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1.
eBioMedicine ; 83:104225, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004030

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Though case fatality rate (CFR) is widely used to reflect COVID-19 fatality risk, its use is limited by large temporal and spatial variation. Hospital mortality rate (HMR) is also used to assess the severity of COVID-19, but HMR data is not directly available globally. Alternative metrics are needed for COVID-19 severity and fatality assessment. Methods We introduce new metrics for COVID-19 fatality risk measurements/monitoring and a new mathematical model to estimate average hospital length of stay for deaths (Ldead) and discharges (Ldis). Multiple data sources were used for our analyses. Findings We propose three, new metrics: hospital occupancy mortality rate (HOMR), ratio of total deaths to hospital occupancy (TDHOR), and ratio of hospital occupancy to cases (HOCR), for dynamic assessment of COVID-19 fatality risk. Estimated Ldead and Ldis for 501,079 COVID-19 hospitalizations in 34 US states between 7 August 2020 and 1 March 2021 were 18·2(95%CI:17·9-18·5) and 14·0(95%CI:13·9-14·0) days, respectively. We found the dramatic changes in COVID-19 CFR observed in 27 countries during early stages of the pandemic were mostly caused by undiagnosed cases. Compared to the first week of November 2021, the week mean HOCRs (mimics hospitalization-to-case ratio) for Omicron variant (58·6% of US new cases as of 25 December 2021) decreased 65·16% in the US as of 16 January 2022. Interpretation The new and reliable measurements described here could be useful for COVID-19 fatality risk and variant-associated risk monitoring. Funding No specific funding was associated with the present study.

2.
J Pharm Sci ; 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937315

ABSTRACT

The term "Medical devices" includes technology-based devices or articles, both basic and complex. Due to these types of variations, a strict, robust, transparent, and sustainable regulatory framework is required. In recent clinical practice, incidents including the breast implant and the hip replacement crisis have made it necessary to improve the regulatory and compliance approaches for the industry to ensure the manufacturing and distribution of safe and innovative MDs within the EU. In response to this, the EU revised the laws governing medical devices and in vitro diagnostics to align with the developments of the sector, address critical safety issues and support innovation. The new regulation (EU) 2017/745 on Medical Devices (MDR) is now applicable from May 26 2021 and the In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Regulation (EU) 2017/746 will take effect from May 2022.In this review, we aim to provide an update on the new Medical Device Regulations in the context of the current medical needs of the world, and also to give a glimpse at the non-EU regulatory landscape. Finally, we take a look at the closed-system transfer devices (CSTD) and COVID facilitated changes promoting demand for continuous improvement and trends in the pharmaceutical and medical industry related areas.

3.
National Journal of Community Medicine ; 13(3):163-170, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1812230

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To statistically compare the trends of epidemiological indicators of COVID-19 in India with Italy, the UK, and the US. Methodology: In this descriptive analysis, epidemiological indicators were calculated and their trends were plotted and compared statistically. Regression analysis was done to predict the fatalities. Results: The trends of total and active cases per million populations are rising in India and US, while Italy has achieved the plateau in the total cases per million populations, and active cases have been sharply declining with time. The UK is about to achieve the same. India has remained far behind the other three countries in the number of tests per million populations (p<0.05). In the initial phase, the test positivity rate of India was quite lower but has overtaken Italy and UK. India has always reported a higher recovery rate than US and lower than Italy. CFRs have achieved a plateau in Italy and UK, in US it is declining, while it remained almost constant in India throughout the pandemic. Testing was a significant covariate in predicting the fatalities. Conclusions: India was able to manage the initial phase of this pandemic due to early and strict government interventions and strong public health responses. @ 2022 The Journal retains the copyrights of this article.

4.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(4): 1314-1321, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776473

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies of pandemics in past centuries have suggested that the second wave was always more lethal and devastating as compared to the first wave. Regarding coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic also, various speculations were made that during the second wave virus changes its nature either for age structure, gender or rural-urban differential. Present study was aimed to compare the demographic and mortality profile of COVID-19 patients during the two waves. Materials and Methods: A total of 51,425 individuals with 16,538 cases from first wave and 34,887 cases from the second wave were included in the study. Frequency, percentage, case fatality rate (CFR) and OR (95% CI) were calculated. Level of significance was considered at 5%. Results: Maximum cases were observed in the age group 21-30 years (23.7%). During the first wave, 29.5% females were infected while during the second wave 38.5% females were infected. Infection in rural areas increased to 5.7% as compared to 4.8% in the first wave. Among the females, CFR increased to 37% in second wave which was 25.2% in the first wave. Disease load was at its peak in the month of April 2021. Conclusion: During the second wave, infection rate and mortality were higher in females and patients residing in rural areas showing extension of community spread. Patients with age above 50 years succumbed more. Occurrence of more than two-fifth of the cases in a single month (April 2021) shows a need for better planning for the supposed third wave to tackle any unwanted situation.

5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(7): 2202-2209, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify studies systematically that describe the incidence and outcome of COVID-19-related pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). METHODS: We searched ScienceDirect, PubMed, CNKI, and MEDLINE (OVID) from December 31, 2019 to November 20, 2021 for all eligible studies. Random-model was used to reported the incidence, all-cause case fatality rate (CFR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021242179). RESULTS: In all, thirty-one cohort studies were included in this study. A total of 3,441 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) were investigated and 442 cases of CAPA were reported (30 studies). The pooled incidence rate of CAPA was 0.14 (95% CI: 0.11-0.17, I2=0.0%). Twenty-eight studies reported 287 deceased patients and 269 surviving patients. The pooled CFR of CAPA was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.47-0.56, I2=3.9%). Interestingly, patients with COVID19 would develop CAPA at 7.28 days after mechanical ventilation (range, 5.48-9.08 days). No significant publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU might develop CAPA and have high all-cause CFR. We recommend conducting prospective screening for CAPA among patients with severe COVID-19, especially for those who receive mechanical ventilation over 7 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology
6.
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures ; 17(4):369-381, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1662450

ABSTRACT

With the onset of March 2020, India has stared witnessing the pandemic caused by COVID-19. However, the effect of this pandemic is not the same across different states of India. In this paper, the authors have carried out detailed analysis to get the complete view of the severity of COVID-19 disease in various states of India and have tried to find out the impact of various preventive measures like lockdown on its containment. The analysis will help various agencies to take appropriate, rigorous, and continuous measures to overcome this great health challenge. Copyright © 2021 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

7.
Cent Eur J Oper Res ; 30(1): 251-302, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653542

ABSTRACT

Emergency services worldwide face increasing cost pressure that potentially limits their existing resources. In many countries, emergency services also face the issues of staff shortage-creating extra challenges and constraints, especially during crisis times such as the COVID-19 pandemic-as well as long distances to sparsely populated areas resulting in longer response times. To overcome these issues and potentially reduce consequences of daily (medical) emergencies, several countries, such as Sweden, Germany, and the Netherlands, have started initiatives using new types of human resources as well as equipment, which have not been part of the existing emergency systems before. These resources are employed in response to medical emergency cases if they can arrive earlier than emergency medical services (EMS). A good number of studies have investigated the use of these new types of resources in EMS systems, from medical, technical, and logistical perspectives as their study domains. Several review papers in the literature exist that focus on one or several of these new types of resources. However, to the best of our knowledge, no review paper that comprehensively considers all new types of resources in emergency medical response systems exists. We try to fill this gap by presenting a broad literature review of the studies focused on the different new types of resources, which are used prior to the arrival of EMS. Our objective is to present an application-based and methodological overview of these papers, to provide insights to this important field and to bring it to the attention of researchers as well as emergency managers and administrators.

8.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13: 100960, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588157

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic that initiated in Wuhan, China, has been an international public health emergency since January 2020. India has been battling a brutal COVID-19's second wave since April 2021. The healthcare system was struggling with a substantial increase in COVID-19 cases when the lack of necessary resources further aroused a major setback. Opportunistic fungal infections, specifically mucormycosis and candidiasis have become a pressing matter of concern. Recent cases of aspergillosis have also heightened public alarm. Hence, call for an immediate response to this public health crisis is the need of the hour by establishing countrywide surveillance, diagnostic, and management system, as well as public awareness to alleviate the burden of COVID-19 and fungal infections in India.

9.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13: 100920, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560163

ABSTRACT

In August 2021, the Marburg virus disease (MVD) outbreak was confirmed amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Republic of Guinea. This is the first time it is detected in Guinea and West Africa. Marburg virus is one of the world's most threatening diseases, causing severe haemorrhagic fever, with a case fatality rate of 90%. Currently, there are no vaccines and specific antiviral drugs for MVD. Technical teams and community health care workers that were set up as part of the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak that was declared over on June 19, 2021, are now redeployed to support governments response activities of the MVD outbreak in the country. The MVD is an added burden to the fragile healthcare systems that are already overburdened with multiple reoccurring epidemics and the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous epidermic strategies are needed to contain the spread of the disease, amid the COVID-19 pandemic, so the health care systems are not overwhelmed. This commentary discusses the available evidence regarding the epidemic of MVD in Guinea amid the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlights the efforts, challenges to be prioritized, and provides evidence-based recommendations.

10.
Curr Health Sci J ; 47(2): 270-274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects a person's respiratory system and leads to the spread of pathogenicity in the person and therefore this study evaluated the Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and Basic Reproductive Rate (R-naught) of COVID-19. METHOD: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on all people with COVID-19 from the first date of admission of positive PCR patients with SARS-CoV-2 until September 21, 2020, in the area of Markazi Province in Khomein, Iran. Information on the records of definitively discharged and deceased patients due to COVID-19 (having positive PCR) was extracted from 20/2/2020 to 21/9/2020, and Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and Basic Reproductive Rate (R-naught) of COVID-19 were evaluated. The sample size was 691 people. RESULTS: The CFR of the COVID-19 in the current study is 6.65%, and the rate of disease transmission among the sensitive population of Khomein city at the beginning of the study (March) averaged BASIC REPRODUCTIVE RATE= 1.75, and in the last month (September) of the study This value was reduced to BASIC REPRODUCTIVE RATE= 1.306. CONCLUSION: According to our study on Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and Basic Reproductive Rate (R-naught) of COVID-19, showed that the prevalence of the disease was high in March, which due to lack of proper observance of health protocols, we saw this problem and in the months when people have more problems. Hygiene was reduced, and the rate of transmission and mortality was reduced.

11.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 12(1): 27-29, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499589

ABSTRACT

Malaria has become a serious public health concern in Burundi. An outbreak that has the potential to evolve into an epidemic has eradicated nearly as many individuals as the Ebola crisis within the adjacent Democratic Republic of the Congo. The government's delay to announce a national crisis, increased breeding sites as a result of flooding, and the presence of multi-drug resistant malaria have exacerbated the burden. With a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic, economic complications, and overlap of symptoms between both diseases, these challenges are complex, but not unfamiliar. Organizations such as Médecins Sans Frontières have carried out spraying campaigns, and the government is actively mitigating efforts to handle the pandemic. That being said, there is still a need to enhance preventive measures such as increasing technological capacity and epidemiological surveillance to better withstand challenges.

12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1263-1272, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478141

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Factors such as comorbidity, age and gender distribution are mostly related to hospitalization, numbers requiring intensive care and case fatality rate. In this review, the fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in different population health background according to comorbidity, age, gender distribution, and laboratory prognosis for COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: The current review was based on the data from copious studies that had homogeneity in relation to the review's objectives. It included the newest studies from December 2019 to September 2020. The epidemiological reasons for the high morbidity and mortality rates among COVID-19 patients were analyzed in different countries. RESULTS: The highest comorbidity prevalence of COVID-19 was recorded in the United States of America (USA) (93.9%) and Italy (68%). Among population health background factors, comorbidity was the most common cause of COVID-19 fatality in the USA. The mean age of the most COVID-19 fatalities was more than 60 years old. Most of the studies show that 60% of COVID-19 patients were male. The fatality rates for the age group of 80-89 years-old in Korea, China, and Italy were 8.7 %, 14.7 %, and 18.8 % respectively. Lymphocytopenia has been observed in 91% of COVID-19 death cases. C - reactive protein had increased in 40-60% of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Many factors contribute to COVID-19 severity and fatality rates. Comorbidity, age, and gender were the main reasons for the Case Fatality Rate. This review recommends to follow preventive measures for overcoming the challenges faced during this emerging pandemic disease.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphopenia , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 755047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470775

ABSTRACT

This paper analyses the stochastic dynamics of the COVID-19 Case-Fatality Ratios (CFR) in three developing economies in East Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The sample covers the daily frequency data from April 28, 2020, to June 29, 2021. For this purpose, we utilize two unit root tests, which consider one structural break and two structural breaks. The findings reveal that the CFR follows a unit root process in Indonesia and the Philippines. However, the CFR is stationary in Malaysia. This evidence indicates that the COVID-19 has a permanent effect in Indonesia and the Philippines but temporary in Malaysia. The paper also discusses the potential economic implications of these results for the post-COVID-19 era in the related developing economies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , Indonesia , Malaysia/epidemiology , Philippines , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5977-5987, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432436

ABSTRACT

Accurate and comprehensive testing is crucial for practitioners to portray the pandemic. Without testing there is no data; yet, the exact number of infected people cannot be determined due to the lack of comprehensive testing. The number of seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 infection is obviously relative to the extent of testing. However, the true number of infections might be still far higher than the reported values. To compare the countries based on the number of seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 infection is misleading, as there may not be enough tests being carried out to properly monitor the outbreak. In this paper, we closely look through the COVID-19 testing results. Herein, we try to draw conclusions based on the reported data: first, the presence of a possible relationship between COVID-19 transition and patients' age will be assessed. Then, the COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR) is compared with the age-demographic data for different countries. Based on the results, a method for estimating a lower bound (minimum) for the number of actual positive cases will be developed and validated. Results of this study have shown that CFR is a metric reflecting the spread of the virus, but is a factor of the extent of testing and does not necessarily show the real size of the outbreak. Moreover, no large difference in susceptibility by age has been found. The results suggest the similarity between the age distribution of COVID-19 and the population age-demographic is improving over the course of the pandemic. In addition, countries with lower CFRs have a more similar COVID-19 age distribution, which is a result of more comprehensive testing. Finally, a method for estimation of the real number of infected people based on the age distributions, reported CFRs, and the extent of testing will be developed and validated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E261-E269, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19-related deaths are growing rapidly around the world, especially in Europe and the United States. PURPOSE: In this study we attempt to measure the association of these variables with case fatality rate (CFR) and recovery rate (RR) using up-to-date data from around the world. METHODS: Data were collected from eight global databases. According to the raw data of countries, the CFR and RR and their relationship with different predictors was compared for countries with 1,000 or more cases of COVID-19 confirmed cases. RESULTS: There were no significant correlation between the CFR and number of hospital beds per 1,000 people, proportion of population aged 65 and older ages, and the number of computed tomography per one million inhabitants. Furthermore, based on the continents-based subgroup univariate regression analysis, the population (R2 = 0.37, P = 0.047), GPD (R2 = 0.80, P < 0.001), number of ICU Beds per 100,000 people (R2 = 0.93, P = 0.04), and number of CT per one million inhabitants (R2 = 0.78, P = 0.04) were significantly correlated with CFR in America. Moreover, the income-based subgroups analysis showed that the gross domestic product (R2 = 0.30, P = 0.001), number of ICU Beds per 100,000 people (R2 = 0.23, P = 0.008), and the number of ventilator (R2 = 0.46, P = 0.01) had significant correlation with CFR in high-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: The level of country's preparedness, testing capacity, and health care system capacities also are among the important predictors of both COVID-19 associated mortality and recovery. Thus, providing up-to-date information on the main predictors of COVID-19 associated mortality and recovery will hopefully improve various countries hospital resource allocation, testing capacities, and level of preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Hospital Bed Capacity , Pandemics , Resource Allocation , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Child Youth Serv Rev ; 128: 105962, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (2019-nCoV) outbreak, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst serious global risk to humanity in the last century and linked with various risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To find out the risk zone associated with Coronavirus disease among children under-five age using malnourished status, pre-existing morbidity conditions, poor household environmental conditions, and also with case fatality rate (CFR) and active case rate (ACR) of COVID-19 in India. DATA SOURCES & METHODS: Data was collected from the 4th round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4, 2015-16, and CFR and ACR of COVID-19 related data collected from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) on 18th May 2020. Mean, standard deviation, and Z-score statistical methods have been employed to identify the risk factors zone and Hot Spot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi) has been done. RESULTS: The states and union territories (UTs) which have a high composite vulnerability score (CVS) of COVID-19 among under-five children are in Meghalaya (CVS = 1), Uttar Pradesh (CVS = 0.93), Jharkhand (CVS = 0.86), Bihar (CVS = 0.74), Madhya Pradesh (CVS = 0.74), and Odisha (CVS = 0.55). The states and UTs which have low composite vulnerability score of COVID-19 among under-five children are in Sikkim (CVS = -0.90), Daman & Diu (CVS = -0.76) Lakshadweep (CVS = -0.74), Kerala (CVS = -0.72), Chandigarh (CVS = -0.71). The COVID-19 high-risk zones (hot spot: 99% Confidence interval [CI]) were observed in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar, and Meghalaya states of India, which are spatially high clustered and the low-risk zones (cold spot: 95% CI) were observed in Kerala, Mizoram states of India. CONCLUSIONS: Well-built public health measures, including rapidly searching in high focus areas and testing of COVID-19, should be performed in vulnerable regions of COVID-19.

17.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the case-fatality rate (CFR) of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and its associated determinants in order to understand the true magnitude of the problem during the ongoing conflict in Yemen. METHODS: The CFR among the confirmed Covid-19 cases in Yemen was calculated. The data was retrieved from national Covid-19 surveillance between April 10, when the first COVID-19 case reported, and May 31, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 419 confirmed Covid-19 cases were reported. There were 14.1% and 5.7% of cases who required intensive care and mechanical ventilators, respectively. Out of the total cases, 95 deaths were reported, giving a CFR of 22.6% which is much higher compared to other countries. CFR was significantly higher among elderly people compared to young adults and varied between governorates. Mortality was associated with pre-existing hypertension (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.58, 3.54) and diabetes (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.61). CONCLUSIONS: The elderly and those with comorbidities, in particular hypertension and diabetes, have higher risk for poor outcomes and therefore should receive more attention in the clinical setting. Preventive measures should also be prioritized to protect those groups in order to reduce the severe cases and deaths-associated COVID-19 in armed-conflict.

18.
Germs ; 11(2): 255-265, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To date, the total number of COVID-19 deaths is still increasing, including in Central Java, with the third-highest total number of deaths in Indonesia. There are still limited studies related to the cases of COVID-19. Thus, this study's objective was to provide an overview of the characteristics of 4359 COVID-19 death cases in Central Java. METHODS: This research used a cross-sectional descriptive design with univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis involving secondary data acquired from a report by the Provincial Health Office of Central Java, recorded up to 13 December 2020. RESULTS: The results showed that the highest frequencies of death cases were contributed from ≥60 years group (n=1897 patients; 43.52%) and the male (n=2497 patients; 57.28%) group. The case fatality rate (CFR) rose with age, and the highest CFR was recorded in the elderly (17.95%), males (7.60%), in Pati District (17.45%), while entrepreneur (14.64%) was the highest reported job. Furthermore, the eldest group (≥60 years) and males were more susceptible to die, with ORs 5.49 (95%CI: 5.15-5.86) and 1.61 (95%CI: 1.51-1.71), sequentially. The majority of death cases had comorbidities (65.79%), while the most prevalent reported comorbidities were diabetes (n=1387, 31.82%) and hypertension (n=817, 18.74%). Meanwhile, patients of old age were more likely to associate comorbidity, p<0.001, OR 1.664 (95%CI: 1.425-1.944). CONCLUSIONS: This study concludes that patients of older age and males may become more vulnerable than younger and females to experience death. Further study is required to measure the relationship between other characteristics of demographics, underlying medical conditions, and fatality.

19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(5): 618-624, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262625

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study was planned to assess the trends of epidemiological indicators and demographic determinants related to the COVID-19 in India. METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive analysis of the COVID-19 cases and their outcomes between 1st March to 31st May 2020 in India. Unpaired t-test and ANOVA were used to determine the statistical differences. Linear regression models were prepared to estimate the effect of testing on the fatalities. The Infection Fatality Rate (IFR)/Case Fatality Rate (CFR), doubling time, and Basic Reproduction Number (R0) per week were calculated. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the cases were between 21-50 years of age, while three-fourth of deaths were among people above 50-years of age. The mean age of people infected with COVID-19 was declining throughout the study period. The mean age of infected males and females was significantly different. The male-female ratio of both infection and deaths due to COVID-19 was near about 2:1. IFR/CFR was 3.31 (95% CI = 3.13-3.50) in April, which reduced to 2.84 (95% CI = 2.77-2.92) in May. An incremental trend was observed in the recovery rates (9.42% to 48.18%), tests conducted / million population (12 / million to 2708 / million) and doubling time (3.59 to 17.71 days). The number of tests was significantly influencing the fatalities (ß = 0.016, 95% CI = 0.012-0.020). The overall R0 was found to be 1.72. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions were likely effective in containing the spread of COVID-19. There is a need to further improve the testing capacity. The high-risk category of individuals being prioritized for hospital admission should be redefined to include individuals older than 50 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256537

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 emerged as a global pandemic in the spring of 2020. Since that time, the disease has resulted in approximately 150 million cases and 3 million deaths worldwide. However, there is significant spatial variation in the rate of mortality from COVID-19. Here, we briefly explore spatial variations in COVID-19 mortality by country groupings and propose possible explanations for the differences observed. Specifically, we find that there is a statistically significant difference in COVID-19 mortality between countries grouped into categories based on (1) developed, primarily western diets and healthcare systems; (2) "Scandinavian" countries with advanced healthcare systems and generally anti-inflammatory diets, and (3) developing countries. We do not infer causality but believe that the observed associations provide hypotheses for future research investigations. Moreover, our results add further evidence to support additional exploration of vitamin D exposure/status and COVID-19 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Scandinavian and Nordic Countries , Vitamin D
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