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1.
Kidney360 ; 2(7): 1107-1114, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776887

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with CKD ha ve impaired immunity, increased risk of infection-related mortality, and worsened COVID-19 outcomes. However, data comparing nondialysis CKD and ESKD are sparse. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to three hospitals in the New York area, between March 2 and August 27, 2020, were retrospectively studied using electronic health records. Patients were classified as those without CKD, those with nondialysis CKD, and those with ESKD, with outcomes including hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mortality rates. Results: Of 3905 patients, 588 (15%) had nondialysis CKD and 128 (3%) had ESKD. The nondialysis CKD and ESKD groups had a greater prevalence of comorbidities and higher admission D-dimer levels, whereas patients with ESKD had lower C-reactive protein levels at admission. ICU admission rates were similar across all three groups (23%-25%). The overall, unadjusted hospital mortality was 25%, and the mortality was 24% for those without CKD, 34% for those with nondialysis CKD, and 27% for those with ESKD. Among patients in the ICU, mortality was 56%, 64%, and 56%, respectively. Although patients with nondialysis CKD had higher odds of overall mortality versus those without CKD in univariate analysis (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.91), this was no longer significant in fully adjusted models (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.40). Also, ESKD status did not associate with a higher risk of mortality compared with non-CKD in adjusted analyses, but did have reduced mortality when compared with nondialysis CKD (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.95). Mortality rates declined precipitously after the first 2 months of the pandemic, from 26% to 14%, which was reflected in all three subgroups. Conclusions: In a diverse cohort of patients with COVID-19, we observed higher crude mortality rates for patients with nondialysis CKD and, to a lesser extent, ESKD, which were not significant after risk adjustment. Moreover, patients with ESKD appear to have better outcom es than those with nondialysis CKD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Kidney360 ; 3(2): 242-257, 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776868

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe AKI is strongly associated with poor outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data on renal recovery are lacking. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed these associations in 3299 hospitalized patients (1338 with COVID-19 and 1961 with acute respiratory illness but who tested negative for COVID-19). Uni- and multivariable analyses were used to study mortality and recovery after Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Stages 2 and 3 AKI (AKI-2/3), and Machine Learning was used to predict AKI and recovery using admission data. Long-term renal function and other outcomes were studied in a subgroup of AKI-2/3 survivors. Results: Among the 172 COVID-19-negative patients with AKI-2/3, 74% had partial and 44% complete renal recovery, whereas 12% died. Among 255 COVID-19 positive patients with AKI-2/3, lower recovery and higher mortality were noted (51% partial renal recovery, 25% complete renal recovery, 24% died). On multivariable analysis, intensive care unit admission and acute respiratory distress syndrome were associated with nonrecovery, and recovery was significantly associated with survival in COVID-19-positive patients. With Machine Learning, we were able to predict recovery from COVID-19-associated AKI-2/3 with an average precision of 0.62, and the strongest predictors of recovery were initial arterial partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, serum creatinine, potassium, lymphocyte count, and creatine phosphokinase. At 12-month follow-up, among 52 survivors with AKI-2/3, 26% COVID-19-positive and 24% COVID-19-negative patients had incident or progressive CKD. Conclusions: Recovery from COVID-19-associated moderate/severe AKI can be predicted using admission data and is associated with severity of respiratory disease and in-hospital death. The risk of CKD might be similar between COVID-19-positive and -negative patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(2): 751-757, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776490

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has emerged as the most challenging global health problem of this century. The concomitant presence of co-morbidities like chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, CHD, further complicates the problem. Aim: To assess the patterns of LFT abnormalities in patients of SARS-CoV-2 infection with and without CKD and evaluate the probable outcomes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective observational study done on 600 patient samples (Group 1: SARS-CoV-2 without CKD, Group 2: SARS-CoV-2 with CKD and Group 3: CKD uninfected with SARS-CoV-2) which were processed for LFT and KFT. Results: AST and ALT were significantly higher in all SARS-CoV-2 infected; Group 1 mean ± 2SD, (63.63 ± 42.89U/L & 50.25 ± 46.53U/L), group 2 (90.59 ± 62.51U/L & 72.09 ± 67.24 U/L) as compared to Group 3 (25.24 ± 7.47U/L & 24.93 ± 11.44U/L). A statistically significant elevation is seen in these two parameters in Group 2 as compared to Group 1. There was a negative significant correlation between eGFR and AST/ALT levels in Group 1 (p < 0.05). In Group 2, a weak positive correlation was seen with ALT. Group 3, eGFR's showed strong correlations with AST and ALT levels; reduction in kidney function correlated well with increase in serum ALP levels. Conclusions: This study establishes that SARS-CoV-2 infected, with CKD, show higher elevations in serum aminotransferase levels in comparison to those without CKD. In contrast, the CKD group not infected, shows a decline in serum aminotransferase levels. Serum ALT values in SARS-CoV-2 show significant correlation with eGFR. Also, elevated ALP values in CKD patients may be used as an indicator of declining kidney function.

4.
Transplantation Proceedings ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1747531

ABSTRACT

Introduction : COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated excellent short-term safety in phase 3 trials. However, no kidney transplant recipients (KTR) were included. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and tolerability of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in KTR. Materials and methods : A longitudinal controlled study was conducted in 300 KTR and 143 control patients (CRL) without chronic kidney disease who had received two-dose vaccinations with the mRNA vaccine. Solicited local and systemic reactogenicity, unsolicited adverse events (AE) were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. The toxicity grading scales were derived from the FDA guidelines. Results : KTR (62.7% men) with a median (IQR) age of 53 (41-63) and transplant vintage of 7.25 (3-13) years did not differ with respect to age and sex distribution from CRL. 100% CRL and 83.3% KTR were vaccinated with BNT162b2 (BionTech/Pfizer);16.7% KTR received mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. Any local reactions were present in 84.7% (1st) and 65.3% (2nd) KTR vs. 67.1% and 60.1% CRL within seven days after the vaccination. Any systemic reactions were reported by 26.7% (1st) and 20.9% (2nd) KTR vs. 24.7 and 35.7% CRL. The most common systemic reactions in KTR were: fatigue, headache and myalgia. No serious AE were observed. Many systemic reactions were observed less frequently in KTR than CRL. Younger KTR (<54 years) reported any local and any systemic reactions significantly more frequently than older patients. Conclusions : mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are safe and well-tolerated by KTR. The results may resolve patients' doubts and reduce their vaccine hesitancy.

5.
Cureus ; 14(2): e22393, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744646

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is the leading risk factor for disability and death globally. This is attributed to two major complications of hypertension, cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and ischemic heart disease. This update provides a concise overview of several timely hypertension topics. These topics were chosen based on recent significant advances in the field. Examples include the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the landmark Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), management of resistant hypertension, and primary aldosteronism. The articles reviewed also include other recent landmark clinical trials, prior clinical trials of great significance, and medical societies guidelines. Ten topics were chosen based on their relevance to the practicing clinician. Each topic is discussed in a condensed manner highlighting recent advances in the field of hypertension.

6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is well documented as a crucial element that impairs health. Depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which on behalf of a patient's overall perception of emotional, physical and social well-being, are increasingly emphasized self-reported health outcomes especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Among dialysis patients, sleep disturbance is associated with depression and poorer HRQOL. The study was designed to depict the prevalence of sleep disturbance, and to explore the association among sleep, depression, and HRQOL in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 172 non-dialysis CKD patients enrolled in this cross-sectional study, with sociodemographic and clinical data recorded. Sleep, HRQOL, and depression were evaluated via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Kidney Disease Quality of Life 36-Item Short-Form Survey (KDQOL-36), and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. RESULTS: A total of 100 (58%) met the criteria for poor sleep. Good sleepers had strikingly disparate HRQOL and depression scores compared to poor sleepers. Sleep disorders were significantly associated with decreased HRQOL and increased depression in regression models adjusted or unadjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Mediation analysis indicated depression was a significant mediator explaining 51% of the relationship between sleep status with physical component summary (PCS) and played a fully mediating role in the association between sleep and mental component summary (MCS). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested the high incidence of sleep disorders in patients with non-dialysis CKD during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the tight associations among sleep, depression, and HRQOL. Considering the negative influences of sleep and depression on HRQOL, appropriate screening and treatment for these treatable health-related domains are necessary for patients with non-dialysis CKD.

7.
Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis ; 15: 77-83, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736605

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the incidence, mortality, stage, and recovery of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients and further analyze the effect of patient demographics and comorbidities on AKI incidence. Study Design: Our study looked at 1545 charts of patients over 18 years old who presented to BronxCare Hospital in NY with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Using the KDIGO criteria, any patient presenting with a creatinine of 1.5 times the baseline or that had an increase in creatinine of 0.3mg/dL in 48 hours was diagnosed with AKI. Pregnant patients, patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and patients with a history of renal transplant were excluded. Results: The incidence of AKI in COVID-19 patients was 39% (608), and the mortality rate was 58.2% (354). Of the 254 survivors, 74.8% recovered. Moreover, 42.6% (259) of patients with AKI were admitted to the ICU. Twenty-six of our patients received hemodialysis during admission. There was a statistically significant association between AKI and age, race, hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), hepatitis C (HCV), congestive heart failure (CHF), CKD, patient outcome, and days spent in the hospital. Of the 608 patients with AKI, 294 (48.4%), 185 (30.4%) and 129 (21.2%) had AKI stage 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Conclusion: Early resource planning is necessary when admitting COVID-19 patients. Nephrology should be consulted early, and measures should be in place to optimize outpatient follow-up in the nephrology clinic. Lastly, the use of nephrotoxic agents should be carefully considered and, if possible, avoided from the time of admission in patients with COVID-19.

8.
Endocr Pract ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has demonstrated benefits in managing inpatient diabetes. We initiated this single-arm pilot feasibility study during the COVID-19 pandemic in 11 patients to determine the feasibility and accuracy of real-time CGM in cardiac surgery patients with diabetes after their transition of care from the intensive care unit(ICU). METHODS: Clarke Error Grid(CEG) analysis was used to compare CGM and point-of-care(POC) measurements. Mean absolute relative difference(MARD) of the paired measurements was calculated to assess the accuracy of the CGM for glucose measurements during the first 24 hours on CGM, the remainder of time on the CGM as well as for different chronic kidney disease(CKD) strata. RESULTS: Overall MARD between POC and CGM measurements was 14.80%. MARD for patients without CKD IV and V with eGFR < 20 ml/min/1.73m2 was 12.13%. Overall, 97% of the CGM values were within the no-risk zone of the CEG analysis. For the first 24 hours, a sensitivity analysis of the overall MARD for all subjects and for those with eGFR > 20 ml/min/1.73m2 was 15.42% (+/- 14.44) and 12.80% (+/- 7.85) respectively. Beyond the first 24 hours, overall MARD for all subjects and for those with eGFR > 20 ml/min/1.73m2 was 14.54% (+/- 13.21) and 11.86% (+/- 7.64) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CGM has great promise to optimize inpatient diabetes management in the noncritical care setting and after the transition of care from the ICU with high clinical reliability, and accuracy. More studies are needed to further assess CGM in patients with advanced CKD.

9.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(2): e05467, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712049

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir was the first antiviral agent to receive FDA authorization for severe COVID-19 management, which restricts its use with severe renal impairment due to concerns that active metabolites might accumulate, causing renal toxicities. With limited treatment options, available evidence on such patient groups is important to assess for future safety.

10.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676863

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has emerged as a deadly pandemic affecting countries all over the world. Here we share our experience of managing adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and concomitant COVID-19 infection jointly managed by pediatric and adult nephrology teams. Methods: This retrospective study was done on patient admissions (>18 years) between 20th June- 30th October 2020 with previously diagnosed CKD and hospitalised with COVID-19 infection. The demographic details, underlying comorbidities, clinical presentation, medications, laboratory, radiological profile and outcomes were studied. Results: A total of 213 adults (62% males) with CKD were admitted during this period with a median (IQR) age of 52 (42, 60) years; 75 (35.2%) had associated diabetes mellitus, 83.1% hypertension, 5.2% hypothyroidism and 7% coronary artery disease. 165 (77.5%) were on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD), and 72.8% had arteriovenous fistula as vascular access at presentation. Most (84.5%) patients were symptomatic for COVID-19, and about 2/3 diarrhoea had moderate to severe disease. Oxygen therapy was needed in 62.9%, and medications used were hydroxychloroquine in 84.5%, azithromycin in 21.6%, ivermectin in 82.6%, steroids in 63.8% and Low molecular weight heparin in 59.2%. A further comparison of patients with CKD5D and CKDND revealed similar parameters except for a higher incidence of diarrhoea, acute kidney injury (AKI) and a shorter period to RTPCR negativity (12.5 vs 15 days; P = 0.038) in CKDND. The overall mortality was 24.4%, with similar mortality rates in both groups (P = 0.709) and 20.7% needed ICU transfer. Conclusions: Adults with CKD especially on haemodialysis, are prone to more severe COVID-19 infection and take a longer time for viral clearance (>2 weeks); the mortality too is higher in these patients.

11.
J Nephrol ; 35(1): 69-85, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has resulted in the death of more than 3.5 million people worldwide. While COVID-19 mostly affects the lungs, different comorbidities can have an impact on its outcomes. We performed an overview of reviews to assess the effect of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) on contracting COVID-19, hospitalization, mortality, and disease severity. METHODS: We searched published and preprint databases. We updated the reviews by searching for primary studies published after August 2020, and prioritized reviews that are most updated and of higher quality using the AMSTAR tool. RESULTS: We included 69 systematic reviews and 66 primary studies. Twenty-eight reviews reported on the prevalence of CKD among patients with COVID-19, which ranged from 0.4 to 49.0%. One systematic review showed an increased risk of hospitalization in patients with CKD and COVID-19 (RR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.03-2.58) (Moderate certainty). Primary studies also showed a statistically significant increase of hospitalization in such patients. Thirty-seven systematic reviews assessed mortality risk in patients with CKD and COVID-19. The pooled estimates from primary studies for mortality in patients with CKD and COVID-19 showed a HR of 1.48 (95% CI 1.33-1.65) (Moderate certainty), an OR of 1.77 (95% CI 1.54-2.02) (Moderate certainty) and a RR of 1.6 (95% CI 0.88-2.92) (Low certainty). CONCLUSIONS: Our review highlights the impact of CKD on the poor outcomes of COVID-19, underscoring the importance of identifying strategies to prevent COVID-19 infection among patients with CKD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cause of Death , Hospitalization , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
12.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(242): 1000-1003, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614542

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic Kidney Disease is an independent risk factor for pneumonia. The risk of hospitalization, Intensive Care Unit and ventilator requirement, in-hospital death is high in pneumonia patients with chronic kidney disease. This study aims to find the prevalence of pneumonia in patients with chronic kidney disease admitted to nephrology department of a tertiary care center. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all the hospital records of pneumonia patients with Chronic Kidney Disease admitted to the Nephrology department between April 2019 and April 2021. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee of same institute (Reference number: 0505202106). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 was used for analysis. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. RESULTS: Of the total 407 patients with Chronic Kidney Disease, 78 (19.1%) (95% Confidence Interval= 15.28-22.92) had pneumonia. Among the 78 pneumonia patients, 17 (21.8%) were Stage 3, 13 (16.7%) Stage 4 and 48 (61.5%) Stage 5 of chronic kidney disease. Forty Seven (60.3%) required Intensive Care Unit (ICU), 19 (24.4%) required ventilator and 22 (28.2%) of the patient expired in hospital. The most commonly isolated organisms were Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 which was 13 (16.6%) followed by Strepotococcus pneumoniae which was 8 (10.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of pneumonia in Chronic Kidney Disease was observed higher in our study compared to other studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nephrology , Pneumonia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Indian J Nephrol ; 31(6): 524-530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575264

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a novel acute infection that is mainly manifested as acute respiratory disease. Information on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in CKD patients who are not on dialysis is very limited. We are reporting a single-center observational study on the effect of COVID-19 in CKD patients. Methods: A single-center retrospective study with consecutive patients who had eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD-EPI) admitted with COVID-19, from April to July 2020 were included. Result: A total of 30 patients were included in the study. Patients of CKD stage 5, 4 and 3 were 50%, 13.3%, and 36.6%, respectively. The mortality rate was 53.3%. Category wise, 9 were in mild; 3 in moderate, and 18 were in the severe COVID category. Twenty-five patients (83.3%) developed acute on CKD. Twenty patients (67%) required renal replacement therapy (RRT). The prognosis of patients who required RRT was poor. High LDH and IL-6 were significantly associated with mortality. Lymphopenia, present in 50% of cases was associated with fatal outcome. There was a 100% survival rate in mild to moderate cases and 11% in severe cases. Conclusion: Mortality among hospitalized CKD patients is high.

14.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 79(2): 257-267.e1, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575031

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated with poor outcomes. Urinary biomarkers have been associated with adverse kidney outcomes in other settings and may provide additional prognostic information in patients with COVID-19. We investigated the association between urinary biomarkers and adverse kidney outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (n=153) at 2 academic medical centers between April and June 2020. EXPOSURE: 19 urinary biomarkers of injury, inflammation, and repair. OUTCOME: Composite of KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) stage 3 AKI, requirement for dialysis, or death within 60 days of hospital admission. We also compared various kidney biomarker levels in the setting of COVID-19 versus other common AKI settings. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression to associate biomarker level with composite outcome. RESULTS: Out of 153 patients, 24 (15.7%) experienced the primary outcome. Twofold higher levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) (HR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.14-1.57]), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) (HR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.09-1.84]), and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.38-2.99]) were associated with highest risk of sustaining primary composite outcome. Higher epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels were associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome (HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.47-0.79]). Individual biomarkers provided moderate discrimination and biomarker combinations improved discrimination for the primary outcome. The degree of kidney injury by biomarker level in COVID-19 was comparable to other settings of clinical AKI. There was evidence of subclinical AKI in COVID-19 patients based on elevated injury biomarker level in patients without clinical AKI defined by serum creatinine. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size with low number of composite outcome events. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary biomarkers are associated with adverse kidney outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and may provide valuable information to monitor kidney disease progression and recovery.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Biomarkers , Creatinine , Humans , Lipocalin-2 , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 79(3): 404-416.e1, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550368

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury treated with kidney replacement therapy (AKI-KRT) occurs frequently in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examined the clinical factors that determine kidney recovery in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 4,221 adults not receiving KRT who were admitted to intensive care units at 68 US hospitals with COVID-19 from March 1 to June 22, 2020 (the "ICU cohort"). Among these, 876 developed AKI-KRT after admission to the ICU (the "AKI-KRT subcohort"). EXPOSURE: The ICU cohort was analyzed using AKI severity as the exposure. For the AKI-KRT subcohort, exposures included demographics, comorbidities, initial mode of KRT, and markers of illness severity at the time of KRT initiation. OUTCOME: The outcome for the ICU cohort was estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at hospital discharge. A 3-level outcome (death, kidney nonrecovery, and kidney recovery at discharge) was analyzed for the AKI-KRT subcohort. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: The ICU cohort was characterized using descriptive analyses. The AKI-KRT subcohort was characterized with both descriptive analyses and multinomial logistic regression to assess factors associated with kidney nonrecovery while accounting for death. RESULTS: Among a total of 4,221 patients in the ICU cohort, 2,361 (56%) developed AKI, including 876 (21%) who received KRT. More severe AKI was associated with higher mortality. Among survivors, more severe AKI was associated with an increased rate of kidney nonrecovery and lower kidney function at discharge. Among the 876 patients with AKI-KRT, 588 (67%) died, 95 (11%) had kidney nonrecovery, and 193 (22%) had kidney recovery by the time of discharge. The odds of kidney nonrecovery was greater for lower baseline eGFR, with ORs of 2.09 (95% CI, 1.09-4.04), 4.27 (95% CI, 1.99-9.17), and 8.69 (95% CI, 3.07-24.55) for baseline eGFR 31-60, 16-30, ≤15 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively, compared with eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Oliguria at the time of KRT initiation was also associated with nonrecovery (ORs of 2.10 [95% CI, 1.14-3.88] and 4.02 [95% CI, 1.72-9.39] for patients with 50-499 and <50 mL/d of urine, respectively, compared to ≥500 mL/d of urine). LIMITATIONS: Later recovery events may not have been captured due to lack of postdischarge follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Lower baseline eGFR and reduced urine output at the time of KRT initiation are each strongly and independently associated with kidney nonrecovery among critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aftercare , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney , Patient Discharge , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 72: 103088, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520678

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two conditions that can coexist in obese individuals. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, are used to control obesity. Complications such as steatorrhea, hyperoxaluria, and decreased bone mineral density, may occur after RYGB. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old woman referred to the emergency department complaining of pain on the right side of her lower abdomen. Her past medical history was RYGB surgery, COVID-19 with 40% pulmonary involvement, and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Rapid progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) was predicted based on extensive laboratory test results. A kidney biopsy demonstrated oxalate nephropathy. Along with the findings from the kidney biopsy, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with tubular injury secondary oxalosis was diagnosed. CLINICAL DISCUSSION: RYGB surgery and chronic kidney disease, can increase the risk of secondary oxalosis. Recent studies introduce enteric hyperoxaluria as an important marker for diagnosing end-stage kidney disease. Renal biopsy is often prescribed for absolute recognition of oxalosis. On the other hand, our patient has a recent history of COVID-19 infection. The use of anti-Covid-19 drugs in patients with renal insufficiency should be considered with caution. CONCLUSION: It is important to monitor kidney function following RYGB surgery, particularly in patients with underlying diseases such as diabetes or hypertension.

17.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 108(4): 452-460, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509222

ABSTRACT

Bone is not only a mineralized and apparently non-vital structure that provides support for locomotion and protection to inner organs. An increasing number of studies are unveiling new biologic functions and connections to other systems, giving the rise to new fields of research, such as osteoimmunology. The bone marrow niche, a new entity in bone physiology, seems to represent the site where a complex crosstalk between bone and immune/inflammatory responses takes place. An impressive interplay with the immune system is realized in bone marrow, with reciprocal influences between bone cells and haematopoietic cells. In this way, systemic chronic inflammatory diseases realize a crosstalk with bone, resulting in bone disease. Thus, pathogenetic links between chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders and osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and ageing are common. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a general view of the progresses in the field of bone research and their potential clinical implications, with emphasis on the links with inflammation and the connections to osteoimmunology and chemokines.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Bone Marrow , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress
18.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(11): 2356-2364, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further characterization is required to reduce both short- and long-term adverse outcomes. METHODS: We examined registry data including adults with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection admitted to five London Hospitals from 1 January to 14 May 2020. Prior end-stage kidney disease was excluded. Early AKI was defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria within 7 days of admission. Independent associations of AKI and survival were examined in multivariable analysis. Results are given as odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Among 1855 admissions, 455 patients (24.5%) developed early AKI: 200 (44.0%) Stage 1, 90 (19.8%) Stage 2 and 165 (36.3%) Stage 3 (74 receiving renal replacement therapy). The strongest risk factor for AKI was high C-reactive protein [OR 3.35 (2.53-4.47), P < 0.001]. Death within 30 days occurred in 242 (53.2%) with AKI compared with 255 (18.2%) without. In multivariable analysis, increasing severity of AKI was incrementally associated with higher mortality: Stage 3 [HR 3.93 (3.04-5.08), P < 0.001]. In 333 patients with AKI surviving to Day 7, 134 (40.2%) recovered, 47 (14.1%) recovered then relapsed and 152 (45.6%) had persistent AKI at Day 7; an additional 105 (8.2%) patients developed AKI after Day 7. Persistent AKI was strongly associated with adjusted mortality at 90 days [OR 7.57 (4.50-12.89), P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: AKI affected one in four hospital in-patients with COVID-19 and significantly increased mortality. Timing and recovery of COVID-19 AKI is a key determinant of outcome.

19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496693
20.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 639-653, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CKD is a heterogeneous condition with multiple underlying causes, risk factors, and outcomes. Subtyping CKD with multidimensional patient data holds the key to precision medicine. Consensus clustering may reveal CKD subgroups with different risk profiles of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We used unsupervised consensus clustering on 72 baseline characteristics among 2696 participants in the prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study to identify novel CKD subgroups that best represent the data pattern. Calculation of the standardized difference of each parameter used the cutoff of ±0.3 to show subgroup features. CKD subgroup associations were examined with the clinical end points of kidney failure, the composite outcome of cardiovascular diseases, and death. RESULTS: The algorithm revealed three unique CKD subgroups that best represented patients' baseline characteristics. Patients with relatively favorable levels of bone density and cardiac and kidney function markers, with lower prevalence of diabetes and obesity, and who used fewer medications formed cluster 1 (n=1203). Patients with higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity and who used more medications formed cluster 2 (n=1098). Patients with less favorable levels of bone mineral density, poor cardiac and kidney function markers, and inflammation delineated cluster 3 (n=395). These three subgroups, when linked with future clinical end points, were associated with different risks of CKD progression, cardiovascular disease, and death. Furthermore, patient heterogeneity among predefined subgroups with similar baseline kidney function emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus clustering synthesized the patterns of baseline clinical and laboratory measures and revealed distinct CKD subgroups, which were associated with markedly different risks of important clinical outcomes. Further examination of patient subgroups and associated biomarkers may provide next steps toward precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/classification , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Bone Density , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Function Tests , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Young Adult
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