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1.
African Studies Review ; 65(1):41-65, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1805441

ABSTRACT

Advocates of the Green Revolution for Africa (GR4A) argue that the best way to address malnutrition is to incorporate smallholders into the global food economy via value chains involving the use of improved inputs, production technologies, and access to markets. Moseley and Ouedraogo critically assess these tactics using a feminist political ecology lens to analyze GR4A efforts in southwestern Burkina Faso which target female rice farmers. They examine the nature of the GR4A rice value chain, the degree to which a GR4A project is impacting the nutrition of participating women, and the influence of gender roles on GR4A rice project outcomes.

2.
Policy Research Working Paper - World Bank|2021. (9739):21 pp. 41 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1787247

ABSTRACT

Recent debates surrounding the lagging COVID-19 vaccination campaigns in low-income countries center around vaccine supply and financing. Yet, relatively little is known about attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines in these countries and in Africa in particular. This paper provides cross-country comparable estimates of the willingness to accept a COVID-19 vaccine in six Sub-Saharan African countries. It uses data from six national high-frequency phone surveys in countries representing 38 percent of the Sub-Saharan African population (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, and Uganda). Samples were drawn from large, nationally representative sampling frames providing a rich set of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics which are used to disaggregate the analysis. The findings show acceptance rates to be generally high, with at least four in five people willing to be vaccinated in all but one country. Vaccine acceptance ranges from nearly universal in Ethiopia (97.9 percent) to below what would likely be required for herd immunity in Mali (64.5 percent). Safety concerns about the vaccine in general and its side effects emerge as the primary reservations toward a COVID-19 vaccine across countries. These findings suggest that limited supply, not inadequate demand, likely presents the key bottleneck to reaching high COVID-19 vaccine coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa.

3.
International Review of the Red Cross ; : 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1783907
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 224-229, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773372

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to assess the statistical relationship between the use of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (CQ/HCQ + AZ) and virological recovery, disease worsening, and death among out- and inpatients with COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. METHODS AND DESIGNS: This was a retrospective observational study that compared outcomes in terms of time to recovery, worsening, and death in patients who received CQ/HCQ + AZ and those who did not using a multivariable Cox or Poisson model before and after propensity matching. RESULTS: Of the 863 patients included in the study, about 50% (432/863) were home-based follow-up patients and 50% were inpatients. Of these, 83.3% (746/863) received at least 1 dose of CQ/HCQ + AZ and 13.7% (118/863) did not. There were no significant differences in associated time to recovery for patients receiving any CQ/HCQ + AZ (adjusted HR 1.44; 95% CI 0.76-2.71). Similarly, there was no significant association between CQ/HCQ + AZ use and worsening (adjusted IRR 0.80; 95% CI 0.50-1.50). However, compared with the untreated group, the treated group had a lower risk of death (adjusted HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.10-0.44). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided valuable additional information on the use of CQ/HCQ in patients with COVID-19 and did not show any harmful outcomes of CQ/HCQ + AZ treatment.

5.
International Review of the Red Cross ; : 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1758105

ABSTRACT

Lazare W. Zoungrana has been doing humanitarian work for the Burkinabe Red Cross Society for more than twenty years and has been its secretary-general since 2010. Trained in sociology, with a research master's degree in information and communication science, Mr Zoungrana has brought his skills to a range of humanitarian activities, from development and emergency programmes to the organizational development and capacity-building of the Burkinabe Red Cross. He is specialized in project management, gender and education, international humanitarian law and training trainers in various aspects of humanitarian action. Mr Zoungrana has coordinated several operations led by the Burkinabe Red Cross, including: providing assistance to victims of the Ouagadougou floods in 2009, victims of terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou, Malian refugees and people affected by armed violence in the country;and carrying out activities in response to meningitis epidemics and, most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic. At the international level, Mr Zoungrana has sat as a committee chairman or a panellist on various round tables. He was a member of the multinational team charged with assessing and coordinating the humanitarian response to the earthquake in Haiti and has been a member of several multinational working groups, including one tasked with developing the restoring family links strategy for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

6.
World Dev Perspect ; 25: 100393, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740271

ABSTRACT

In recent years, as in other parts of the Sahel, the threat of terrorism has escalated in Burkina Faso. In 2019, this country hosted the fourth highest number of new conflict-related internal displaced persons (IDPs) in the world. These people have to cope simultaneously with the full spectrum of environmental, social and health-related stresses in the long, medium and short term, respectively. We seek to compare the living conditions of IDPs before and during the lockdown implemented by the authorities (between 27 March and 5 May 2020) to contain the spread of the virus. Interviews were conducted with 106 IDPs in Kongoussi (Central-Northern region). Although no respondent reported having been directly affected by the virus, 84.9% of the IDPs surveyed had no income-generating activities during the lockdown and the remaining 15.1% who continued to work reported that their activities had been greatly scaled-down. For a large majority of them, their living conditions, already described as difficult under 'normal' circumstances (insufficient food, insignificant financial assistance, or difficult access to health care), further deteriorated. In addition, IDPs were unable to leave the camps or regions where they were located to search for better living conditions or to return home. Lastly, 96.2% of respondents believed that the COVID-19 pandemic would have a negative impact on their future. These IDPs, like many in the sub-region and around the world, therefore require urgent assistance from the authorities and humanitarian NGOs, as the slightest new stress is likely to considerably worsen their already vulnerable state.

7.
JMIR mHealth and uHealth Vol 9(2), 2021, ArtID e22229 ; 9(2), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1733063

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the successful scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the focus is now on ensuring good quality of life (QoL) and sustained viral suppression in people living with HIV. The access to mobile technology in the most burdened countries is increasing rapidly, and therefore, mobile health (mHealth) technologies could be leveraged to improve QoL in people living with HIV. However, data on the impact of mHealth tools on the QoL in people living with HIV are limited to the evaluation of SMS text messaging;these are infeasible in high-illiteracy settings. Objective: The primary and secondary outcomes were to determine the impact of interactive voice response (IVR) technology on Medical Outcomes Study HIV QoL scores and viral suppression at 12 months, respectively. Methods: Within the Call for Life study, ART-experienced and ART-naive people living with HIV commencing ART were randomized (1:1 ratio) to the control (no IVR support) or intervention arm (daily adherence and pre-appointment reminders, health information tips, and option to report symptoms). The software evaluated was Call for Life Uganda, an IVR technology that is based on the Mobile Technology for Community Health open-source software. Eligibility criteria for participation included access to a phone, fluency in local languages, and provision of consent. The differences in differences (DIDs) were computed, adjusting for baseline HIV RNA and CD4. Results: Overall, 600 participants (413 female, 68.8%) were enrolled and followed-up for 12 months. In the intervention arm of 300 participants, 298 (99.3%) opted for IVR and 2 (0.7%) chose SMS text messaging as the mode of receiving reminders and health tips. At 12 months, there was no overall difference in the QoL between the intervention and control arms (DID=0.0;P=.99) or HIV RNA (DID=0.01;P=.94). At 12 months, 124 of the 256 (48.4%) active participants had picked up at least 50% of the calls. In the active intervention participants, high users (received >75% of reminders) had overall higher QoL compared to low users (received <25% of reminders) (92.2 versus 87.8, P=.02). Similarly, high users also had higher QoL scores in the mental health domain (93.1 versus 86.8, P=.008) and better appointment keeping. Similarly, participants with moderate use (51%-75%) had better viral suppression at 12 months (80/94, 85% versus 11/19, 58%, P=.006). Conclusions: Overall, there was high uptake and acceptability of the IVR tool. While we found no overall difference in the QoL and viral suppression between study arms, people living with HIV with higher usage of the tool showed greater improvements n QoL, viral suppression, and appointment keeping. With the declining resources available to HIV programs and the increasing number of people living with HIV accessing ART, IVR technology could be used to support patient care. The tool may be helpful in situations where physical consultations are infeasible, including the current COVID epidemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 743248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731860

ABSTRACT

Background: To limit the spread of COVID-19 due to imported cases, Burkina Faso has set up quarantine measures for arriving passengers. We aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of imported cases of COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed using data from passengers arriving at the airport from April 9 to August 31, 2020. The data was extracted from the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) platform. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of imported cases of COVID-19. Results: Among 6,332 travelers who arrived in the study period, 173 imported cases (2.7%) were recorded. The incidence rate was 1.9 cases per 1,000 traveler-days (95%CI: 1.6-2.2 per 1,000). Passengers arriving in April (Adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.56; 95%CI: 1.62-7.81) and May (aHR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18-3.12) were more at risk of being tested positive compared to those arriving in August, as well as, passengers presenting with one symptom (aHR = 3.71; 95% CI: 1.63-8.43) and at least two symptoms (aHR = 10.82; 95% CI: 5.24-22,30) compared to asymptomatic travelers. Conclusions: The incidence of imported cases was relatively low in Burkina Faso between April and August 2020. The period of travel and the presence of symptoms at arrival predicted the risk of being tested positive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This is essential in the context of the high circulation of virus variants worldwide and the low local capacity to perform genotyping tests to strengthen the surveillance and screening capacities at the points of entry into the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cahiers Agricultures ; 30(13), 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1721624

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the health crisis due to COVID-19 some observers alerted the decision makers of a possible food crisis in the coming months in West Africa. In order to feed this debate, the researchers conducted a study by interviewing 75 actors of the agricultural sector in two regions of Burkina Faso - the Yatenga and the High Basins. In both situations, farmers and pastoralists were able to continue their activities, but some experienced marketing difficulties. Market gardeners and tree growers have been the most affected by this crisis because of difficulties in selling their perishable products on West African markets. Livestock farmers were less affected by the drop in prices, but traders of live livestock also encountered difficulties exporting to coastal countries. Finally, cotton companies have had to face a drop in the international price of cotton fiber and cotton producers will have to face a drop in the purchase price of seed cotton at the end of 2020. Despite this crisis, Burkina Faso's agriculture has continued to fully play its nurturing role thanks to the mobilization of farmers, traders and transporters, even though it is showing weaknesses due to its heavy dependence on external markets for, among other things, vegetables, livestock, cotton, mangoes, cashew nuts and agricultural and livestock inputs. This crisis is an opportunity to consider areas for intervention to make Burkina Faso's agriculture less dependent on external markets and imported factors of production. This implies the substitution of imported food products by local products and an agro-ecological transition to reduce the importation of synthetic inputs.

10.
Cahiers Agricultures ; 30(17), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1721622

ABSTRACT

This paper provides an early assessment of the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and of subsequent response measures on milk production, collection, processing, marketing and consumption in Africa. The researchers focus on the period surrounding the first wave of the outbreak (from February to June 2020), during which the number of cases surged and many steps were taken to curb the epidemic. The paper is based on reports from four countries covered by the Africa-Milk Research Project: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Madagascar and Senegal. Data was collected primarily from nine dairy processors located in those countries. Major conclusions of the study are: (1) Dairy farmers were negatively affected by COVID-19 measures when the health crisis coincided with the peak of the milk production season, and when governments did not take steps to support milk production. (2) Small and informal milk collectors were also affected by traffic restrictions as they could not obtain traffic permits. (3) Milk powder importation remained unaffected during the outbreak. (4) Dairy processors (particularly small ones) faced many challenges restricting their operation. Travel restrictions led to temporary interruptions of milk supply, and because of employee protection and safety measures, processing costs increased. (5) Many small retailers were affected by bans on public transport and reduced their purchases of artisanal dairy products;meanwhile, spoilage of dairy products increased during long curfews coupled with poor storage conditions. Supermarkets were able to increase their market share during the pandemic thanks to their connections with industrial dairy processors and wholesalers. (6) A majority of consumers decreased their consumption of dairy products due to a decrease of purchasing power. In some cases, an increase in consumption occurred (due to Ramadan month and dry season high temperatures) and consumption shifted towards long-life dairy products. (7) Overall, the consequences of the health crisis affected more small and informal dairy supply chains than the larger ones, which are more formal, better organised and finally more resilient to face this kind of global crisis.

11.
Field Exchange Emergency Nutrition Network ENN ; 64:35-40, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1717258

ABSTRACT

GLOBAL. What we know: Demand for treatment services for childhood diseases (particularly malaria, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection (ARI)) surge in response to seasonal changes and shocks. What this article adds: A broader Health Surge approach is emerging, prompted by health facility staff beginning to apply community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) Surge principles to other childhood disease services. Lessons learned from implementing countries to date (Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Chad, Niger, Ethiopia and Mauritania), including during the COVID-19 response, have informed working definitions, key elements of a package and key principles of an approach currently modelled on the CMAM Surge steps. Health Surge can be viewed as a quality improvement approach that empowers health workers to better anticipate, prepare for and manage fluctuations in demand for essential nutrition and child health services at facility-level in real-time, in complement to wider disease surveillance and response mechanisms. Health facility staff set specific thresholds for single diseases of public health importance in their catchment area to inform decisions and action on health facility capacity;information can be aggregated at district or regional levels to reveal rising stress on the health system. Adaptability of the approach is key and should always consider the context, effectiveness, local and national ownership, process transparency and sustainability. Experiences indicate that the Health Surge approach should protect services for the most vulnerable and will benefit from local prioritisation of illnesses, the tailoring of threshold setting methods according to how local health services are organised and disease-specific surge actions. Digital monitoring approaches will help real-time monitoring. Existing global and regional technical working groups on CMAM Surge are now coordinating Health Surge efforts. Tools and guidance are currently being developed by Concern and will be piloted in Niger, Kenya and Mali by Concern and Save the Children from early 2021.

12.
Cahiers Agricultures ; 30, 2021.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1599844

ABSTRACT

Au début de la crise sanitaire due à la Covid-19, certains observateurs ont alerté les décideurs d’une possible crise alimentaire dans les mois à venir en Afrique de l’Ouest. En vue d’alimenter ce débat, nous avons mené une étude en nous entretenant avec 75 acteurs du secteur agricole dans deux régions du Burkina Faso − le Yatenga et les Hauts-Bassins. Dans les deux situations, les agriculteurs et les éleveurs ont pu continuer leurs activités mais certains ont eu des difficultés de commercialisation. Les maraîchers et les arboriculteurs ont été les plus touchés par cette crise du fait des difficultés à écouler leurs produits périssables sur les marchés ouest-africains. Les éleveurs ont été moins concernés par la baisse des prix mais les commerçants de bétail sur pied ont aussi rencontré des difficultés à exporter vers les pays côtiers. Enfin, les sociétés cotonnières ont dû faire face à une baisse du prix international du coton-fibre et les producteurs de coton ont dû faire face à une baisse du prix d’achat du coton-graine à la fin de 2020. Malgré cette crise, l’agriculture burkinabè a continué à jouer pleinement son rôle nourricier grâce à la mobilisation des agriculteurs, des commerçants et des transporteurs, même si elle montre des fragilités dues à sa forte dépendance aux marchés extérieurs pour entre autres les légumes, le bétail, le coton, les mangues, l’anacarde et les intrants agricoles et d’élevage. Cette crise permet de réfléchir à des axes d’intervention afin de rendre l’agriculture burkinabè moins dépendante des marchés extérieurs et des facteurs de production importés. Cela implique la substitution des produits alimentaires importés par des produits locaux et une transition agroécologique permettant de réduire l’importation d’intrants de synthèse.Alternate : At the beginning of the health crisis due to COVID-19 some observers alerted the decision makers of a possible food crisis in the coming months in West Africa. In order to feed this debate, we conducted a study by interviewing 75 actors of the agricultural sector in two regions of Burkina Faso − the Yatenga and the High Basins. In both situations, farmers and pastoralists were able to continue their activities, but some experienced marketing difficulties. Market gardeners and tree growers have been the most affected by this crisis because of difficulties in selling their perishable products on West African markets. Livestock farmers were less affected by the drop in prices, but traders of live livestock also encountered difficulties exporting to coastal countries. Finally, cotton companies have had to face a drop in the international price of cotton fiber and cotton producers will have to face a drop in the purchase price of seed cotton at the end of 2020. Despite this crisis, Burkina Faso’s agriculture has continued to fully play its nurturing role thanks to the mobilization of farmers, traders and transporters, even though it is showing weaknesses due to its heavy dependence on external markets for, among other things, vegetables, livestock, cotton, mangoes, cashew nuts and agricultural and livestock inputs. This crisis is an opportunity to consider areas for intervention to make Burkina Faso’s agriculture less dependent on external markets and imported factors of production. This implies the substitution of imported food products by local products and an agro-ecological transition to reduce the importation of synthetic inputs.

13.
World Dev Perspect ; 25: 100387, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586258

ABSTRACT

Analyses of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security of urban households and their resilience are increasingly receiving scholarly interest. In Burkina Faso, urban households whose primary activity is trade were the most immediately impacted by COVID-19 due to the closure of markets. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of income loss due to COVID-19 on food security and poverty among urban small traders' households by considering their resilience capacity. A survey was performed on 503 households of small traders operating in 5 markets in Ouagadougou. Objective and subjective indicators of food security were calculated, as well as several indices of resilience capacity. A simple logit model and ordered logit model were used for the socioeconomic analysis. Three main results emerge. First, COVID-19 has increased the likelihood of households being food insecure due to their lower food consumption scores. Second, estimates show that COVID-19 has reduced households' incomes by increasing their likelihood of entering poverty. Finally, at all levels of analysis, households with adaptive capacity were able to adjust to the shock, but social security was not a mitigating factor. Implications in terms of economic policies are discussed.

14.
Journal of International Development ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1568147

ABSTRACT

Using data from a migration survey conducted in Burkina Faso, this research seeks to understand the Covid-19 pandemic's effects on migrant remittances and households' livelihood. Results suggest that migrant households and those receiving remittances are less likely to report a negative effect of the pandemic on their livelihood. More precisely, we find that if remittances sent by migrants remained the same or increased during the pandemic, households are less likely to report a negative effect on their livelihood. We resort to a recursive bivariate probit model and a two-stage residual inclusion estimator, using variables that capture xenophobia and possession of identity papers as instruments for remittances.

15.
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology ; 5(6):698-703, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1560295

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease which has almost frozen the entire globe along with its economy. It’s astonishing ability of human-to-human and surface-to-human transmission has turned the planet Earth into recurrent catastrophic phases. In this research article, the ANN approach was applied to analyze COVID-19 cases in Burkina Faso. This study is based on daily new cases of COVID-19 in Burkina Faso for the period 1 January 2020 – 25 March 2021. The out-of-sample forecast covers the period 26 March 2021 – 31 July 2021. The residuals and forecast evaluation criteria (Error, MSE and MAE) of our simple model indicate that the model is stable and acceptable. The results of the study basically imply that daily COVID-19 cases in Burkina Faso are likely to remain high over the out-of-sample period. The government of Burkina Faso should ensure the continued compliance to control and preventive COVID-19 measures in line with WHO standards.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560589

ABSTRACT

School enrolment rates have increased globally, making the school environment a unique setting to promote healthy nutrition and eating outcomes among early adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we describe the food and health environment of junior secondary schools in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso, West Africa). We evaluated the food and health environment using three components: (1) the implementation of health-related policies or guidelines in the schools, (2) the provision of health, nutrition and water, sanitation & hygiene (WASH) services in the schools, and (3) the quality of the school food environment, including foods sold by vendors. We used stratified random sampling to recruit 22 junior secondary schools from the five Ouagadougou districts in 2020. Trained fieldworkers collected standardized questionnaire data from 19 school administrators, 18 food vendors, and 1059 in-school adolescents. We report that only 7 out of 19 school administrators were aware of existing health-related policies and guidelines at their school and only 3 schools had a school health and nutrition curriculum in place. The overall provision of health, nutrition and WASH services was low or inadequate. Likely because of the lack of school canteens, 69% of the students bought snacks and unhealthy foods from food vendors. There is a critical need to improve the food and health environment of junior secondary schools in urban Burkina Faso.


Subject(s)
Food Services , Schools , Adolescent , Burkina Faso , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nutrition Policy , Nutritional Status
17.
Health Policy Open ; 3: 100060, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549809

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly affected economic and health systems around the world. This paper aims to assess household access to basic foods and health care and food security attainment during the COVID-19 pandemic in Burkina Faso. We use the COVID-19 High-Frequency Phone Survey 2020 panel data supported by the World Bank and conducted by Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie (INSD). The pooled multinomial logistic, the panel logistic, and the panel ordered logistic regressions are used to analyse the access to basic foods, the access to health care and the food security of the households, respectively. The results show that during COVID-19, female-headed households, poor households and farm households remain the most vulnerable in terms of access to basic foods, health services and food insecurity. Furthermore, the results indicate that households living outside the capital, particularly in the other urbans, experience fewer difficulties obtaining basic foods than those residing in the capital and are also unlikely to experience food insecurity. For more effective policy responses to the COVID-19 or similar shocks, the interventions should focus on household socioeconomic conditions and distinguish between urban and rural areas.

18.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(3): 381-388, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reliable diagnostics are a key to identifying influenza infections. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe the detection of influenza among severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases, to compare test results from the Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD) Kit for influenza detection to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) human influenza virus detection and characterization panel, and to assess seasonality of influenza in Burkina Faso. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens from SARI cases (hospitalized patients with fever, cough, and onset in the previous 10 days) were tested using the FTD-33 Kit and the CDC rRT-PCR influenza assays. We assessed sensitivity and specificity of the FTD-33 Kit for detecting influenza A, influenza B, and the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain using the CDC human influenza rRT-PCR panel as the gold standard. RESULTS: From December 2016 to February 2019, 1706 SARI cases were identified, 1511 specimens were tested, and 211 were positive for influenza A (14.0%) and 100 for influenza B (6.6%) by either assay. Higher influenza circulation occurred between November and April with varying peaks of influenza A and influenza B. Sensitivity of the FTD-33 assay was 91.9% for influenza A, 95.7% for influenza B, and 93.8% for A(H1N1)pdm09 subtype. Specificity was over 99% for all three tests. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that Burkina Faso has one peak of influenza each year which is similar to the Northern Hemisphere and differs from other countries in West Africa. We found high concordance of influenza results between the two assays indicating FTD-33 can be used to reliably detect influenza among SARI cases.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Laboratories , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , United States
19.
Food Energy Secur ; : e337, 2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487467

ABSTRACT

At the onset of COVID-19, researchers quickly recognized the need for research on the consequences of the pandemic for agricultural and food systems, both in terms of immediate impacts on access to inputs and labor, disruptions in transportation and markets, and the longer-term implications on crop productivity, income, and livelihoods. Vegetable production and supply chains are particularly vulnerable due to the perishable nature of the products and labor-intensive production practices. The purpose of this study was to understand the impacts of COVID-19 on vegetable production in Burkina Faso in terms of both the biophysical aspects such as yields and access to inputs and socioeconomic aspects such as access to labor, markets, and social services. A survey was developed to better understand smallholder farmer experiences regarding the impacts of COVID-19 on their vegetable production systems and social well-being. The survey was administered (between August and October 2020) with smallholder farmers (n = 605) in 13 administrative regions covering all agroecological zones of Burkina Faso. The survey results clearly show impacts of COVID-19 on vegetable systems, including a reduction in access to inputs, a reduction in yields, a loss of income, reduced access to local and urban markets, reduced access to transportation, and an increase in post-harvest loss. Market access, distribution, and disruptions were a major shock to the system. Results also showed an increase in women's labor in the household, and for youth, an increase in unemployment, job loss, and concerns of poverty. Finally, food security and social supports were highlighted as major issues for resilience and livelihoods. The results from this survey should be helpful to policymakers and researchers to develop policies and strategies to minimize the negative impacts of this ongoing pandemic on the agri-food systems and support smallholder farmers to overcome stress caused by COVID-19.

20.
JMIR Med Educ ; 7(2): e27169, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the positive impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on academic performance and outcomes. Although some equipment is available, the ICTs for education at the National Public Health School (NPHS) of Burkina Faso have many shortcomings. These shortcomings were clearly revealed during the search for responses to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Indeed, to curb the spread of COVID-19, some measures were taken, such as closure of educational institutions. This resulted in a 2.5-month suspension of educational activities. Despite its willingness, the NPHS was unable to use ICTs to continue teaching during the closure period of educational institutions. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we aim to propose practical solutions to promote ICT use in teaching at the NPHS by analyzing the weaknesses and challenges related to its use. METHODS: We conducted a critical analysis based on information from the gray literature of NPHS. This critical analysis was preceded by a review of systematic reviews on barriers and facilitating factors to using ICTs in higher education and a systematic review of ICT use during the COVID-19 pandemic in higher education. An ICT integration model and a clustering of ICT integration factors guided the analysis. RESULTS: The weaknesses and challenges identified relate to the infrastructure and equipment for the use of ICTs in pedagogical situations in face-to-face and distance learning; training of actors, namely the teachers and students; availability of qualified resource persons and adequate and specific financial resources; motivation of teachers; and stage of use of ICTs. CONCLUSIONS: To promote the use of ICTs in teaching at the NPHS, actions must be performed to strengthen the infrastructure and equipment, human resources, the skills of actors and the motivation of teachers in the pedagogical use of ICTs.

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