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1.
Travel Behav Soc ; 30:105-117, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031700

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, authorities around the world explored ways to slowdown the spread of the disease while maintaining the physical and mental health of individuals. They redistributed the street space to promote physical activity and non-motorized travel while meeting the social distancing requirements. Although the statistics showed significant increases in walking and bicycling trips during the pandemic, we have limited knowledge about the associations between built environment characteristics, COVID-19 infection risk perception while traveling, and subjective well-being. This study assesses the impacts of the built environment on subjective well-being and infection risk perception while traveling during the pandemic. It uses data collected from the residents of Columbus, Ohio, through a multi-wave survey conducted at different time points during the COVID-19 outbreak. By employing a structural equation modeling approach, it explores the associations between residential neighborhood characteristics, individuals' subjective well-being, and perceived infection risk while using non-motorized modes and shared micromobility. The findings show that those living in more compact, accessible, and walkable neighborhoods are less likely to perceive active travel and shared micromobility as risky in terms of COVID-19 infection. Our results also show that built environment characteristics have an indirect positive effect on the subjective well-being of individuals. The findings of our study demonstrate that built environment interventions can help promote physical activity and support mental health of individuals at this critical time. Our study also indicates that designing compact neighborhoods will be a crucial element of pandemic resilient cities in the post-COVID-19 era.

2.
Scientific African ; : e01374, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031674

ABSTRACT

This study provides theoretical grounds for planning smart cities using multidisciplinary approaches, offering insightful suggestions to researchers and policy- and decision-makers. Its main purpose is to contribute to the debate on the new connotations of the smart city paradigm in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It will emphasize how the Internet of Things and related technologies will collaborate to develop an antivirus-built environment against future pandemics. In this context, the study proposes a conceptual framework that provides a futuristic vision of prevention control, contingency planning, and measures against future risks. Although a smart city ecosystem improves citizens’ lives, building it may involve design, implementation, and operational challenges that must be addressed.

3.
Civil Engineering and Architecture ; 10(6):2426-2432, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030364

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 has been an exceptional one worldwide;it has imposed new norms on the ways of living and business as usual practices. With the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, a sudden shift was witnessed in many sectors such as education, transportation, tourism, construction, health and business. Health and safety measures enforced either the abandonment of some buildings such as schools, theaters, malls, and other public buildings, or the stay-at-home option in many nations. Residential buildings, therefore, became places to rest, study, work, and entertain, and public buildings witnessed alternating occupancy based on the health protocols. This research investigates how COVID-19 has altered and impacted the use of buildings in cases of crisis and lockdown. It then investigates the future of buildings post COVID-19, referring to sustainable and smart buildings as the way ahead. Features of sustainable and smart buildings are compared to the requirements of buildings post COVID-19 based on the literature review. Finally, this paper also provides an insight into Bahraini architects’ vision of public buildings post COVID-19. A survey was used to obtain how designers and architects in Bahrain envision buildings post COVID-19. The survey also measures if any changes have already been applied to buildings during this period. The survey results indicate that around 60% percent of architects believe that the future of the building stock in Bahrain will change to incorporate smart and sustainable buildings. © 2022 by authors. All rights reserved.

4.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning ; 17(4):1169-1179, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025942

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is regarded as a pivotal point in human history. The goal of architecture is to solve problems like the novel COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, new future methods to designing buildings and create environments emerged, with hospital design and infection control being prioritized as a key pillar of health care. Hospitals, like battlegrounds, require a future design that prioritizes speed and safety, not just during treatment but also during testing and follow-up care. The research aims to create an appealing, humane, and optimal therapeutic environment for dealing with the pandemic in order to raise the degree of safety that aids in the prevention of infection and illness spread. The research employs a deductive methodology, with the goal of discussing the evolution of the design of the future hospital environment through a set of design strategies based on social distancing policy, adaptability, flexibility, and engineering control of new preventive measures to deal with the current and potential future pandemics, while also considering humanistic aspects. The questionnaire was conducted to test the goals and strategies of this research through a group of specialists in order to reach the graphic results of the importance of these strategies in helping to design the hospital of the future, paving the way for future studies and research to develop building design and create environments of future hospitals. © 2022 WITPress. All rights reserved.

5.
Assistive Technology Outcomes & Benefits ; 16(2):127-134, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012383

ABSTRACT

In March, 2020, the same month that the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic, people throughout the United States and across the globe were required to rapidly make major decisions that impacted every aspect of their lives, including, but not limited to, social interactions, healthcare, transportation, childcare, education, and employment. In order to make the most informed decisions, it was critical during this period that all individuals be provided equal access to emergency-related information. Availability of essential health-related information can be even more critical for individuals who are blind, and who are often already disadvantaged due to a lack of available access in both the physical and digital environment. This paper will explore the value and importance that braille serves in the lives of individuals who are blind and are proficient braille users. A qualitative study related to braille access for individuals who are blind was conducted by Center for Inclusive Design and Innovation at Georgia Tech in September of 2020, with a specific focus on access to COVID-19 materials. The findings of this qualitative study will be examined, with a specific focus on how braille continues to serve as an essential format when accessing critical content.

6.
Can Stud Popul ; : 1-33, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007348

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic underscores the importance of place of residence as a determinant of health. Prior work has primarily examined the relationship between neighbourhoods' sociodemographic traits and COVID-19 infection rates. Using data from the City of Toronto, Canada, we assess how the built environments of neighbourhoods, in conjunction with their sociodemographic profiles, shape the pattern of spread of COVID-19 in low-, middle-, and high-income neighbourhoods. Our results show that COVID-19 spread faster in neighbourhoods with a higher share of overcrowded households, large commercial areas, and poor walkability. The extent to which neighbourhood walkability is associated with a slower increase in COVID-19 infections varied by neighbourhood income level, with a stronger negative association in low-income neighbourhoods. Net of the share of overcrowded households, population density is associated with a faster increase in COVID-19 infections in low-income neighbourhoods, but slower increase in high-income neighbourhoods. More green space is associated with a slower increase in COVID-19 infections in low-income, but not higher-income, neighbourhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that post-pandemic urban planning efforts cannot adopt a one-size-fits-all policy when reconstructing neighbourhoods in ways that promote health and reduce their vulnerability to infectious diseases. Instead, they should tailor the rebuilding process in ways that address the diverse needs of residents in low-, middle-, and high-income neighbourhoods.

7.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; 81:103265, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004133

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has outlined the need to strengthen the resilience of healthcare systems. It has cost millions of human lives and has had indirect health impacts too. Hospital buildings have undergone extensive modifications and adaptations to ensure infection control and prevention measures, and, as it is happened following past epidemics, the COVID-19 experience might change the design of hospital buildings in the future. This paper aims to capitalise on the knowledge developed by the stakeholders directly involved with the hospital response during the pandemic to generate new evidence that will enhance resilience of hospital buildings to pandemics. The research adopted qualitative research methods, namely literature review and interviews with Italian experts including doctors and facility managers to collect data which were analysed through a thematic analysis. The findings include the identification of new needs for hospital buildings and the related actions to be taken or already performed at hospital building and service level which are viable for long term implementation and are aimed at improving hospital resilience to pandemics. The results specify how to improve resilience by means of structural modifications (e.g. placing filter zones among different wards, ensuring the presence of airborne infection isolation rooms at least in the emergency departments), technological changes (e.g. oversizing capacity such as medical gases, information technology improvement for delivering healthcare services remotely), and operational measures (e.g. assessing the risk of infection before admission, dividing acute-care from low-care assets). The needs discussed in this paper substantiate the urge to renovate the Italian healthcare infrastructures and they can be considered useful elements of knowledge for enhancing hospital resilience to pandemics in the extended and in the post-COVID-19 era.

8.
Health and Place ; 77, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004102

ABSTRACT

Tackling mental health has become a priority for governments around the world because it influences not only individuals but also the whole society. As people spend a majority of their time (i.e., around 90%) in buildings, it is pivotal to understand the relationship between built environment and mental health, particularly during COVID-19 when people have experienced recurrent local and national lockdowns. Despite the demonstration by previous research that the design of the built environment can affect mental health, it is not clear if the same influence pattern remains when a ‘black swan’ event (e.g., COVID-19) occurs. To this end, we performed logistic regression and hierarchical regression analyses to examine the relationship between built environment and mental health utilising a data sample from the United Kingdom (UK) residents during the COVID-19 lockdown while considering their social demographics. Our results show that compared with depression and anxiety, people were more likely to feel stressed during the lockdown period. Furthermore, general house type, home workspace, and neighbourhood environment and amenity were identified to have significantly contributed to their mental health status. With the ensuing implications, this study represents one of the first to inform policymakers and built environment design professionals of how built environment should be designed to accommodate features that could mitigate mental health problems in any future crisis. As such, it contributes to the body of knowledge of built environment planning by considering mental health during the COVID-19 lockdown.

9.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003108

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been shown to have a compounding effect on families across various social and healthcare needs. However, the impact of social determinants of health (SDOH) on COVID-19 disease severity in children is unknown. Our objectives were to describe the SDOH in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection and determine their association with severity of the infection Methods: This prospective observational study was supported by the National Institutes of Health RADx program and conducted in the emergency department (ED) of two large children's hospitals. Children ≤ 18 years of age with symptoms due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive RT PCR test, serology or epidemiological link) were enrolled between 03/29/2021 and 05/30/2021. Data collected from electronic medical records included demographics, clinical features, treatment, disposition, and outcomes. Severe cases were defined as the following within 30 days of test positivity: diagnosis of Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children or Kawasaki disease, requirement for oxygen > 2L, inotropes, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or death. Following informed consent, caregivers were surveyed via an electronic device on previously validated PhenX questions. Aligned with the Healthy People 2020 SDOH framework, caregivers reported on economic stability, education, social and community context, health and health care, and neighborhood and built environment. Stata was used to analyze descriptive statistics, and unadjusted comparisons between groups were assessed using two sample t-tests for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables due to small sizes. Results: A total of 107 children (mean age 6.9 (±5.9) years, 44.9% males), with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled, and 85 caregivers (79.4%) completed the survey (71.4% Black). In this sample, 97% of children were RT PCR positive, 3% had an epidemiological link, and 23 (27.1%) were categorized as severe. Almost half of caregivers (47.6%) reported employment or income loss due to COVID-19. The three most common SDOH needs identified were that of childcare (22.0%), housing instability (22.0%), and food insecurity (21.7%). Children with severe COVID-19 were significantly more likely to have a caregiver who was single, including never married, separated/divorced, and widowed (82.6% vs. 52.5%;Table 1). Although not statistically significant, children with severe COVID-19 tended to have higher levels of social needs including housing instability, poor caregiver mental health, and lower levels of social support compared to children with nonsevere infection (Table 2). Conclusion: Our preliminary data on SDOH suggest that among children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, housing instability, food insecurity and childcare needs are particularly prevalent. Children with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to have single caregivers. Family structure may influence severe COVID-19 in children and programming and supports for single parent households should be considered. Larger studies in the ED setting will help confirm these findings and to direct resources to address these social needs.

10.
African Journal of Inter/Multidisciplinary Studies ; : 64-73, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2002903

ABSTRACT

Distance learning (DL) means that students work online or students' study online at home while the teacher assigns work and checks in digitally, or they lecture digitally. Distance learning has been regarded as a more flexible way of learning that requires accountability and good time management. On the other hand, the resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic could contribute to the advantages associated with DL. This study discusses this from the perspective of institutional innovation, either as a potentially disruptive innovation or potential constructive innovation. The paper also re-imagines the conceptual and ethical considerations and the requirements associated with distance learning. It conceptualises further that ethics are a fundamental part of teaching pedagogy and, more importantly, DL, but the advent of COVID-19 poses further demands for educators and students in maintaining ethical principles. During the Covid-19 pandemic, DL was proposed alongside social distancing (SD) measures and served as a method of engaging students in a learning environment. Although, the physical distance also poses a difficulty in obtaining students' levels of understanding in terms of course content, thus, this study concludes that distance learning uncovers far more problems, such as the level of readiness (of stakeholders;teachers, students, government, and parents) in the process of transitioning to online teaching platforms, educational equity, and a lack of infrastructure or resources to facilitate online teaching as a result of Social Distancing (SD) emanated from the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S230, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted both the continued impact of long-standing systemic oppression on disparate health outcomes as well as the growing importance of healthcare provided through digital means. For example, an explosion in the use of telehealth for remote care noted significant disparities in use by minority groups. There is a growing recognition of the crucial importance of determinants in the digital environment and their impact on health outcomes. These digital determinants of health (DDoH) function independently as barriers to and facilitators of health as well as interact with social determinants of health (SDoH) to impact outcomes. A framework for digital health equity, detailing key DDoHs, is needed to support the work of developers in industry, health systems operations and academia. METHODS: The framework for digital health equity is an adaptation of the NIMHD Research Framework, which is the culmination of decades of work in the field of health disparities. The NIMHD framework is organized into several domains, including biological, behavioral, physical/built environment, sociocultural environment, and the health care system. Because of its particular importance at this time -we incorporate a digital environment domain with key DDoHs. RESULTS: Determinants at the individual level include digital literacy, readiness, interest, and self-efficacy. Readiness describes necessary technological equipment availability. Interest is used here to describe an individual's desire and willingness to use and trust in digital tools. Determinants at the interpersonal level include bias, interdependence, and relationship disruption. We use the term bias to describe the impact perceptions about an individual's digital literacy, readiness and interest have on clinician willingness to enroll and engage individuals with digital healthcare tools. Relationship disruption describes the complex cultural transformation encouraged by digital technologies. For disparity populations this has the potential to impact well documented relational determinants including medical mistrust and poor-quality communication. Determinants at the community level include cellular wireless and broadband access, quality and affordability as well as health system infrastructure. Determinants at the societal level include the impact of policy, data and design standards, algorithmic bias as well as social norms and ideologies in technical industry. Key examples of facilitators of positive health outcomes are provided at all levels. CONCLUSIONS: By adapting the leading health disparities research framework for digital health equity, we hope developers will benefit from decades of progress in the field of health disparities as well as see their work in the larger context of SDoHs so that we might work together towards meaningful progress in using digital means to achieve health equity for all.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9234, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994171

ABSTRACT

Many cities of the world suffer from air pollution because of poor planning and design and heavy traffic in rapidly expanding urban environments. These conditions are exacerbated due to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. While there have been studies linking the built environment and air pollution with health, they have ignored the aggravating role of UHI. The past urban planning literature in this field has also ignored the science of materials, vehicles and air pollution, and technological solutions for reducing cumulative health impacts of air pollution and UHI. Air Pollution, built environment and human health are complex discussion factors that involve several different fields. The built environment is linked with human health through opportunities of physical activity and air quality. Recent planning literature focuses on creating compact and walkable urban areas dotted with green infrastructure to promote physical activity and to reduce vehicle emission-related air pollution. Reduced car use leading to reduced air pollution and UHI is implied in the literature. The literature from technology fields speaks to the issue of air pollution directly. Zero emission cars, green infrastructure and building materials that absorb air pollutants and reduce UHI fall within this category. This paper identifies main themes in the two streams of urban air pollution and UHI that impact human health and presents a systematic review of the academic papers, policy documents, reports and features in print media published in the last 10–20 years.

13.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-342033

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study expands the literature by finding the associations of land use (LU) and road-related Built Environment with property and violent crime in Detroit from 2019-to 2021 and documenting if the relationships have changed during COVID-19. Method: This study uses property and violent crime location data from 2019 to 2021. It then builds Geographically Weighted Regression and Spatial Error Models to formalize the BE-crime relationship. Results: Findings indicate that multifamily LU and liquor stores are related to property crime but not much to violent crime. The retail and office LU proportion, bus stop density, and density of roads less than 40 miles per hour are positively linked with crime rates. Reversely, block groups' median income, population density, and tenure length are inversely associated with crime rates. The local association over the year is consistent for property crime but varied substantially for violent crime. In the low-income neighborhoods, single-family got more associated with violent crime during the pandemic while in a high-income neighborhood, single-family LU revealed a negative association with violent crime. Further, areas, where retail LU had a strong positive relationship with violent crime rates in 2019, attracted more crime afterward. The high bus stop densities downtown got more positively associated with violent crime in 2020-21 than in pre-pandemic time. Conclusion: This study advances understanding related to the BE-crime relationship, sheds new light on street-related BE, and documents the links between BE and crime. For local policymakers in Detroit, this study leaves essential evidence that can help them make an informed move in the later stages of COVID-19.

14.
Science of The Total Environment ; : 158056, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1983980

ABSTRACT

Soon after its emergence, COVID-19 became a global problem. While different types of vaccines and treatments are now available, still non-pharmacological policies play a critical role in managing the pandemic. The literature is enriched enough to provide comprehensive, practical, and scientific insights to better deal with the pandemic. This research aims to find out how the built environment and human factors have affected the transmission of COVID-19 on different scales. This is done through a systematic literature review of papers indexed on the Web of Science and Scopus. Initially, these databases returned 3811 papers, and after different stages of screening, we found 166 relevant papers and reviewed them. The empirical papers that had at least one case study and analyzed the effects of at least one built environment factor on the spread of COVID-19 were selected. Results showed that the driving forces can be divided into seven main categories: density, land use, transportation and mobility, housing conditions, demographic factors, socio-economic factors, and health-related factors. We found that among other things, overcrowding, public transport use, proximity to public spaces, the share of health and services workers, levels of poverty, and the share of minorities and vulnerable populations are major predictors of the spread of the pandemic. As the most studied factor, density was associated with mixed results on different scales, but about 58 % of the papers reported that it is linked with a higher number of cases. This study provides insights for policymakers and academics to better understand the dynamic roles of the non-pharmacological driving forces of COVID-19 at different levels.

15.
SpringerBriefs in Psychology ; : Place and post-pandemic flourishing: Disruption, adjustment, and healthy behaviors. ix, 111, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1982080

ABSTRACT

This book rekindles the well-known connection between people and place in the context of a global pandemic. The chapters are divided into two sections. In the first section, "Place Attachment During a Pandemic," we review the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and the extent of its impact on place attachment and human-environment interactions. We examine how restrictions in mobility and environmental changes can have a significant psychological burden on people who are dealing with the effect of place attachment disruption that arises during a pandemic. In the second section, "Adjusting to Place Attachment Disruption During and After a Pandemic," we focus on adaptive processes and responses that could enable people to adjust positively to place attachment disruption. We conclude the book by discussing the potential for pro-environmental behavior to promote place attachment and flourishing in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic by introducing an integrative framework of place flourishing and exploring its implications for theory, research, policy, and practice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

16.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(7): e38365, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Participation in outdoor play has been extensively documented as beneficial for the health, well-being, and development of children. Canadian early childhood education centers (ECECs) are important settings in young children's lives and provide opportunities to participate in outdoor play. However, there are barriers to the provision of outdoor play opportunities at ECECs, such as adverse weather conditions, poorly designed outdoor spaces, outdoor time policies, and early childhood educator comfort levels. OBJECTIVE: The PROmoting Early Childhood Outside (PRO-ECO) study is a wait-list control cluster randomized trial that evaluates the impact of the PRO-ECO intervention, an innovative outdoor play intervention, on children's outdoor play behavior. The purpose of this paper was to provide a detailed overview of the pilot study protocol and the methods that will be used to develop, implement, and evaluate the PRO-ECO intervention. METHODS: A total of 8 ECECs delivering licensed care to children aged 2.5 to 6 years in the Greater Vancouver region of British Columbia, Canada, and operated by the YMCA of Greater Vancouver (YMCA GV) are included in this study. Using a wait-list control cluster randomized trial design, we randomly allocated ECECs to either the PRO-ECO intervention arm (n=4) or the wait-list control arm (n=4). The primary outcome measures include changes in the proportion and diversity of observed outdoor play behavior during dedicated outdoor times at the ECECs as measured through observational behavior mapping. Secondary outcome measures include changes in educator attitudes; quality of ECECs' outdoor play space; and children's psychosocial strengths, physical activity levels, and social behaviors. A process evaluation of the acceptability of the PRO-ECO intervention in the 8 YMCA GV ECECs will also be assessed. Outcome data will be collected at baseline, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Mixed effect models will test the effect of the PRO-ECO intervention on quantitative outcomes. Baseline and postintervention data will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster design. Qualitative data will support quantitative findings and provide evidence for the acceptability of implementation. RESULTS: Participant recruitment for this study began in August 2021, and baseline data collection was completed at all 8 ECECs in November 2021. As of April 2022, a total of 130 children have been recruited to participate in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The PRO-ECO pilot study will develop, implement, and evaluate the PRO-ECO intervention within 8 YMCA GV ECECs in the Vancouver region of British Columbia, Canada. The findings of this study will be useful for early childhood educators, ECEC providers, and policy makers to consider means for enhancing outdoor play provision and assessing the sustainability of the intervention in ECEC settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05075580; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05073380. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/38365.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1475, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted life in extraordinary ways impacting health and daily mobility. Public transit provides a strategy to improve individual and population health through increased active travel and reduced vehicle dependency, while ensuring equitable access to jobs, healthcare, education, and mitigating climate change. However, health safety concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic eroded ridership, which could have longstanding negative consequences. Research is needed to understand how mobility and health change as the pandemic recedes and how transit investments impact health and equity outcomes. METHODS: The TROLLEY (TRansit Opportunities for HeaLth, Livability, Exercise and EquitY) study will prospectively investigate a diverse cohort of university employees after the opening of a new light rail transit (LRT) line and the easing of campus COVID-19 restrictions. Participants are current staff who live either < 1 mile, 1-2 miles, or > 2 miles from LRT, with equal distribution across economic and racial/ethnic strata. The primary aim is to assess change in physical activity, travel mode, and vehicle miles travelled using accelerometer and GPS devices. Equity outcomes include household transportation and health-related expenditures. Change in health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, stress, quality of life, body mass index and behavior change constructs related to transit use will be assessed via self-report. Pre-pandemic variables will be retrospectively collected. Participants will be measured at 3 times over 2 years of follow up. Longitudinal changes in outcomes will be assessed using multilevel mixed effects models. Analyses will evaluate whether proximity to LRT, sociodemographic, and environmental factors modify change in outcomes over time. DISCUSSION: The TROLLEY study will utilize rigorous methods to advance our understanding of health, well-being, and equity-oriented outcomes of new LRT infrastructure through the COVID-19 recovery period, in a sample of demographically diverse adult workers whose employment location is accessed by new transit. Results will inform land use, transportation and health investments, and workplace interventions. Findings have the potential to elevate LRT as a public health priority and provide insight on how to ensure public transit meets the needs of vulnerable users and is more resilient in the face of future health pandemics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The TROLLEY study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04940481 ) June 17, 2021, and OSF Registries ( https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/PGEHU ) June 24, 2021, prior to participant enrollment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Transportation/methods
18.
Cities ; 131: 103886, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966436

ABSTRACT

Active transportation could be an effective way to promote healthy physical activity, especially during pandemics like COVID-19. A comprehensive evaluation of health outcomes derived from COVID-19 induced active transportation can assist multiple stakeholders in revisiting strategies and priorities for supporting active transportation during and beyond the pandemic. We performed a two-step reviewing process by combining a scoping review with a narrative review to summarize published literature addressing the influence of COVID-19 on mobility and the environment that can lead to various health pathways and health outcomes associated with active transportation. We summarized the COVID-19 induced changes in active transportation demand, built environment, air quality, and physical activity. The results demonstrated that, since the pandemic began, bike-sharing users dropped significantly while recreational bike trips and walking activities increased in some areas. Meanwhile, there have been favorable changes to the air quality and the built environment for active transportation users. We then discussed how these changes impact health outcomes during the pandemic and their implications for urban planning and policymaking. This review also suggests that walking and biking can make up for the reduced physical activities during the pandemic, helping people stay active and healthy.

19.
Cities and Health ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960868

ABSTRACT

Physical activity is critical for older adults’ health and was particularly important during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. To slow the spread of COVID-19, built environment modifications were introduced in public spaces including one-way walking systems, social distancing, and the restricted use of public toilets and seating. These modifications intended to encourage safe exercise but may have reduced walkability and inadvertently hindered older adults’ physical activity. We aimed to investigate whether Covid-related built environment modifications reduced older adults’ physical activity. We surveyed 282 older adults in the UK using a mixed methods Concurrent Triangulation Design. Physical activity decreased during COVID-19. Older adults believed many Covid-related built environment modifications negatively affected physical activity because of safety or accessibility issues. These negative modifications were more prominent in areas of higher walkability and associated with reduced physical activity. However Covid-related Traffic Reduction and some elements of One-Way Walking Systems were largely considered positive modifications that helped facilitate physical activity. We concluded common Covid-related built environment modifications hindered exercise, reduced walkability, and possibly contributed to reduced physical activity in older adults. If similar modifications are required in the future, older adults’ needs must be accommodated to avoid discouraging physical activity and compromising long-term health. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

20.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

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