Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 116
Filter
1.
CAB Abstracts; 2022.
Preprint in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: ppcovidwho-345451

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 50 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed globally as of November 2020. Evidence is rapidly emerging on the epidemiology of COVID-19, and its impact on individuals and potential burden on health services and society. Between 10-35% of people with COVID-19 may experience post-acute long Covid. This currently equates to between 8,129 and 28,453 people in Scotland. Some of these people will require rehabilitation to support their recovery. Currently, we do not know how to optimally configure community rehabilitation services for people with long Covid.

2.
Virus Evolution ; 8(veac080), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2051563

ABSTRACT

The first SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) to be designated was lineage B.1.1.7, later labelled by the World Health Organization as Alpha. Originating in early autumn but discovered in December 2020, it spread rapidly and caused large waves of infections worldwide. The Alpha variant is notable for being defined by a long ancestral phylogenetic branch with an increased evolutionary rate, along which only two sequences have been sampled. Alpha genomes comprise a well-supported monophyletic clade within which the evolutionary rate is typical of SARS-CoV-2. The Alpha epidemic continued to grow despite the continued restrictions on social mixing across the UK and the imposition of new restrictions, in particular, the English national lockdown in November 2020. While these interventions succeeded in reducing the absolute number of cases, the impact of these non-pharmaceutical interventions was predominantly to drive the decline of the SARS-CoV-2 lineages that preceded Alpha. We investigate the only two sampled sequences that fall on the branch ancestral to Alpha. We find that one is likely to be a true intermediate sequence, providing information about the order of mutational events that led to Alpha. We explore alternate hypotheses that can explain how Alpha acquired a large number of mutations yet remained largely unobserved in a region of high genomic surveillance: an under-sampled geographical location, a non-human animal population, or a chronically infected individual. We conclude that the latter provides the best explanation of the observed behaviour and dynamics of the variant, although the individual need not be immunocompromised, as persistently infected immunocompetent hosts also display a higher within-host rate of evolution. Finally, we compare the ancestral branches and mutation profiles of other VOCs and find that Delta appears to be an outlier both in terms of the genomic locations of its defining mutations and a lack of the rapid evolutionary rate on its ancestral branch. As new variants, such as Omicron, continue to evolve (potentially through similar mechanisms), it remains important to investigate the origins of other variants to identify ways to potentially disrupt their evolution and emergence.

3.
Companion ; : 17-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046845
4.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:33-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046152

ABSTRACT

Significant variations in access to fundamental public health services during the COVID-19 epidemic have been revealed by recent study conducted in a number of different nations. States have an obligation to apply what they have learned from the present pandemic to remove existing obstacles. In many aspects, the COVID-19 pandemic fostered cooperation across nations and within communities in an effort to address dangers to the public's health and lessen the socioeconomic effects of the virus. Some good practices have emerged as a result of extensive advocacy and engagement with governments by a variety of actors. These include expanding free access to COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for all migrants, regardless of status, and allowing stranded migrants and those without visas to access basic services. They must consider the impact of this extraordinary situation and global public health emergency on those who continue to face barriers to accessing basic services, such as COVID-19 vaccines, as well as how this intersects with both individual and public health, even though these policy developments are to be welcomed, championed, and replicated. Public health initiatives could be jeopardized by enduring access impediments as well as fresh difficulties brought on by movement restrictions and lockdowns. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted the study in eight nations: Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Sudan, Sweden, and the UK (and data from the Sahel region was also taken into consideration). The findings suggest that, in order to end the pandemic and guarantee that everyone has the chance to receive assistance in a respectful and supportive manner, inclusive approaches for connecting with and supporting migrants and refugees must be incorporated into national and local pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery plans. Public health hazards will persist if inclusive policies are not accompanied by operational guidelines to overcome barriers in practice.

5.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society ; 81(OCE1):E1-E58, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044707

ABSTRACT

This journal issue includes 48 articles that discuss development and validation of a novel quality assessment tool to measure the quality of nutrition information online;longitudinal association between takeaway food environment and secondary school adolescents BMI and body fat percentage;dietary practices, beliefs, and behaviours among adults with inflammatory bowel disease;postpartum depression in Irish mothers and associations with infant feeding practices;the impact of dietary saturated fat replacement with unsaturated fat on the plasma lipidome and cardiometabolic disease risk;ole of brain serotonin in age-related decline in physical activity in mice;ey stakeholder perceptions of food allergies within the airline industry;sleep quality of higher education students during COVID-19 and its association with diet quality and lifestyle behaviours.

6.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:4, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044639

ABSTRACT

Chinese New Year is observed from January 31 and February 15, 2022, with the holiday falling on February 1. Numerous nations have enacted regulations that prohibit mass gatherings like Chinese New Year celebrations in response to the rising incidence of COVID-19 cases caused by the Omicron variant. All direct flights from the UK to mainland China have been banned, according to the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), and there is no set schedule for a review.

7.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55(40):1-42, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044481

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) Scotland provided a commentary on quarterly epidemiological data in Scotland for April to June (Q2) 2021 on the following: Clostridioides difficile infection, Escherichia coli bacteraemia, Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and surgical site Infection. Data are provided for the 14 NHS boards and one NHS Special Health board. Results showed that there were 277 CDI cases, of which 73.3% (203) were healthcare infections. In theprevious quarter there were 262 cases. There were 1103 ECB cases, of which 48.2% (532) were healthcare infections. In the previous quarter there were 961 cases. There were 408 SAB cases, of which 63.7% (260) were healthcare infections. In the previous quarter there were 388 SAB cases. Epidemiological data for SSI were not included for this quarter due to the pausing of surveillance to support the COVID-19 response. The data used for this report is part of the mandatory surveillance in Scotland. ARHAI Scotland supports NHS boards to analyse their data. Local monitoring in hospital and community settings isrequired to reduce these infections.

8.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55:38, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044474

ABSTRACT

On 21 September 2021, the Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) annual report 2020 was published by Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection (ARHAI) Scotland. The report reflects the work undertaken on healthcare associated infection (HCAI) prevention and reducing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) during 2020. Data are provided for common HCAIs, which are an important cause of severe illness, death, and higher treatment costs. This year the report also includes analysis of hospital onset COVID-19 and its impact on other Scottish national surveillance systems. In 2020, the global pandemic brought new problems, and NHS National Services Scotland's ARHAI Scotland was a key part of the national COVID-19 response to the pandemic. This report shows how far ARHAI Scotland has come in helping to reduce HCAIs in NHS Scotland. It also gives data to help local and national efforts to prevent HCAIs.

9.
Turkish Journal of Public Health ; 20(2):235-243, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040552

ABSTRACT

Objective: Currently the Covid-19 pandemic is studied with great expectations by several epidemiological models with the aim of predicting the future behaviour of the pandemic. Determining the level of disorder in the pandemic can give us insight into the societal reactions to the pandemic the socio-economic structures and health systems in different countries.

10.
Entertainment and Sports Law Journal ; 20(1029):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040501

ABSTRACT

Professional sport has undoubtedly been hit hard by COVID-19. Clubs and governing bodies have had to adapt rapidly to the public health emergency and have come under great financial and regulatory strain. Some sports have weathered the storm better than others, though, and professional rugby union experienced significant off-field turbulence, with wages reductions seen across the English Premiership. This article will examine the conduct of Premiership Rugby and its clubs during the COVID-19 crisis from a competition law perspective and will argue that, by acting in concert, Premiership and the clubs may have breached UK competition law.

11.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 20(8):1093-1097, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034142

ABSTRACT

Objective: The characteristics of imported coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) cases from outside China were analyzed to provide evidence for prevention and control backflow of the epidemic.

12.
Cattle Practice ; 29(1):12-12, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033861

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study are to determine if CAM use has potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and support the global efforts against antimicrobial resistance, and to ensure that antimicrobials and other conventional treatment approaches are used where appropriate. 20 farms with a range of management systems, herd sizes and production goals were recruited to this study. Interviews were conducted with 24 farmers through a mixture of face-to-face, telephone and videoconferencing modalities necessitated by movement restrictions during the Covid-19 pandemic. In addition, 16 farms were visited to collect ethnographic participant observational data using ethnographic fieldnotes and photographs. Interviews were conducted using a topic guide and explored participants' experience of CAM, including drivers/barriers to CAM use, experiences of CAM use and how CAM might influence the use of conventional medicine such as antibiotics. Early findings indicate several drivers for UK dairy farmers to use CAM approaches, including their own personal [or friends' and relations'] experiences, the views of influential people and advisors, networks within the farming community and the fact that CAM use allows a greater sense of autonomy in health-based decision making. Farmers often refer to milk buyers and organic guidelines as factors which influence their use of CAM. They further refer to a desire to 'do something' for the animal and to minimise animal welfare related concerns. A range of CAM information sources were also consulted by farmers including, holistic health management organisations/courses, online materials, and pharmacies. Participating farmers associate the use of CAM approaches with other holistic health management practices, human-animal interactions, the actual character and physical characteristics of an animal and animal welfare. This indicates that CAM use is seen by farmers as part of a wider ethos and belief about holistic farming practices and land use. Additionally, data implies that some farmers value their positive personal experiences of CAM use over scientific evidence. In contrast, barriers to CAM use were also identified including: the perception that CAM approaches are reserved specifically for organic systems, little access to CAM and related resources and some existing tensions between farmers and other stakeholders' views. Early findings suggest that farmers are influenced in their use of CAM by a range of individuals within the agriculture community, including veterinary surgeons (some of whom use homeopathic practices), mainstream farming press and pro-CAM organisations and advisors.

13.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:26, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2033676

ABSTRACT

This article discusses three reports: (1) this focuses on learning to date about factors which affect vaccine uptake, including booking methods and delivery models. Although there has been a high uptake of COVID-19 vaccinations in Scotland overall, uptake levels have not been equal across all population groups, as well as includes recommendations to support maximal and equitable access to vaccinations, both for the COVID-19 and other vaccination programmes. (2) details interim findings on delivery models used for vaccine rollout, methods for maximising uptake in different population groups, factors affecting vaccine uptake, lessons learned about programme implementation and recommendations for the programme, and (3) features interviews with health board vaccination leads about their experience of the COVID-19 vaccination programme, including learning on delivery models, engagement and communication, inclusion and outreach activity, what helped and hindered vaccine roll out, and recommendations for the programme.

14.
Zoonoses ; 1(3):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025740

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has already affected human society for more than 1.5 years. As of August 8, 2021, this pandemic had caused more than 203 million infected and 4.3 million deaths worldwide. As an RNA virus, SARS-CoV-2 is prone to genetic evolution, thus resulting in development of mutations over time. Numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been described globally, four of which are considered variants of concern (VOCs) by the WHO: Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P1) and Delta (B.1.617.2). The Delta VOC was first reported in India in December of 2020 and has since affected approximately 130 different countries and regions. Herein, the spatiotemporal spread of the Delta VOC during April to July 2021 in 20 selected countries with available data were analyzed. The prevalence of the Delta VOC sequences was maintained at low levels in the beginning of April, increased rapidly in the following 3 months and is now becoming the predominant viral strain in most regions of the world. We also discuss the effects of the Delta VOC on transmissibility, clinical severity and vaccine effectiveness according to the latest data. The Delta VOC has greater transmissibility and risk of hospitalization than the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strains and the other three VOCs. The Delta VOC places partially or unvaccinated sub-populations at high risk. Currently authorized vaccines, regardless of vaccine type, still have reliable effectiveness against symptomatic infections and hospitalizations due to the Delta VOC.

15.
International Journal of Sport Communication ; 15(3):266-278, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2019676

ABSTRACT

Social media sites are rich communication and marketing tools used by athletes to promote their "brand" and interact with fans. Indeed, the proliferation of social media has led to athletes promoting themselves across multiple platforms. This study examined how the world's top 10 professional alpine skiing athletes used social media to present themselves and engage with fans during the 2017-18 World Cup and 2018 Winter Olympic Games. The data for the latest Winter Olympic Games in 2022 (organized under changed circumstances because of COVID-19) were not available for this study at the time of finalization. Guided by self-presentation theory, this study used a content analysis to examine how athletes presented themselves in social media photographs. The results demonstrated that athletes employed similar posting patterns across the social media platforms (i.e., Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram). The posting distribution per athlete and channel was different, as some athletes used the same posts across all channels. Twitter boasted the highest posting frequency. Based on the coded social media posts, athletes' self-presentation mainly focused on business life content. Thus, they appeared as dressed but posed, a finding that aligns with Goffman's notion of front-stage performance. This case study extends the literature as it involves an analysis of self-presentation across multiple channels, comparing two international events while using a sample of one sport.

16.
International Journal of Workplace Health Management ; 15(3):359-374, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2018492

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The prevalence and multi-system nature of post-COVID-19 symptoms warrants clearer understanding of their work ability implications within the working age population. An exploratory survey was undertaken to provide empirical evidence of the work-relevant experiences of workers recovering from COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: A bespoke online survey based on a biopsychosocial framework ran between December 2020 and February 2021. It collected quantitative ratings of work ability and return-to-work status, qualitative responses about return-to-work experiences, obstacles and recommendations, along with views on employer benefits for making accommodations. A sample of 145 UK workers recovering from COVID-19 was recruited via social media, professional networks and industry contacts. Qualitative data was subject to thematic analysis. Participants were mainly from health/social care (50%) and educational settings (14%). Findings: Just over 90% indicated that they had experienced at least some post-COVID-19 symptoms, notably fatigue and cognitive effects. For 55%, symptoms lasted longer than six months. Only 15% had managed a full return-to-work. Of the 88 who provided workability ratings, just 13 and 18% respectively rated their physical and mental workability as good or very good. Difficulties in resuming work were attributed to symptom unpredictability, their interaction with job demands, managing symptoms and demands in parallel, unhelpful attitudes and expectations. Manager and peer support was reported as variable. Originality/value: Workplace health management characterised by flexible long-term collaborative return-to-work planning, supported by more COVID-centric absence policies and organisational cultures, appear pivotal for sustaining the return-to-work of the large segments of the global workforce affected by post-COVID-19 symptoms.

17.
Veterinary Ireland Journal ; 10(7):361-362, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010639

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the important aspects of the Return to Work Safely Protocol in Ireland, including risk assessment, communication, cooperation, cleaning, disinfection, remote working, dealing with suspected cases and other safety measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace.

18.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):430-434, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994246

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in March 2022 and the risk of importation.

19.
People and Nature ; 3(6):1272-1283, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1990524

ABSTRACT

Many migratory fish populations are declining, threatened by human-induced pressures such as habitat loss and fragmentation caused by dams, roads, land use change, climate change and pollution. However, public awareness of fish migration and associated human pressures remains limited. It is important to communicate about hard-to-see and complex environmental topics and issues, such as fish migration, with young people, who stand to be the most affected by ongoing global changes. Young people are also at a critical stage in their attitude formation and may be particularly receptive to learning enrichment and engagement for behaviour change about environmental issues. Arts-based methods can be particularly effective in fostering broad personal connections with nature, especially for complex topics like fish migration. The collaborative and creative processes involved in developing such media often lack critique, which limits learning from previous experiences. In this article, we reflect on the co-creation of the Shout Trout Workout (STW), a lyric poem, comic and music video for 8- to 14-year-olds, designed to entertain, engage and enrich learning about migratory fishes and aquatic environments. We chart the process of creation, including conception of ideas, writing the poem, fact-checking and developing the storyline with scientists and creating a comic and music video with visual artists and musicians. We explore some of the challenges and merits of collaborative working, consider the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the creative and initial engagement process and share what we learned about creative input, communication and respect. We also discuss how the experience shaped our thoughts about the nature of co-creation itself, and how in creating STW, collaborators contributed to the process in multiple, nuanced and unanticipated ways (e.g. artistic input, ideas, science, dissemination), representing a spectrum of co-creative practice. We hope that sharing our experiences and reflections is useful and inspiring for other cross-disciplinary collaborations, and for those who aim to create learning enrichment and engagement material about ecological processes and environmental issues for young people.

20.
Summa, Animali da Compagnia ; 39(6):19-25, 2022.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1989439

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of COVID-19 in humans, there have been numerous reports of dogs and cats being infected with SARSCoV- 2, with cats appearing to be particularly susceptible. The portal of entry of the virus into the body's cells is a membrane receptor called ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) belonging to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The ACE2 receptor is expressed in airway epithelial cells, myocardium, venous and arterial endothelial cells, kidney, liver, oral cavity, intestine and also adipose tissue, explaining the diversity of clinical expression of the disease, with respiratory manifestations predominating. SARS-CoV-2 causes an imbalance in the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system. In addition, the virus has a direct action combined with an immune reaction, that is sometimes intense, causing a cascade of lesions, mainly in the lungs but also in the heart. The clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains rare in dogs and cats and mainly includes fever, depression, anorexia, digestive, respiratory or ocular disorders. As in humans, various cardiovascular clinical signs are less frequently seen. Several cases of myocarditis, correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (PCR or serology), have been identified in England and at least one in France. In the latter case, further investigation led to a strong suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated by myocarditis. It is highly likely that obesity (with significant fat deposition in the pleural and pericardial spaces, tissues with high expression of the ACE2 receptor) may have favoured these complications. SARS-CoV-2 infection should therefore now be included in the differential diagnosis of agents causing myocarditis and pneumonia in both cats and dogs.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL