Clostridium perfringens in 1 (1%) calf. As a result, data on the presence and distribution of enterogenous pathogens that cause diarrhea in neonatal calves in the Esme district of Usak were presented, and it was concluded that it would shed light on future studies on diarrheal calves in the Esme.

7.
CARD Agricultural Policy Review ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871712

ABSTRACT

It is reported that the USDA outlook for US agriculture in 2021 is generally positive. Most agricultural markets, including the major markets for Iowa, have recovered from the depths of the price declines that struck during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of the basic statistics (such as production, exports, imports, and prices) for cattle/beef, pigs/pigmeat, maize and soyabeans are presented.

8.
Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans ; 24(6):113-125, 2021.
Article in Bulgarian, English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871346

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections rank first in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system in large and small ruminants. The paper analyzes the occurrence, spread, development, trends and prevention of coronavirus infections in ruminants in Bulgaria, Europe and around the world. Retrospective, descriptive and statistical methods were used. The experience and the specifics of the coronavirus diseases encountered so far in large and small ruminants - cattle, buffaloes, camels, deer, sheep and goats and their epizootic character are summarized.

9.
Bulletin of Agrarian Science ; 1:175-181, 2022.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865672

ABSTRACT

The problem of viral pneumoenteritis of young farm animals is relevant for agriculture of the Republic of Belarus. Today, the most effective method of preventing viral pneumoenteritis of calves is vaccination of pregnant cows. In case of mixed infections, the most effective means of preventing such diseases are polyvalent vaccines. But biological preparations should have not only high preventive effectiveness, but also not affect the quality of the final product. The author of the article studied the effect of a polyvalent inactivated culture vaccine against infectious rhinotracheitis, viral diarrhea, parainfluenza-3, respiratory syncytial, rotavirus and coronavirus infection of cattle left-pointing-double-angle BolsheVak right-pointing-double-angle on the state of metabolism of pregnant cows. For this purpose, 3 groups of pregnant cows of the Belarusian black-and-white Holstein breed were formed in the conditions of the Agricultural Republican subsidiary of the Ulishitsy Agro enterprise of the Gorodok district on the principle of pairs of analogues with10 animals in each group for 1.5-2 months before calving. The cows of the first experimental group were immunized with the vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis "Bolshevak" with the adjuvant ISA-15 intramuscularly into the croup area in compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics in the volume of 5.0 cm3. Cows of the second experimental group were immunized with the vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis "Bolshevak" with the adjuvant ISA-25 - in the volume of 3.0 cm3. The cows of the control group were injected with isotonic sodium chloride solution according to a similar scheme. The animals were immunized twice with an interval of 21 days. The sampling was carried out before the start of the studies, on the 14th, 21st days after the first vaccination and on the 45th day after the revaccination. The clinical condition of the animals was monitored for 70 days. As a result of the research, it was found that the studied vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis does not have a negative effect on the general condition of the animal, does not cause allergic reactions, abortions, does not inhibit the synthesis of the studied biochemical parameters of the serum.

10.
Revista de Salud Animal ; 43(3), 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863877

ABSTRACT

Winter dysentery (WD) is a highly contagious disease characterized by gastrointestinal disorders in cattle. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) has been recognized as the etiological agent of this syndrome. In Cuba, it appeared for the first time in adult cattle in 2004, and later between January 2008 and February 2009. In 2020, diarrheal outbreaks with clinical and epidemiological characteristics similar to WD occurred in units from Mayabeque province. Of eight stool samples collected, the presence of BCoV was confirmed in seven of them by reverse transcription assays coupled to endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which confirmed 87.5% positivity. Virus was isolated in cell cultures and its characteristic cytopathic effect was observed on the fifth day after inoculation. The results of the present study confirmed that BCoV is the causative agent of diarrheas in the bovine herds studied, and confirmed the epizootic mode of presentation of this disease in them.

11.
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya ; 56(6):1079-1098, 2021.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841718

ABSTRACT

The wide spread of viral infections and the ease of overcoming the species-specific barriers require the identification of critical stages in the virus interaction with multicellular organisms of mammals and the analysis of key molecular genetic systems involved. To date, a large amount of data has already been accumulated on the diversity and complexity of such systems, as well as the involvement in them the wide range of metabolic pathways. In this regard, attempts to identify some common elements that are implemented in different infectious processes are of particular relevance. This paper is such attempt made on the example of the analysis of the main events of cattle infection by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Systems involved in the entry of BLV genetic material into the cytoplasm of host cells, the suppression of innate and adaptive immunity, as well as interactions between the genomes of the BLV provirus and the host genome are the identified critical stages. The direct participants in the reception of viral proteins are parts of some host tansmembrane systems (G.Yu. Kosovsky et al., 2017;V.I. Glazko et al., 2018;L. Bai et al., 2019;H. Sato et al., 2020). During virus reproduction in host cells, host enzymes modify virus envelope proteins by (A. De Brogniez et al., 2016;W. Assi et al., 2020). Importantly, modifications of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, as well as BLV envelope proteins, have a significant impact on their pathogenicity (M. Hoffmann et al., 2020). Pathogenicity and depressing effect of both BLV and SARS-CoV-2 on innate and adaptive immunity is realized in part through the activation of T regulatory cells and an increase in the expression of the growth transforming factor TGF-b (L.Y. Chang et al., 2015;G.Yu. Kosovsky et al., 2017;W. Chen et al., 2020). Intracellular mechanisms of protection against retrotranspositions, recombinations between viruses and host retrotransposons, the formation of new elements of host regulatory networks such as microRNAs, and the integration of proviral DNA into the host genome are closely related and controlled by interfering RNA (RNAi) systems with the key gene dicer1 (P.V. Maillard et al., 2019;E.Z. Poirier et al., 2021;G.Y. Kosovsky et al., 2020). These systems can provide a certain left-pointing-double-angle resistance right-pointing-double-angle of the host genome both to the integration of exogenous genetic material and to transpositions of own mobile genetic elements. Apparently, it is the polygenicity of the control of these critical stages of viral infection that leads to difficulties in predicting their development and developing methods for their prevention.

12.
Journal of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ; 10(1):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1787279

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2) spilled over to humans via wild mammals, entering the host cell using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as receptor through Spike (S) protein binding. While SARS-CoV-2 became fully adapted to humans and globally spread, some mammal species were infected back. The present study evaluated the potential risk of mammals becoming hosts for SARS-CoV-2 through bioinformatics prediction based on ACE2 receptors.

13.
Agrekon ; 61(1):21-41, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1769012

ABSTRACT

The researchers use a primary data set from a survey of medium and large firms and farms in the beef, citrus, and maize value chains in South Africa during March-June 2020, the early and late phases of the initial COVID-19 lockdowns. The researchers have five main findings. (1) The initial lockdown regulations declared as "essential" the product (vertical) value chains but left as "inessential" the important "lateral" value chains delivering labour, materials, and logistics to the segments of the vertical value chains. This hurt the three vertical value chains as constraints in the laterals choked key segments of the verticals. (2) Vulnerability of the whole value chain emanated from vulnerability to shocks of critical "hotspot" linchpin segments (such as livestock auctions) or infrastructure (such as at ports). (3) Collective, industry-level "pivoting" was crucial both to organize the private sector response and to interact with government to course-correct on COVID-19 policies. (4) Responses to pre-COVID-19 challenges (such as drought and international phytosanitary rule changes) had prepared the beef and citrus value chain actors to respond collectively to the pandemic challenges. (5) Individual firm- and segment-level "pivoting" was also crucial for resilience, such as cattle auctions going on-line with the help of e-commerce firms.

14.
Online Journal of Veterinary Research ; 26(2):106-112, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766796

ABSTRACT

A 1:1 matched case-control study of calves under 1 month of age was carried out by weekly visits to 7 dairy farms in Mashhad, Iran. Fecal samples were collected from 112 calves with diarrhea and 112 controls matched assessed by scoring. Rotavirus and Coronavirus were isolated by antigen capture ELISA test. We found Rotavirus antigen in 29.5% in diarrheic and 17% in normal calves. We detected Coronavirus antigen in 2.7% and 1.8%, respectively. In diarrheic calves Rotavirus was most prevalent at 3rd week age whereas Coronavirus was found in very few cases by 2nd week. Excretion of Rotavirus in feces of scouring calves was greater (P < 0.03) than controls with odds ratio of 1.9 (1.05 - 3.76). We found no relationship between shedding Coronavirus in feces and diarrhea (P value =0.66) with odds ratio equals to 1.4 (0.24 -9.05). We find that Rotavirus is associated with newborn calf diarrhea in industrial dairy farms in Iran.

15.
Comptes Rendus de l'Acad..mie d'Agriculture de France ; 106(1):74-75, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1743911

ABSTRACT

This article presents the performance of livestock and poultry farmers in France highlighting their competitiveness in the global market in terms of import, export, and domestic production of meat, milk and poultry products. Also highlighted are measures taken by local livestock producers to cope with the constraints due to Covid-19.

16.
Scientific Papers, Series D. Animal Science ; 64(1):412-422, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1602667

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the level of education and experience in animal husbandry in terms of waste management on dairy farms in Kosovo during the Covid-19, the case of Gjilan region. It is a descriptive and quantitative study. Random samples were taken in 71 dairy farms in three municipalities of the Gjilan region. Surveys include farms where 5-78 dairy cows are raised. Data on milk production, waste management from detergents, organic manure, cleaning rags, farm certification and water analysis are included. Datas for each farm were recorded during the period of February-April 2020. During these period farmers' reported that the restrictive measures taken as a result of Covid-19 did not have any negative impact on milk production, however, 26.8% of farmers interviewed reported that milk production was reduced. Further, it was observed a major mismanagement of farm waste that was the main focus of the research: 80.3% of farmers stated that compost waste comes out of the farm and is distributed freely in the environment around the farm.

17.
Wies i Rolnictwo ; 2(187):35-56, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1561229

ABSTRACT

One Health is a concept that sees human, animal, and environmental health as parts of a single interdependent system. The Covid-19 pandemic, its implications reaching far beyond the direct effects of a coronavirus on people's health, underlines the importance of this increasingly influential perspective. In practice, One Health has its roots in early affiliations of human and animal health science. Over time, each sphere of inquiry evolved to address its own agenda. Recently, veterinary scientists have led the reintegration, extension, and promotion of One Health sciences to address modern-day problems in which health and people's general wellbeing are viewed as inseparable. A prerequisite is to set out a framework of concepts and principles enabling clear definition of problems, interrelationships needing to be understood, and the level of aggregation appropriate for quantitative analysis. This paper extends the framework by considering economic trade-offs that inevitably must be made in the human, animal, and environmental sub-systems, and the consequences when policy interventions are superimposed on them. The New Forest National Park in southern England is a case where this perspective is essential. Following the Stone Mountain definition of One Health, first a conventional approach linking human and animal health is taken. Lyme disease, Alabama rot, bovine tuberculosis and strangles are examples of diseases known to be of significant concern. The focus is finding scope for socially efficient risk reduction in response to mitigation resource use. Superimposed on the grazing livestock subsystems are support payments for commoner farmers. The financial incentives provided by what effectively are headage payments have caused animal inventories to grow so much that the wider environment may well be subject to adverse spillover effects that merit investigation.

18.
Comptes Rendus de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France ; 106(1):72-73, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1557922

ABSTRACT

In this paper the author discusses the situation of livestock breeders in France highlighting the effects of Covid-19 on the socioeconomic aspects of meat and milk production of the cattle, sheep and goats sectors.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 2979-2981, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842514

ABSTRACT

We inoculated 6 cattle with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and kept them together with 3 uninoculated cattle. We observed viral replication and specific seroreactivity in 2 inoculated animals, despite high levels of preexisting antibody titers against a bovine betacoronavirus. The in-contact animals did not become infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Cattle/virology , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Virus Replication
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