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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(9)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997689

ABSTRACT

Critically ill COVID-19 patients can develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Considering the weaknesses of diagnostic tests/case definitions, as well as the results from autoptic studies, there is a debate on the real burden of aspergillosis in COVID-19 patients. We performed a retrospective observational study on mechanically ventilated critically ill COVID-19 patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). The primary objective was to determine the burden of CAPA by comparing clinical diagnosis (through case definitions/diagnostic algorithms) with autopsy results. Twenty patients out of 168 (11.9%) developed probable CAPA. Seven (35%) were females, and the median age was 66 [IQR 59-72] years. Thirteen CAPA patients (65%) died and, for six, an autopsy was performed providing a proven diagnosis in four cases. Histopathology findings suggest a focal pattern, rather than invasive and diffuse fungal disease, in the context of prominent viral pneumonia. In a cohort of mechanically ventilated patients with probable CAPA, by performing a high rate of complete autopsies, invasive aspergillosis was not always proven. It is still not clear whether aspergillosis is the major driver of mortality in patients with CAPA.

2.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(8)2022 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated fungal infections seem to be a concerning issue. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of fungal infections, the possible risk factors, and their effect on outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in the COVID-19 ICU of the First Respiratory Department of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Sotiria Chest Diseases Hospital between 27 August 2020 and 10 November 2021. RESULTS: Here, 178 patients were included in the study. Nineteen patients (10.7%) developed fungal infection, of which five had COVID-19 associated candidemia, thirteen had COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis, and one had both. Patients with fungal infection were younger, had a lower Charlson Comorbidity Index, and had a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio upon admission. Regarding health-care factors, patients with fungal infections were treated more frequently with Tocilizumab, a high regimen of dexamethasone, continuous renal replacement treatment, and were supported more with ECMO. They also had more complications, especially infections, and subsequently developed septic shock more frequently. Finally, patients with fungal infections had a longer length of ICU stay, as well as length of mechanical ventilation, although no statistically significant difference was reported on 28-day and 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal infections seem to have a high incidence in COVID-19 critically ill patients and specific risk factors are identified. However, fungal infections do not seem to burden on mortality.

3.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(8): e6188, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990433

ABSTRACT

A young man, a recent coronavirus patient, was readmitted with hypoesthesia and dysarthria following a rapid deterioration of respiratory symptoms. The brain and lung CT scans revealed ischemia and cavitary lung lesions. Clinical suspicion for aspergillus leads to prompt treatment, confirmed by biopsy. Neurologic and pulmonary symptoms resolved ultimately.

4.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(8)2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987859

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) have been documented during the COVID-19 pandemic. The vast majority of these patients do not meet the classic EORTC/MSGERC criteria for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The question arises as to whether there may have been an over-diagnosis of this disease. Here we review our experience and analyze the evolution of 27 patients who were diagnosed with CAPA during hospital admission. Surviving patients were followed-up for a mean time of 15 months (SD 3.78) by a group of experts and clinical records of diseased patients were reviewed. After expert evaluation and follow-up, 10 patients were finally assumed as CAPA according to expert opinion. These cases represent 40% of the initially CAPA assumed cases. Our data suggest the need to reconsider actual diagnosis criteria for CAPA what could drive to better identification of these patients.

5.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is common in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with worse outcomes. However, reports on CAPA and its impact on treatment outcomes in Asian populations are limited. METHODS: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) were retrospectively enrolled in this observational study. The incidence rate of CAPA during ICU admission was investigated. The clinical factors associated with CAPA, including corticosteroid exposure, were analyzed. The impact of CAPA on the treatment outcomes and SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding were explored. RESULTS: A total of 72 ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. The incidence rate of CAPA was 15.3% (11/72) in all patients and 23% (11/48) in the mechanically ventilated patients. The median time from ICU admission to CAPA diagnosis was 15 days. A lower fibrinogen level (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.983; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.967-0.999) was independently associated with CAPA. The patients with CAPA had a higher in-hospital mortality rate (55% vs. 13%, p = 0.001) and a longer SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding time (22 days vs. 16 days, p = 0.037) than those without CAPA. CONCLUSION: Lower serum fibrinogen levels was independently associated with CAPA among the ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19. The patients with CAPA had a higher in-hospital mortality rate and a longer SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding time than those without CAPA.

6.
Beni Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci ; 11(1): 64, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951424

ABSTRACT

Background: Notable fungal coinfections with SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients have been reported worldwide in an alarming way. Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. were commonly known as black fungi, whereas Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp. were designated as white fungi implicated in those infections. In this review, we focused on the global outbreaks of fungal coinfection with SARS-CoV-2, the role of the human immune system, and a detailed understanding of those fungi to delineate the contribution of such coinfections in deteriorating the health conditions of COVID-19 patients based on current knowledge. Main body: Impaired CD4 + T cell response due to SARS-CoV-2 infection creates an opportunity for fungi to take over the host cells and, consequently, cause severe fungal coinfections, including candidiasis and candidemia, mucormycosis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), and COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Among them, mucormycosis and CAPA have been reported with a mortality rate of 66% in India and 60% in Colombia. Moreover, IPA has been reported in Belgium, Netherlands, France, and Germany with a morbidity rate of 20.6%, 19.6%, 33.3%, and 26%, respectively. Several antifungal drugs have been applied to combat fungal coinfection in COVID-19 patients, including Voriconazole, Isavuconazole, and Echinocandins. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 deteriorates the immune system so that several fungi could take that opportunity and cause life-threatening health situations. To reduce the mortality and morbidity of fungal coinfections, it needs immunity boosting, proper hygiene and sanitation, and appropriate medication based on the diagnosis.

7.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938688

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has worsened the prognosis of patients with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The lack of specific diagnosis criteria is an obstacle to the timely initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Tracheal aspirate (TA) has been employed under special pandemic conditions. Galactomannan (GM) antigens are released during active fungal growth. (2) Methods: We proposed the term "CAPA in progress" (CAPA-IP) for diagnosis at an earlier stage by GM testing on TA in a specific population admitted to ICU presenting with clinical deterioration. A GM threshold ≥0.5 was set as the mycological inclusion criterion. This was followed by a pre-emptive short-course antifungal. (3) Results: We prospectively enrolled 200 ICU patients with COVID-19. Of these, 164 patients (82%) initially required invasive mechanical ventilation and GM was tested in TA in 93 patients. A subset of 19 patients (11.5%) fulfilled the CAPA-IP criteria at a median of 9 days after ICU admittance. The median GM value was 3.25 ± 2.82. CAPA-IP cases showed significantly higher ICU mortality [52.6% (10/19) vs. 34.5% (50/145), p = 0.036], as well as a much longer median ICU stay than those with a normal GM index [27 (7-64) vs. 11 (9-81) days, p = 0.008]. All cases were treated with a pre-emptive systemic antifungal for a median time of 19 (3-39) days. (4) Conclusions: CAPA-IP highlights a new real-life early approach in the field of fungal stewardship in ICU programs.

8.
J Pharm Sci ; 111(10): 2674-2686, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937315

ABSTRACT

The term "Medical devices" includes technology-based devices or articles, both basic and complex. Due to these types of variations, a strict, robust, transparent, and sustainable regulatory framework is required. In recent clinical practice, incidents including the breast implant and the hip replacement crisis have made it necessary to improve the regulatory and compliance approaches for the industry to ensure the manufacturing and distribution of safe and innovative MDs within the EU. In response to this, the EU revised the laws governing medical devices and in vitro diagnostics to align with the developments of the sector, address critical safety issues and support innovation. The new regulation (EU) 2017/745 on Medical Devices (MDR) is now applicable from May 26 2021 and the In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Regulation (EU) 2017/746 will take effect from May 2022.In this review, we aim to provide an update on the new Medical Device Regulations in the context of the current medical needs of the world, and also to give a glimpse at the non-EU regulatory landscape. Finally, we take a look at the closed-system transfer devices (CSTD) and COVID facilitated changes promoting demand for continuous improvement and trends in the pharmaceutical and medical industry related areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Device Legislation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
9.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(2): 292-298, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929565

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a worldwide pandemic with several problems, one of which is the lack of definitive treatment. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in COVID-19 patients, is one of the concerning secondary infections associated with higher mortality and worse clinical outcomes. Diagnosing CAPA may be challenging due to the possible absence of classic host factors and clinical symptoms or obscured radiological findings. We described two CAPA cases, which were suspected due to persistent respiratory failure despite standard treatment of COVID-19 with additional therapies and antimicrobial agents for secondary infections, eventually diagnosed with serum galactomannan testing. Clinical conditions of both patients improved significantly after the administration of voriconazole. This case series emphasizes the importance of being aware of clinical suspicions indicating CAPA followed by galactomannan testing as a relatively fast, noninvasive test for its diagnosis, which leads to appropriate antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology
10.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911435

ABSTRACT

Isavuconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug recently approved as a first-line treatment for invasive aspergillosis and as a first or alternative treatment for mucormycosis. The purpose of this review was to report and discuss the use of isavuconazole for the treatment of COVID-19-associated aspergillosis (CAPA), and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Among all studies which reported treatment of CAPA, approximately 10% of patients were reportedly treated with isavuconazole. Considering 14 identified studies that reported the use of isavuconazole for CAPA, isavuconazole was used in 40% of patients (95 of 235 treated patients), being first-line monotherapy in over half of them. We identified six studies that reported isavuconazole use in CAM, either alone or in combination therapy. Overall, isavuconazole was used as therapy in 13% of treated CAM patients, frequently as combination or sequential therapy. The use of isavuconazole in CAPA and CAM is complicated by the challenge of achieving adequate exposure in COVID-19 patients who are frequently obese and hospitalized in the ICU with concomitant renal replacement therapy (RRT) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The presence of data on high efficacy in the treatment of aspergillosis, lower potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and for subtherapeutic levels, and no risk of QT prolongation compared to other mold-active azoles, better safety profile than voriconazole, and the possibility of using an intravenous formulation in the case of renal failure are the advantages of using isavuconazole in this setting.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884188

ABSTRACT

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most common invasive fungal infection leading to death in severely immuno-compromised patients. The literature reports Aspergillus co-infections in patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). Diagnosing CAPA clinically is complex since the symptoms are non-specific, and performing a bronchoscopy is difficult. Generally, the microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis is based on cultural methods and on searching for the circulating antigens galactomannan and 1,3-ß-D-glucan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (bGM) or serum (sGM). In this study, to verify whether the COVID-19 period has stimulated clinicians to pay greater attention to IPA in patients with respiratory tract infections, we evaluated the number of requests for GM-Ag research and the number of positive tests found during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our data show a significant upward trend in GM-Ag requests and positivity from the pre-COVID to COVID period, which is attributable in particular to the increase in IPA risk factors as a complication of COVID-19. In the COVID period, parallel to the increase in requests, the number of positive tests for GM-Ag also increased, going from 2.5% in the first period of 2020 to 12.3% in the first period of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869515

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a higher incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was observed in patients affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), leading to the delineation of a new entity named COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). A predisposition to invasive infection caused by Aspergillus spp. in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients can be ascribed either to the direct viral-mediated damage of the respiratory epithelium, as already observed in influenza H1N1 virus infections, or to the dysregulated immunity associated with COVID-19. This narrative review focuses on the impact of immune impairment, particularly due to cytokine dysregulation caused by Aspergillus spp. superinfection in COVID-19 for a more in-depth understanding of the molecular pathways implicated in CAPA. As immune competence has proven to be essential in protecting against CAPA onset, a role already threatened by SARS-CoV-2 infection itself, preventive strategies should focus on reducing factors that could further target the host immune system. We also aimed to focus on well-known and less-known risk factors for IPA in COVID-19 patients, related to the main causes of immune suppression, both virus-mediated and iatrogenic, including treatments currently indicated for COVID-19. Lastly, possible preventive strategies aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality due to CAPA could be implemented.

13.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862708

ABSTRACT

Due to multiple risk factors, the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill COVID-19 patients has been reported in a range of 7.6% to 86%. The rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in this cohort has been reported at 4% to 30%. We undertook a retrospective chart review of 276 patients who were admitted to intensive care in a large university hospital. The period studied included patients from 23 February 2014 to 12 May 2021. Four groups were collected: COVID-19 Wave 1, COVID-19 Wave 2, influenza, and community-acquired pneumonia. Clinical characteristics, outcomes, and microbiological cultures were recorded. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in COVID-19 Wave 1, COVID-19 Wave 2, influenza, and community-acquired pneumonia was 5.45%, 27.40%, 16.67%, and 3.41%, respectively (p < 0.001). The rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was 0%, 9.59%, 13.33%, and 6.82%, respectively (p < 0.001). A significantly elevated rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was noted in the second wave of COVID-19 when compared to the first. This was accompanied by an increase in the mortality rate. Increased steroid use was an independent risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis across all four groups. Despite an increased understanding of this disease, no clinical trials have shown any promising therapeutic options at present.

14.
Mycoses ; 65(7): 724-732, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported as an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients with an incidence rate ranging from 5% to 35% during the first and second pandemic waves. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors for CAPA by a screening protocol and outcome in the critically ill patients during the third wave of the pandemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units (ICU) designated for patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary care university hospital between 18 November 2020 and 24 April 2021. SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive adult patients admitted to the ICU with respiratory failure were included in the study. Serum and respiratory samples were collected periodically from ICU admission up to CAPA diagnosis, patient discharge or death. ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria were used to diagnose and classify CAPA cases. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients were admitted to the two ICUs during the study period, and 213 were included in the study. CAPA was diagnosed in 43 (20.1%) patients (12.2% probable, 7.9% possible). In regression analysis, male sex, higher SOFA scores at ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation and longer ICU stay were significantly associated with CAPA development. Overall ICU mortality rate was higher significantly in CAPA group compared to those with no CAPA (67.4% vs 29.4%, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of critically ill patients in COVID-19 ICUs developed CAPA, and this was associated with a high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(4)2022 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792631

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) often develop respiratory fungal infections. The most frequent diseases are the COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), COVID-19 associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) and the Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), the latter mostly found in patients with both COVID-19 and underlying HIV infection. Furthermore, co-infections due to less common mold pathogens have been also described. Respiratory fungal infections in critically ill patients are promoted by multiple risk factors, including epithelial damage caused by COVID-19 infection, mechanical ventilation and immunosuppression, mainly induced by corticosteroids and immunomodulators. In COVID-19 patients, a correct discrimination between fungal colonization and infection is challenging, further hampered by sampling difficulties and by the low reliability of diagnostic approaches, frequently needing an integration of clinical, radiological and microbiological features. Several antifungal drugs are currently available, but the development of new molecules with reduced toxicity, less drug-interactions and potentially active on difficult to treat strains, is highly warranted. Finally, the role of prophylaxis in certain COVID-19 populations is still controversial and must be further investigated.

16.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) incidence varies depending on the country. Serum galactomannan quantification is a promising diagnostic tool since samples are easy to obtain with low biosafety issues. A multicenter prospective study was performed to evaluate the CAPA incidence in Argentina and to assess the performance of the lateral flow assay with digital readout (Sona Aspergillus LFA) as a CAPA diagnostic and screening tool. The correlation between the values obtained with Sona Aspergillus LFA and Platelia® EIA was evaluated. In total, 578 serum samples were obtained from 185 critically ill COVID patients. CAPA screening was done weekly starting from the first week of ICU stay. Probable CAPA incidence in critically ill patients was 10.27% (19/185 patients when LFA was used as mycological criteria) and 9% (9/100 patients when EIA was used as mycological criteria). We found a very good correlation between the two evaluated galactomannan quantification methods (overall agreement of 92.16% with a Kappa statistic value of 0.721). CAPA diagnosis (>0.5 readouts in LFA) were done during the first week of ICU stay in 94.7% of the probable CAPA patients. The overall mortality was 36.21%. CAPA patients' mortality and length of ICU stay were not statistically different from for COVID (non-CAPA) patients (42.11 vs 33.13% and 29 vs 24 days, respectively). These indicators were lower than in other reports. LFA-IMMY with digital readout is a reliable tool for early diagnosis of CAPA using serum samples in critically ill COVID patients. It has a good agreement with Platelia® EIA. LAY SUMMARY: The incidence of COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in critically-ill Argentinian patients was established (10.27%). Serum galactomannan quantification was useful as a screening tool for this mycosis. A good agreement between Platelia® EIA and Sona Aspergillus LFA is reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Argentina/epidemiology , Aspergillus , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Mannans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac081, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778944

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported in ~5%-10% of critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, incidence varies widely (0%-33%) across hospitals, most cases are unproven, and CAPA definitions and clinical relevance are debated. Methods: We reframed the debate by asking, what is the likelihood that patients with CAPA have invasive aspergillosis? We use diagnostic test performance in other clinical settings to estimate positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) of CAPA criteria for invasive aspergillosis in populations with varying CAPA incidence. Results: In a population with CAPA incidence of 10%, anticipated PPV/NPV of diagnostic criteria are ~30%-60%/≥97%; ~3%-5% of tested cohort would be anticipated to have true invasive aspergillosis. If CAPA incidence is 2%-3%, anticipated PPV and NPV are ~8%-30%/>99%. Conclusions: Depending on local epidemiology and clinical details of a given case, PPVs and NPVs may be useful in guiding antifungal therapy. We incorporate this model into a stepwise strategy for diagnosing and managing CAPA.

18.
J Clin Med ; 11(7)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776265

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 belong to a population at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), with a reported incidence of IFIs in critically ill COVID-19 patients ranging between 5% and 26.7%. Common factors in these patients, such as multiple organ failure, immunomodulating/immunocompromising treatments, the longer time on mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, make them vulnerable candidates for fungal infections. In addition to that, SARS-CoV2 itself is associated with significant dysfunction in the patient's immune system involving both innate and acquired immunity, with reduction in both CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts and cytokine storm. The emerging question is whether SARS-CoV-2 inherently predisposes critically ill patients to fungal infections or the immunosuppressive therapy constitutes the igniting factor for invasive mycoses. To approach the dilemma, one must consider the unique pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 with the deranged immune response it provokes, review the well-known effects of immunosuppressants and finally refer to current literature to probe possible causal relationships, synergistic effects or independent risk factors. In this review, we aimed to identify the prevalence, risk factors and mortality associated with IFIs in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19.

19.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(3)2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760690

ABSTRACT

Most cases of invasive aspergillosis are caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, whose conidia are ubiquitous in the environment. Additionally, in indoor environments, such as houses or hospitals, conidia are frequently detected too. Hospital-acquired aspergillosis is usually associated with airborne fungal contamination of the hospital air, especially after building construction events. A. fumigatus strain typing can fulfill many needs both in clinical settings and otherwise. The high incidence of aspergillosis in COVID patients from our hospital, made us wonder if they were hospital-acquired aspergillosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the hospital environment was the source of aspergillosis infection in CAPA patients, admitted to the Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, during the first and second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, or whether it was community-acquired aspergillosis before admission. During 2020, sixty-nine A. fumigatus strains were collected for this study: 59 were clinical isolates from 28 COVID-19 patients, and 10 strains were environmentally isolated from seven hospital rooms and intensive care units. A diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis was based on the ECCM/ISHAM criteria. Strains were genotyped by PCR amplification and sequencing of a panel of four hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESPERG). A total of seven genotypes among the 10 environmental strains and 28 genotypes among the 59 clinical strains were identified. Genotyping revealed that only one environmental A. fumigatus from UCI 5 (box 54) isolated in October (30 October 2020) and one A. fumigatus isolated from a COVID-19 patient admitted in Pneumology (Room 532-B) in November (24 November 2020) had the same genotype, but there was a significant difference in time and location. There was also no relationship in time and location between similar A. fumigatus genotypes of patients. The global A. fumigatus, environmental and clinical isolates, showed a wide diversity of genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first study monitoring and genotyping A. fumigatus isolates obtained from hospital air and COVID-19 patients, admitted with aspergillosis, during one year. Our work shows that patients do not acquire A. fumigatus in the hospital. This proves that COVID-associated aspergillosis in our hospital is not a nosocomial infection, but supports the hypothesis of "community aspergillosis" acquisition outside the hospital, having the home environment (pandemic period at home) as the main suspected focus of infection.

20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
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