Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 40
Filter
1.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078567

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the Botswana Presidential Task Force, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW), to devise strategies to utilize the already overburdened health personnel to combat the spread of the coronavirus. This descriptive case study aimed to describe nurses' role during COVID-19 in Botswana. DESIGN AND METHODS: A case study analysis was used to describe nurses' roles during COVID-19. Data were collected through observing events in various health facilities and various media platforms that described how nurses had to position themselves to combat the pandemic. Content analysis was done by coding and developing categories that put like content together and generate thematic areas. RESULTS: Nurses from different sectors were redeployed to assist in setting up different units at the COVID-19 makeshift hospital, taking away from the already understaffed section of health care workers resulting in the overburden and work overload. Furthermore, nurses continued with their regular day-to-day nursing care duties in various healthcare settings, albeit under a severe shortage due to the national response to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Adaptations and experiential strategies enabled the distribution of the nursing workforce to cover all locations to curb the spread of COVID-19 despite the challenges encountered. Recommendations and lessons learned on how to prepare for future pandemics are also discussed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Due to their large numbers, nurses formed the backbone of the Botswana COVID-19 response strategy. Therefore, policy-makers should be responsive to the nurses' perspectives when developing strategic policies on how to deal with pandemics based on their experiences.

2.
Sage Open ; 12(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2053820

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine key factors that predict resilience in older people. A cross-sectional design and quantitative methods were used for this study. Four districts were selected in Botswana using cluster random sampling. Data on resilience from 378 older adults aged 60 years+ [Mean Age (SD) = 71.1(9.0)] was collected using snowballing technique. Data on socio-demographics, protective and risk factors were also collected from urban and rural areas. CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis was used to predict the strengths of the relationships among resilience and all predictor variables because the data were skewed. Five major predictor variables reached significance to be included in the model: depression, QOL, social impairment, education, and whether participants paid for services or accessed free services, along with high self-esteem (p < .001), security, and self-efficacy (p < .05). The presence of depression symptoms (χ2 = 23.7, p = .001, df = 1) and self-esteem (χ2 = 39.6, p < .001) had the greatest influence on resilience. Older people with no depression symptoms but had low QOL still had social impairment (χ2 = 3.9, p < .05). Older people with no depression symptoms had moderate to high QOL but had low resilience as a result of paying for services (χ2 = 7.4, p < .02). Both protective and risk factors had a significant influence on resilience. Knowledge about the predictors of resilience in older people may assist stakeholders devise effective intervention, especially now with COVID-19 ravaging the country. Additionally, policies and programs inclined to assist older people may be established and implemented.

3.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009577

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic rapidly altered cancer care delivery globally, providing a compelling opportunity to empirically study how these changes impacted persistent disparities in care. Cervical cancer is one of the most common female cancers worldwide, with approximately 90% of cases and deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In Botswana, a LMIC with a particularly high prevalence of HIV and cervical cancer, delays in cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment have been documented but is unknown how these delays may have been mitigated or exacerbated since the pandemic. Methods: The objective of this analysis is to evaluate patterns of cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment initiation before (January 2015-March 2020) and during the pandemic (April 2020-July 2021) using longitudinal clinical and patient-reported data from a cohort of over 1,000 patients receiving care for gynecologic cancers in Botswana. The primary outcome is timeliness of treatment defined by the number of days between first clinical visit and initiation of first-line treatment and categorized dichotomously (> 30 days classified as delay). Primary exposure is the time period (prepandemic and pandemic) defined by the month of first visit. We calculated unadjusted proportion of delays and covariates stratified by time period and used bivariate analysis to examine factors associated with each time period. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association between delay and time period, adjusting for all covariates (age, stage, HIV status, rurality, screening history, and partner status). Results are presented as unadjusted proportions, adjusted odds ratios (AOR), and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of the 1,200 patients treated for cervical cancer at the multidisciplinary clinic, 990 (82.5%) were diagnosed pre-pandemic and 210 (17.5%) during the pandemic. Among all patients with gynecologic cancers (n = 1,568), the proportion of patients with cervical cancer significantly decreased from 78.6% pre-pandemic to 68.0% during the pandemic (p < 0.001). In comparison to pre-pandemic, patients with cervical cancer during the pandemic were significantly less likely to have attended a screening clinic prior to their treatment (57.6% vs 15.3%;p < 0.001) and significantly more likely to experience treatment delays (61.6% vs 92.9%;p < 0.001). In the multivariable model, patients diagnosed during the pandemic had a 7-fold higher likelihood of treatment delays than those patients diagnosed pre-pandemic (AOR: 7.95;95% CI: 4.45-14.19). Conclusions: The pandemic significantly increased delays in treatment for nearly all patients with cervical cancer in Botswana. Given persistent global disparities in cervical cancer, there is a great need to implement evidence-based strategies for improving screening and timeliness of care in Botswana and other LMICs.

4.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 34(4): 325-332, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002359

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting public health response has disrupted the lives of adolescents and their families worldwide. We evaluated the impact of the pandemic on attitudes, beliefs, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Botswana. Participants were recruited using household-based sampling across residential districts (blocks) in and around Gaborone, Botswana, and completed surveys on laptop computers at a private, central location. We compared baseline survey data from 380 adolescents who completed the survey pre-pandemic (n = 139) to those who completed the survey intra-pandemic (n = 241). Participants had a mean age of 15.2 years; 58.6% were girls and 41.4% were boys. Intra-pandemic, participants reported greater engagement in transactional sex (38.1% compared to 13.6% pre-pandemic, p <. 05), more favorable attitudes toward transactional sex with sugar daddies and sugar mommies (p <. 05), greater intentions to remain sexually active in the future (29.2% vs.13.6%, respectively, p <.05), and lower self-efficacy in handling risky sexual situations (p < .01). Public health interventions that lessen these concerning shifts in attitudes and behaviors will be key to protecting the sexual health of adolescents and to supporting their safe transition to adulthood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Sugars
5.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):430-434, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994246

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in March 2022 and the risk of importation.

6.
Farmers Weekly ; 2022(Apr 8):18-18, 2022.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1970929
7.
Sci Afr ; 17: e01300, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967098

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the first comparative study of emerging stock markets' response to the COVID-19 pandemic with evidence from Ghana and Botswana. Using daily time-series data from March 1, 2020, to September 30, 2021, the study estimates parametric, semi-parametric and non-parametric models, and provides evidence to support the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., the total number of reported COVID-19 cases and deaths) on the stock market performances of Ghana and Botswana. Interestingly, the study shows that the impact of the pandemic on Ghana's stock market is quantitatively greater than the stock market of Botswana. The study calls for fiscal and monetary policies to help firms on the stock market to survive the shock. Going forward, measures aimed at building a robust stock market to withstand such external shocks are critical.

8.
Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism ; 13(4):1016-1035, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934685

ABSTRACT

Diversifying tourism products is a vital contemporary business strategy for maintaining a competitive advantage in the face of rapid technological, economic and social changes. Tourism in Botswana is largely dependent on wildlife and international tourists and consistent calls to diversify over the past four decades have greatly been amplified by the colossal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. A semi-systematic literature review analyzed progress and research trends related to tourism product diversification in Botswana. Findings revealed that research on diversification is largely qualitative and supply-side focused. It mostly explains reasons for diversification and identifies potential development sites and optional products that could be introduced such as activities related to cultural, heritage and community-based tourism. Tourism product diversification has largely been stalled over the past four decades and is characterized by a deficiency in empirical demand-side research, precise strategies to adopt as well as theoretical and conceptual analyses of diversification that should form the basis for crafting time-specific effective strategies.

9.
Handbook of research on future of work and education: Implications for curriculum delivery and work design ; : 213-229, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1934328

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the continuity to technical and vocational education and training (TVET) training activities and assessment thereby affecting and/or threatening the completions dates for many learners. Several institutions must revisit their assessment methods and tools for work-based learning during such pandemics. This study investigated the innovative assessment methods adopted by private TVET institutions to assess work-based learning during the pandemic. A quantitative research design was used to gather data using online questionnaires. Online questionnaires were used to effect social distancing and getting instant feedback. Purposive sampling was used to select research participants amongst TVET lecturers and attachment coordinators in private TVET colleges. Descriptive statistics were used to present research results using quantitative analysis and descriptions for clarifications. Findings indicated that assessment of practical skills virtually remains a challenge, and most of the institutions kept on using their old ways of assessing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

10.
International Conference on Tourism, Technology and Systems, ICOTTS 2021 ; 284:321-329, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899047

ABSTRACT

Currently on a global scale tourism development has gained significant attention for increasingly becoming an important tool for promoting economic growth. In developing countries, it is seen as a means of alleviating poverty within communities. While tourism is a multi-sector industry, there is limited empirical research on creative industries in Botswana;these include fashion, media, film, art, live events and advertising. Today the emergence and the uniqueness of local culture as a means of diversifying the tourism product in the country is gaining popularity and attention alongside tourism remaining one of Botswana’s most important services industries responsible for export. The industry is vital for employment and income generation. Currently tourism is highly based around the country’s natural resources although it has the potential to grow beyond this by diversification facilitated through unique Tourism product development interventions. This paper identifies prospects for the growth of sustainable and tourism product diversification by addressing strategic interventions using the creative industries in Botswana through means of driving innovation and technology. The paper brings forward recommendations that have the potential to underpin economic development within the country. Using a qualitative approach the paper appraises the current state of the tourism industry in Botswana not only for the revival and recovery of tourism in Botswana post Covid-19 but attempts to develop a plan for streamlining the creative industry within the realms of cultural heritage tourism and sustainability of tourism. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

11.
International Journal of Procurement Management ; 15(4):488-505, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1892353

ABSTRACT

In 2007, the world economy experienced a global financial crisis (GFC), therefore, leading to chronic fiscal strictures. Resultantly, public-private partnerships (PPPs) have become a dominant form of public procurement. The PPPs case is more deserved in mono-cultural economies which disproportionately suffered the effects of the GFC. The case for PPPs is more merited in the face of revenue challenges due to COVID-19. Since 2009, Botswana uses PPPs to finance public projects. This essay, based on the case study method, discusses the PPPs project in Botswana. It concluded that while the prevailing narrative is that PPPs are vital and the PPPs regime is taking root, there are challenges. Key challenges are disenabling legal-institutional framework and poor project implementation. Moving forward, and given a reduced fiscal envelope post-2007, the projected plateauing of diamonds revenues in 2030 and revenue strictures due to COVID-19 as diamonds face falling demand, PPPs are the default position. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

12.
Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion ; 18(5):462-481, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1893761

ABSTRACT

Indigenous knowledge and practices suffer marginalisation when it comes to seeking solutions to social problems. The world misses out on the richness of this knowledge and practices and role that they can play. This qualitative existential phenomenological study explored experiences of African indigenous knowledge holders and practitioners on their views regarding solutions towards COVID-19 pandemic. Interviews were conducted through WhatsApp and face-to-face with ten participants and data were analysed thematically. The findings show African knowledge and practices that could combat COVID-19 in terms of restrictions, heat related remedies and plant related remedies, and how these knowledge and practices can be applied through ancestral, environmental, metaphysical and generational modes. Africa and the world could benefit from how indigenous people respond to diseases such as COVID-19 and adopt/adapt some of these knowledge and practices;indigenous knowledge and practices have a role to play by contributing solutions to the world's problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 313-320, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (ESCrE) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are a global challenge, data on these organisms in low- and middle-income countries are limited. In this study, we sought to characterize colonization data critical for greater antibiotic resistance surveillance efforts. METHODS: This study was conducted in three hospitals and six clinics in Botswana. We conducted ongoing surveillance of adult patients in hospitals and clinics and adults and children in the community. All participants underwent rectal swab sampling to identify ESCrE and CRE. RESULTS: Enrollment occurred from January 15, 2020, to September 4, 2020, but paused from April 2, 2020, to May 21, 2020, because of a countrywide COVID-19 lockdown. Of 5088 individuals approached, 2469 (49%) participated. ESCrE colonization prevalence was 30.7% overall (43% for hospital participants, 31% for clinic participants, 24% for adult community participants, and 26% for child community participants) (P <0.001). A total of 42 (1.7%) participants were colonized with CRE. CRE colonization prevalence was 1.7% overall (6.8% for hospital participants, 0.7% for clinic participants, 0.2% for adult community participants, and 0.5% for child community participants) (P <0.001). ESCrE and CRE prevalence varied substantially across regions and was significantly higher prelockdown versus postlockdown. CONCLUSIONS: ESCrE colonization was high in all settings in Botswana. CRE prevalence in hospitals was also considerable. Colonization prevalence varied by region and clinical setting and decreased after a countrywide lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Botswana/epidemiology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans
14.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880370

ABSTRACT

Background: Botswana has a high prevalence of women living with HIV (WLHIV) and experienced a severe nationwide COVID-19 epidemic in 2021. We evaluated adverse birth outcomes among women routinely tested for COVID-19 by HIV status, during a period when few women had access to COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: The Tsepamo Study performs birth outcomes surveillance at government hospitals throughout Botswana. We analyzed data from 13 Tsepamo sites that performed routine COVID-19 screening at delivery with rapid antigen or PCR testing between Sept 1, 2020 and Sept 30, 2021 (start dates differed by site). This analysis includes singleton deliveries with known HIV status and a COVID-19 screening test between 14 days prior and 3 days after delivery. Outcomes included maternal death, preterm delivery (PTD), very preterm delivery (VPTD), small for gestational age (SGA), very small for gestational age (VSGA), stillbirth, and neonatal death. Differences in outcomes by COVID-19 and HIV status were assessed using log binomial regression adjusted for maternal age. Results: A total of 17,627 deliveries occurred at the included sites during COVID-19 screening, and 11,149 (63.3%) were screened for COVID-19;among 10,090 (99.7%) with a known HIV status, 530 (5.3%) COVID-19 tests were positive, including 141/2129 (6.6%) among WLHIV and 389/7961 (4.9%) among women without HIV (aRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09, 1.60). Maternal deaths were reported in 19 (3.8%) women with COVID-19 and 11 (0.12%) women without COVID-19 (aRR 30.5, 95% CI 14.6, 63.7), and did not differ by HIV status. Adverse birth outcomes (any) were more common among infants born to women with COVID-19 (34.3% vs. 26.3%;aRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.16,1.49), including PTD (21.2% vs. 13.3%;aRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.34,1.90) and stillbirth (5.5% vs. 2.8%;aRR 1.89, 95% CI 1.30,2.75), and there was a trend for higher neonatal mortality (2.0% vs. 1.4%, aRR 1.5, 95% CI 0.79, 2.85). Most adverse birth outcomes were highest among infants exposed to both COVID-19 and HIV (Figure 1). Conclusion: Infants born to women with COVID-19 experienced more adverse birth outcomes than other infants, including a 2-fold risk for stillbirth. Those exposed to both COVID-19 and HIV had the highest risk for most adverse outcomes. Further research is warranted to understand the biological interaction between COVID-19, HIV infection, and adverse birth outcomes, and whether some associations were impacted by challenges in care delivery during the height of the COVID-19 epidemic in Botswana.

15.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):4, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880148

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the greatest challenges that humankind has faced in generations. It has already cost more than five million lives globally, sickened over 300 million people around the world, upended countless livelihoods, and caused substantial economic loss. Despite advances in the development and rollout of vaccines as well as in the clinical management of patients with COVID-19, the end of the worst public-health crisis in a century is not yet in sight as new variants that decrease the effectiveness of the public health interventions and vaccines continue to emerge. Since the beginning of the pandemic, there have been multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants across the world. The early COVID-19 pandemic was dominated by the D614G mutation, which was more transmissible. Over the past two years, several more variants have been identified with five becoming rapidly dominant within their countries and have raised concerns, including: Alpha (B.1.1.7/VOC-202012/01), Beta (501Y.V2/B.1.351), Gamma (P.1/B.1.1.28.1), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529). This presentation reflects on the identification, through genomic surveillance, and public health response to variants of concern in South Africa with a particular focus on the Beta and Omicron variants that were first identified in the country. South Africa has experienced four distinct waves. The first was associated with a mix of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, while the second and third waves were driven by the Beta and Delta variants, respectively. The most recent wave was dominated by the Omicron variant. In November 2021, genomic surveillance teams in South Africa and Botswana detected a new SARS-CoV-2 variant associated with a rapid resurgence of infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Within three days of the first genome being uploaded, it was designated a variant of concern (Omicron) by the World Health Organization and, within three weeks, had been identified in 87 countries. The Omicron variant is exceptional for carrying over 30 mutations in the spike glycoprotein, predicted to influence antibody neutralization and spike function. The genomic profile, early transmission, and rapid spread of Omicron will be highlighted.

16.
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies ; 15(2):125-149, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1865058

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This purpose of this paper is to explore China’s choice to focus early Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Africa outreach on Eastern Africa. The BRI specifically seeks to achieve ten economic and policy objectives, as outlined in the two launch speeches of 2013. In terms of realising these, the economic development and digitisation levels, that progress of the demographic transition, and the important security context of the sub-region, logically make East Africa relatively important to BRI in continental context. Kenya specifically is important in being an African frontier therein, and, also, because it shares a few important borders with landlocked countries, including Ethiopia, Sudan and Uganda, alongside a strategic coast and ports. From this lens, as well the fact that in the Ming Dynasty Chinese fleets reached what is modern-day Kenya, China’s early BRI outreach to Africa having had a historical precedent in initially focusing on Eastern Africa, might be usefully understood.Design/methodology/approach>To realise that aim a comprehensive survey of related literature and policy documents, in Chinese, English and Swahili, was undertaken and relevant data compiled and analysed.Findings>To the best of the authors’ knowledge, first, this paper is the first to argue that the Belt and Road Initiative in Africa may build on long-run logic in terms of economics, demographic change and security. This provides a contrary perspective to the pre-existing established “debt trap diplomacy” and no consistent logic narratives. Second, it is the first to offer a synthesised analysis of the BRI in Africa, East Africa specifically, looking across economic, demographic and security angles.Research limitations/implications>The paper is a synthesis of development and regional economics literature that forges some prospective rationales only. It is not an empirical research paper drawing very specific and definitive conclusions.Practical implications>Amid widespread geo-economic tensions and uncertainty, around the Belt and Road Initiative in particular, this paper offers a new economic development-oriented logic for the choice of an important node of the China's Belt and Road Initiative, that of East Africa, Kenya especially. This may impact existing related narratives and policy responses.Social implications>Equivalently to the above this may then have an impact on the ground in East Africa and beyond.Originality/value>The first such or even close to synthesis.

17.
African Journal of Social Work ; 11(4):164-171, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1857673

ABSTRACT

When the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic originated in China, hit the shores of the African continent, Botswana, like many other countries, introduced a raft of measures aimed at arresting the rapid spread of the virus. The measures put in place included effecting a countrywide lockdown. Most institutions, including the University of Botswana (UB), temporarily closed their doors and sent staff and students to their homes. Authorities at the institution, among other things, began to explore possibilities of introducing remote learning (or online teaching) for students. The paper reflects on the experiences and strategies that the Department of Social Work considered at UB for virtual course delivery and related issues and considers lessons learnt to date and implications for the country's future social work education. The strategies included exploration of various online teaching and learning platforms. © National Association of Social Workers-Zimbabwe/Author(s)

18.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e6, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  The World Health Organization issued interim guidelines on essential health system preparedness and response measures for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The control of the pandemic requires healthcare system preparedness and response. AIM:  This study aimed to evaluate frontline COVID-19 primary health care professionals' (PHC-Ps) views on health system preparedness and response to the pandemic in the Mahalapye Health District (MHD). SETTING:  In March 2020, the Botswana Ministry of Health directed health districts to educate their health professionals about COVID-19. One hundred and seventy frontline PHC-Ps were trained in MHD; they evaluated the health system's preparedness and response. METHODS:  This was a cross-sectional study that involved a self-administered questionnaire using the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Health System response guidelines. RESULTS:  The majority (72.5%) of participants felt unprepared to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic at their level. Most of the participants (70.7%) acknowledged that the health system response plan has been followed. About half of the participants attributed a low score regarding the health system's preparedness (44.4%), its response (50.0%), and its overall performance (55.6%) to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was an association between participants' age and work experience and their overall perceptions of preparedness and response (p = 0.009 and p = 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSION:  More than half of the participants gave a low score to the MHD regarding the health system's preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies are required to determine the causes of such attitudes and to be better prepared to respond effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans
19.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(4):13696-13706, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812800

ABSTRACT

The study first interpreted all the data from the alpha to the delta strain. Then comparative data characterized the omicron of the coronavirus strain. Omicron, the SARS-CoV-2 variant responsible for a cluster of cases in South Africa and that is now spreading around the world, is the most heavily mutated variant to emerge so far and carries mutations similar to changes seen in previous variants of concern associated with enhanced transmissibility and partial resistance to vaccine induced immunity. Daily case numbers in South Africa had been fairly low but then rose rapidly from 273 on 16 November to more than 1200 by 25 November, more than 80% of which were in the northern province of Gauteng, where the first cases were seen. Europe's first case of the variant was confirmed in Belgium on 26 November in a person who tested positive for covid-19 on 22 November. By 29 November cases had been reported in the Netherlands, France, Germany, Portugal, and Italy. The UK had recorded nine cases by the morning of 29 November, six of them in Scotland. Elsewhere in the world cases have been reported in Botswana, Hong Kong, Canada, and Australia, which has had extremely tight border controls through the pandemic.

20.
Gender & Behaviour ; 19(1):17480-17489, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1787072

ABSTRACT

Traditional leadership is a central component of African thought. In the African context, leaders are born in the royal family or consanguinity and he/she is expected to take over when they come of age. During sickness or pandemics, the subjects look upon the king to solve the problem. Due to that, a king must have the wisdom to address all his subject's needs and wants. With 59 million people struck by the Covid-19 pandemic, the South Africa indigenous societies were also not left behind by the scourge, which led to their subject looking at them for solutions. Although the South African government created policies to combat the outbreak of the virus, there is little understanding in the involvement/involvement of traditional leaders in how they handle the spread of the virus within their local communities. It is in that light that this paper seeks to gain an in-depth understanding of the involvement/involvement of traditional leadership in Covid-19 South Africa. Utilizing the qualitative method of research accredited journals, books, governmental documents, and other material was adopted by the paper to gain this understanding of the involvement/involvement of traditional leadership in Covid-19 South Africa.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL