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1.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(7): e6033, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925893

ABSTRACT

Co-infection between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens has become a serious threat. There are the reports of fungal, bacterial, and viral co-infections with SARS-CoV-2. We report the unusual case of concomitant aspergillosis, mucormycosis, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, and also klebsiella pneumoniae empyema as the complication of SARS-CoV-2.

2.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 241, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is considered to cause high mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Old age, comorbidities and acute kidney injury are known risk factors for increased mortality in KTR. Nevertheless, mortality rates have varied across different regions. Differences in age, comorbidities and varying standards of care across geographies may explain some variations. However, it is still unclear whether post-transplant duration, induction therapy, antirejection therapy and co-infections contribute to increased mortality in KTR with COVID-19. The present study assessed risk factors in a large cohort from India. METHODS: A matched case-control study was performed to analyze risk factors for death in KTR (N = 218) diagnosed with COVID-19 between April 2020 to July 2021 at the study centre. Cases were KTR who died (non-survivors, N = 30), whereas those who survived were taken as controls (survivors, N = 188). RESULTS: A high death-to-case ratio of 13.8% was observed amongst study group KTR infected with COVID-19. There was a high incidence (12.4%) of co-infections, with cytomegalovirus being the most common co-infection among non-survivors. Diarrhea, co-infection, high oxygen requirement, and need for mechanical ventilation were significantly associated with mortality on regression analyses. Antirejection therapy, lymphopenia and requirement for renal replacement therapy were associated with worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality was much higher in KTR who required mechanical ventilation and had co-infections. Mortality did not vary with the type of transplant, post-transplant duration and usage of depletion induction therapy. An aggressive approach has to be taken for an early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of associated infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Kidney Transplantation , Case-Control Studies , Coinfection/etiology , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac286, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895832

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have poor outcomes and frequently develop comorbid conditions, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation. The implications of CMV reactivation in this setting are unknown. We aimed to investigate if treatment of CMV viremia improved in-hospital mortality in ICU patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this single-center retrospective study, we analyzed clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and CMV viremia admitted to an ICU from March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021, who either received treatment (ganciclovir and/or valganciclovir) or received no treatment. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were total hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and predictors of in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 80 patients were included, 43 patients in the treatment group and 37 in the control group. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. CMV-treated patients were more likely to test positive for CMV earlier in their course, more likely to be on ECMO, and received higher total steroid doses on average. In-hospital mortality was similar between the 2 groups (37.2% vs 43.2.0%; P = .749). There was no significant difference in hospital LOS, though CMV-treated patients had a longer ICU LOS. Conclusions: Treatment of CMV viremia did not decrease in-hospital mortality in ICU patients with COVID-19, but the sample size was limited. CMV viremia was significantly associated with total steroid dose received and longer ICU stay.

4.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24184, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876125

ABSTRACT

Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia induced by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a rare phenomenon, often not life-threatening in immunocompetent young adults. To date, the pathogenesis of CMV-induced severe hemolysis is still unknown. Here, we discuss a case of a 22-year-old male without significant past medical history who presented with severe hemolytic anemia that required four units of packed red blood cells. Urinalysis showed microscopic hematuria but urine culture and drug screen reported normal findings. Hemoccult result at the bedside was negative. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging all resulted in normal findings except for splenomegaly measured 18 cm. Hematology was consulted which showed a positive direct Coombs antibody test with 3+ IgG and 3+ complement. Peripheral blood smear showed no evidence of schistocytes or occasional teardrop cells but showed toxic granulations and neutrophils indicating an underlying infection. The patient had a bone marrow biopsy which showed erythroid hyperplasia with a slight increase in sideroblast cells; but revealed no evidence of lymphoma, leukemia, or dysplasia. Infectious workup reported negative findings for HIV and hepatitis panel. However, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen (VCA) was reported with a value of greater than 160 U/mL. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA detected high titers with 481269 IU/mL. The patient initially received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy for five days, antiviral medication for seven days, and high dose therapeutic corticosteroids resulting in stabilization of his blood hemoglobin (Hb) level. Infections commonly underlie secondary autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), or it can also be a result of therapy that further exacerbates the course of AIHA. Possible CMV manifestations inducing severe hemolytic anemia in immunocompetent individuals have received inadequate attention. CMV serology studies are not collected regularly in patients with hemolysis, so the incidence of this disorder might be under-reported. Thus, clinicians should take initiative to consider an underlying infection in the differential diagnosis of hemolytic anemia before opting for invasive procedures such as bone marrow biopsy. Randomized control trials are needed for a conclusive treatment specific to hemolytic anemia induced by CMV.

5.
Transplantology ; 2(2):183, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834906

ABSTRACT

Post-transplant neutropenia (PTN) is frequently reported in the first-year after transplantation. Although prevalence and clinical consequences are widely described, there are no guidelines to manage diagnosis and treatment. We report here a case of persistent PTN occurred in a patient undergoing a kidney transplant from an AB0-incompatible living donor. The desensitization protocol consisted of Rituximab administration and immunoadsorption while the pre-transplant protocol, which was initiated 14 days before the transplant, included Tacrolimus, Mofetil Mycophenolate (MMF), antimicrobial and antiviral prophylaxis. Induction therapy consisted of anti-thymocyte globulins and steroids, while maintenance after transplantation consisted of steroid, tacrolimus and MMF. When the first occurrence of leukopenia was observed six weeks after the transplant, firstly antimicrobial/antiviral prophylaxis was stopped and later also MMF treatment was interrupted but severe neutropenia relapsed after MMF resuming treatment. Immunological and virological causes were excluded. The patient was treated with Filgrastim. Bone marrow biopsy, which was performed to exclude a hematological cause of severe persistent neutropenia, revealed a bone marrow hypoplasia with neutrophils maturation interrupted at the early stages. This case highlights the need to establish diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for PTN which take in consideration all the therapeutic steps including the pre-transplant phase in particular in the context of AB0i where immunosuppression is more consistent.

6.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23203, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780251

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the herpesvirus family. In the immunocompetent host, CMV infection is usually mild and goes unnoticed. Patients become prone to CMV infection as a result of immunosuppressive drugs or disorders that weaken cellular immunity. In severe COVID-19 infection, the patient experiences a drop in his T lymphocytes and becomes prone to opportunistic infections such as CMV colitis. In this paper, we presented a rare case of CMV colitis in a 54-year-old female with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) polymerase chain reaction. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and intubated due to the severity of her presentation. The patient received high-dose dexamethasone followed by a tapering dose of prednisolone. Fifteen days post-admission, the patient started to have melena with a drop in her hemoglobin. Sigmoidoscopy revealed ulcerated lesions that extended 5 cm proximally, and multiple biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of CMV colitis. The patient was started on ganciclovir 5 mg/kg intravenously for 21 days. The patient's symptoms improved to the point where she no longer complained of melena, and her hemoglobin level normalized. The patient was discharged home in stable condition, to be followed later in the outpatient clinic.

7.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 37: 101644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768510

ABSTRACT

In this study, we reported a previously immunocompetent patient who developed cytomegalovirus-induced gastric ulcers after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A 33-year-old man was referred to our center with complaints of persistent dysphagia and odynophagia, and epigastric pain and discomfort after ingesting solids or liquids, a few days after his hospital discharge following admission to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Endoscopy revealed inflammation and a whitish exudate in the esophagus, and multiple large active ulcers in the stomach. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were strongly suggestive of cytomegalovirus infection.

8.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(5): 1741-1744, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757767

ABSTRACT

Splenic rupture is most commonly encountered after blunt abdominal trauma. Spontaneous atraumatic splenic rupture is a rare but dramatic occurrence that is most commonly attributed to infection or neoplasia. We report the case of a 27-year-old female patient without pathological history. Admitted to the emergency department for the sudden onset of left hypochondrial pain associated with vomiting, rapidly progressing to hypovolemic shock. She had reported an influenza-like illness a week earlier for which her COVID-19 PCR was negative. Emergency abdominal ultrasound and CT-scan revealed a ruptured spleen and widespread hemorrhagic fluid in the abdomen. Exploration revealed multiple ruptures in the spleen capsule. The patient underwent splenectomy with good clinical evolution. Despite the rarity of this condition, physicians should consider the diagnosis of spontaneous non traumatic splenic rupture when encountering healthy patients presenting with nonspecific left hypochondrial abdominal pain and hypovolemia. Mortality is essentially related to the delay in diagnosis and treatment and to the severity of the underlying pathology. Treatment often consists of splenectomy.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753507

ABSTRACT

CD8+ T lymphocytes are a heterogeneous class of cells that play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens and cancer. During their lifetime, they acquire cytotoxic functions to ensure the clearance of infected or transformed cells and, in addition, they turn into memory lymphocytes, thus providing a long-term protection. During ageing, the thymic involution causes a reduction of circulating T cells and an enrichment of memory cells, partially explaining the lowering of the response towards novel antigens with implications in vaccine efficacy. Moreover, the persistent stimulation by several antigens throughout life favors the switching of CD8+ T cells towards a senescent phenotype contributing to a low-grade inflammation that is a major component of several ageing-related diseases. In genetically predisposed young people, an immunological stress caused by viral infections (e.g., HIV, CMV, SARS-CoV-2), autoimmune disorders or tumor microenvironment (TME) could mimic the ageing status with the consequent acceleration of T cell senescence. This, in turn, exacerbates the inflamed conditions with dramatic effects on the clinical progression of the disease. A better characterization of the phenotype as well as the functions of senescent CD8+ T cells can be pivotal to prevent age-related diseases, to improve vaccine strategies and, possibly, immunotherapies in autoimmune diseases and cancer.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Neoplasms , Virus Diseases , CD28 Antigens , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cellular Senescence , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Applied Sciences ; 12(4):2057, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1700542

ABSTRACT

Mechanical ventilators are vital components of critical care services for patients with severe acute respiratory failure. In particular, pressure- and volume-controlled mechanical ventilation systems are the typical modes used in intensive care units (ICUs) to ventilate patients who cannot breathe adequately on their own. In this paper, a Simulink model is proposed to simulate these two typical modes employed in intensive care lung ventilators. Firstly, these two modes of ventilation are described in detail in the present paper. Secondly, the suggested Simulink model is analysed: it consists of using well-established subroutines already present in Simulink through the Simscape Fluids (gas) library, to simulate all the pneumatic components employed in some commercial ICU ventilators, such as pressure reducing valves, pressure relief valves, check valves, tanks, ON\OFF and proportional directional valves, etc. Finally, the simulation results of both modes in terms of pressure, tidal volume, and inspired/expired flow are compared with the real-life quantitative trends taken from previously recorded real-life experiments in order to validate the Simulink model. The accuracy of the model is high, as the numerical predictions are in good agreement with the real-life data, the percentage error being less than 10% in most comparisons. In this way, the model can easily be used by manufacturers and start-ups in order to produce new mechanical ventilators in the shortest time possible. Moreover, it can also be used by doctors and trainees to evaluate how the mechanical ventilator responds to different patients.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686808

ABSTRACT

After solid-organ transplantation, reactivation of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is often observed in seronegative patients and associated with a high risk of disease and mortality. CMV-specific T cells can prevent CMV reactivation. In a phase 1 trial, CMV-seronegative patients with end-stage renal disease listed for kidney transplantation were subjected to CMV phosphoprotein 65 (CMVpp65) peptide vaccination and further investigated for T-cell responses. To this end, CMV-specific CD8+ T cells were characterized by bulk T-cell-receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing and combined single-cell RNA and TCR sequencing. In patients mounting an immune response to the vaccine, a common SYE(N)E TCR motif known to bind CMVpp65 was detected. CMV-peptide-vaccination-responder patients had TCR features distinct from those of non-responders. In a non-responder patient, a monoclonal inflammatory T-cell response was detected upon CMV reactivation. The identification of vaccine-induced CMV-reactive TCRs motifs might facilitate the development of cellular therapies for patients wait-listed for kidney transplantation.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/administration & dosage , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytomegalovirus Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single Molecule Imaging , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology
13.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672211

ABSTRACT

Some risk factors for severe COVID-19 have been identified, including age, race, and obesity. However, 20-50% of severe cases occur in the absence of these factors. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus that infects ~50% of all individuals worldwide and is one of the most significant non-genetic determinants of immune system. We hypothesized that latent CMV infection might influence the severity of COVID-19. Our analyses demonstrate that CMV seropositivity associates with more than twice the risk of hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immune profiling of blood and CMV DNA qPCR in a subset of patients for whom respiratory tract samples were available revealed altered T cell activation profiles in absence of extensive CMV replication in the upper respiratory tract. These data suggest a potential role for CMV-driven immune perturbations in affecting the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and may have implications for the discrepancies in COVID-19 severity between different human populations.

14.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 58, 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of coronavirus disease 2019 on the immune system is increasingly recognized. When severe, it causes immune dysregulation that may favor other infections, including Herpesviridae. Cytomegalovirus shares many innate immune pathways with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which may potentiate each other. We describe a case of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis complicating the course of coronavirus disease 2019 in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus/systemic sclerosis overlap and usual interstitial pneumonia, mimicking interstitial lung disease exacerbation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case to be reported worldwide in the setting of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the case of a 47-year-old white/Yemeni female who is known to have systemic lupus erythematosus/scleroderma overlap and usual interstitial pneumonia who was initially admitted with severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia mandating intensive care. After initial improvement, it was later complicated with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, mimicking interstitial lung disease exacerbation. The case was successfully treated with ganciclovir. CONCLUSION: Intriguingly, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and cytomegalovirus may potentiate each other, since they share some innate immune pathways. Subjects with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and underlying connective tissue diseases and those who are immunosuppressed carry higher risk compared with other cohorts, which may mandate active surveillance for cytomegalovirus coinfection or reactivation. Among various immunosuppressive therapies that has been tried for cytokine storm, use of anti-interleukin-6 inhibitors in the aforementioned population may carry more harm than previously thought, which may suggest that is reasonable to omit its use in treating this group with coronavirus disease 2019. This case underlines an underrecognized and underreported cause of morbidity and mortality during the course of severe coronavirus disease 2019 and will help to alert clinicians of its occurrence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Pneumonia , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Gaceta Medica de Caracas ; 129(4):951-955, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1626484

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a manifestation that presents a significant risk of blindness. We present an HIV-positive patient with signs of CMV retinitis accompanied by retinal periphlebitis. Acute retinal periphlebitis is also known as frosted branch angiitis. This association was described in AIDS patients for the first time in 1992. Subsequently, it has been described infrequently. Recently, it has been associated with COVID-19. Therefore, in an HIV-positive patient with ocular symptoms, the possible coexistence of SARS-CoV-2 should be considered. © 2021 Academia Nacional de Medicina. All rights reserved.

16.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(1): e1359, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 infection results in severe lung disease in up to 50% of hospitalised patients. The aetiopathogenesis in a subset of such patients, who continue to have progressive pulmonary disease following virus clearance, remains unexplored. METHODS: We investigated the role of NKG2C+/NKG2A- adaptive natural killer (ANK) cells, KLRC2 genotype and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in 22 such patients. RESULTS: The median duration of virus positivity was 23 days, and the median duration of hospitalisation was 48 days. The overall survival at 60 days in this group was 50%. Older age and comorbidities impacted survival negatively. CMV viraemia was documented in 11 patients, with a survival of 25% vs 80% in those without viraemia with viral load correlating with mortality. Both NK and T cells were markedly depressed in all patients at day 15. However, only persistently low ANK cells at 30 days along with an inversely high NKG2C-/NKG2A+ inhibitory NK cells significantly correlated with high CMV viraemia and mortality, irrespective of KLRC2 genotype. However, day 30 ANK cells were significantly lower in the KLRC2 deletion group. The release of IFN-γ and perforin was severely compromised in all patients at day +15, with significant improvement in the survivors at day +30, but not in those with adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with progressive lung disease even after negative SARS-CoV-2 status, with persistently reduced and functionally compromised ANK cells, are more likely to have CMV reactivation and an adverse outcome, independent of KLRC2 genotype.

17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 323-326, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594596

ABSTRACT

A 62-year-old female diabetic recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia after receiving a prolonged course of steroids. She presented with a clinical picture of left-eye panuveitis with white cotton ball chorioretinal lesions and RAPD suggesting an optic neuropathy (VA HM). Diagnostic vitrectomy was performed to take samples for infective screen and to give intravitreal voriconazole empirically. Smear, culture, and PCR for viral DNA confirmed mixed infection of endogenous Candida endophthalmitis and incidental CMV infection. With further treatment, her corrected vision improved to 6/18 with regressing fungal lesions in serial fundus photographs. Prompt diagnosis and intervention preserved her vision and prevented potential life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Optic Nerve Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases/drug therapy , Optic Nerve Diseases/etiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitrectomy
18.
J Pediatr Surg Case Rep ; 75: 102103, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556268

ABSTRACT

We present the case of an acute onset ANCA positive vasculitis in an asymptomatic COVID-19 infected teenager, resulting in significant colonic damage. The patient was initially diagnosed with Henoch-Schönlein purpura and presented with worsening symptoms with significant necrosis of her perineum and rectum requiring surgical debridement and diverting colostomy. As a part of her work-up, she tested positive for COVID-19 total IgG/IgM antibodies and ANCA antibodies. This case complements previously reported cases of COVID-19 induced autoimmune disease in children but is novel in describing extensive intestinal disease as a result of an autoimmune vasculitis in a child.

19.
IDCases ; 26: e01346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531342

ABSTRACT

The use of steroids and other immune modulatory therapies in the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia predisposes patients to the reemergence of opportunistic infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation can be one of them. A 55-year-old gentleman with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and hypoxic respiratory failure who was ventilated and received steroids but no other immunomodulatory drugs; had altered sensorium and multiple episodes of seizures in the later course of his illness. Brain MRI showed leptomeningeal enhancement and encephalopathy changes, electroencephalography (EEG) was suggestive of diffuse encephalopathy and his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed high Cytomegalovirus PCR DNA titers (103,614). The patient made a complete recovery after treatment with Ganciclovir. Altered sensorium in cases of COVID-19 can be multifactorial. High index of suspicion for reactivation of dormant infections is warranted. CMV meningoencephalitis is one of the differential diagnoses. We believe this is the first case reported of CMV meningoencephalitis in the setting of severe COVID-19 infection.

20.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666211053990, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reactivation of viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are common in critically ill patients and have been described in patients with severe COVID-19. However, it is unclear whether these reactivations are associated with increased mortality and whether targeted treatments are beneficial. METHODS: In a retrospective single-center cohort study, patients with severe COVID-19 treated on our intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for EBV and CMV reactivation as detected by polymerase chain reaction. If present, patient characteristics, temporal connections to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 diagnosis and corticosteroid use, the use of targeted treatments as well as the course of disease and outcome were analyzed. As control group, non-COVID-19 patients with sepsis, treated within the same time period on our ICU, served as control group to compare incidences of viral reactivation. RESULTS: In 19 (16%) of 117 patients with severe COVID-19 treated on our ICU EBV reactivations were identified, comparable 18 (14%) of 126 in the non-COVID-19 control group (P = .672). Similarly, in 11 (9%) of 117 patients CMV reactivations were identified, comparable to the 16 (13%) of 126 in the non-COVID-19 sepsis patients (P = .296). The majority of EBV (58%) and CMV reactivations (55%) were detected in patients under systemic corticosteroid treatment. 7 (37%) of 19 patients with EBV reactivation survived the ICU stay, 2 (29%) of 7 patients with rituximab treatment and 5 (42%) of 12 patients without treatment (P = .568). Five (50%) of 10 patients with CMV reactivation survived the ICU stay, 5 (83%) of 6 patients with ganciclovir treatment and 0 of 4 patients without treatment (P = .048). Follow-up analysis in these patients showed that the initiation of treatment lead to decrease in viral load. CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at a high risk for EBV and CMV reactivations. Whether these reactivations are a cause of hyperinflammation and require targeted treatment remains uncertain. However, in patients with clinical deterioration or signs of hyperinflammation targeted treatment might be beneficial and warrants further studying.

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