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1.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(3): 423-439, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Protecting intellectual property rights are important and particularly pertinent for inventions that are an outcome of rigorous research and development. While the grant of patents is subject to establishing novelty and inventive step, it further indicates the technological development and is helpful for researchers working in the same technical domain. The aim of the present research work is to map the existing work through an analysis of patent literature in the field of Coronaviruses (CoV), particularly COVID-19 (2019-nCoV). CoV is a large family of viruses known to cause illness in humans and animals, particularly known for causing respiratory infections, as evidenced in earlier times, such as in MERS i.e., Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; and SRS i.e., Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. A recently identified novel-coronavirus, known as COVID-19, has caused pandemic situations across the globe. OBJECTIVE: To expand the analysis of patents related to CoV and 2019-nCoV, an evaluation has been conducted by patenting trends of particular strains of identified CoV diseases by present legal status, main concerned countries via the earliest priority years and its assignee types and inventors of identified relevant patents. The global patent documents were analyzed to check the scope of claims along with focuses and trends of the published patent documents for the entire CoV family, including 2019-nCoV through the present landscape. METHODS: To extract the results, the Derwent Innovation database was used by a combination of different keystrings. Approximately 3800 patents were obtained and further scrutinized and analyzed. The present write-up also discusses the recent progress of patent applications in a period of the year 2010 to 2020 (present) along with the recent developments in India for the treatment options for CoV and 2019-nCoV. RESULTS: Present analysis showed that key areas of the inventions were the vaccines and diagnostic kits apart from the composition for the treatment of CoV. It was also observed that no specific vaccine treatments are available for the treatment of 2019-nCov; however, developing novel chemical or biological drugs and kits for early diagnosis, prevention, and disease management is the primary governing topic among the patented inventions. The present study also indicates potential research opportunities for the future, particularly to combat 2019-nCoV. CONCLUSION: The present paper analyzes the existing patents in the field of Coronaviruses and 2019-nCoV and suggests a way forward for the effective contribution in this upcoming research area. From the trend analysis, an increase in the filing of the overall trend of patent families was observed for a period of 2010 to the current year. This multifaceted analysis of identified patent literature provides an understanding of the focuses on present ongoing research and a grey area in terms of the trends of technological innovations in disease management in patients with CoV and 2019-nCoV. Furthermore, the findings and outcome of the present study offer insights for the proposed research and innovation opportunities and provide actionable information in order to facilitate policymakers, academia, research-driven institutes and also investors to make better decisions regarding programmed steps for research and development for the diagnosis, treatment and taking preventive measures for CoV and 2019-nCoV. The present article also emphasizes the need for future development and the role of academia and collaboration with industry for speedy research with a rationale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Neurol ; 11: 964, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853972

ABSTRACT

This article describes the clinical course, radiological findings, and outcome of two patients with the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who remained comatose for a prolonged duration following discontinuation of all sedation. These two male patients, one aged 59-years and another aged 53-years, both with a history of hypertension and neurologically intact on admission, developed worsening COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Both required benzodiazepine, opioid, neuromuscular blockade, therapeutic anticoagulation, and vasopressor infusions in addition to renal replacement therapy. Echocardiography demonstrated normal chamber size and systolic function in both cases. Each patient demonstrated only trace flexion to pain 7-10 days following discontinuation of all sedation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging on both patients demonstrated multifocal lesions on diffusion weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient correlate in bilateral middle/anterior cerebral artery borderzones, and no large-vessel occlusion or severe stenosis. In both patients, continuous electroencephalography demonstrated no seizures. Neither patient had any documented period of sustained hypotension (mean arterial pressure <60 mmHg) or hypoxia (SpO2 <90%). Ninety days following initial presentation, the 59-years-old man was oriented, with fluent speech and able to ambulate with assistance, while the other 53-years-old man was at home and independent, undertaking the basic activities required by daily living. We conclude that critically-ill COVID-19 patients with prolonged coma following sedation discontinuation may demonstrate imaging features of ischemic injury in borderzone regions despite the absence of documented sustained hypotension or hypoxia. However, substantial neurological recovery is possible despite these findings.

3.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 197, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732872

ABSTRACT

Here we report our perspective on applying GapmeR technology in combination with recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. GapmeR is a cell-permeating antisense single-stranded DNA molecule that can be designed to specifically target intracellular severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Once internalized into host cells, such as lung alveolar cells, GapmeR molecules can bind to the viral RNA. This RNA/DNA hybrid will then be degraded by the RNase H enzyme abundantly present in the host cells. GapmeRs can be delivered to COVID-19 patients through inhalation or via nebulization. SARS-CoV-2-targeted GapmeR can also be given to frontline healthcare workers as a prophylactic protection. The recombinant ACE2 protein, the efficacy of which is being evaluated in clinical trials, will bind to the spike (S) glycoprotein of extracellular SARS-CoV-2 and potentially block viral infectivity. We propose that combining inhalable SARS-CoV-2-targeted GapmeRs with recombinant ACE2 could provide a viable and rapidly implementable more effective therapeutic approach for eradicating SARS-CoV-2 and save millions of lives.

5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S166-S168, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609367

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 outbreak has spread rapidly affecting 1.4 million people across the world in only four months. Healthcare fraternity is struggling to circumvent the consequences of this fast spreading infection and communicating their scientific discoveries through research publications. As a result, the scientific output on COVID-19 is growing rapidly and both the journal editors and authors are interested to publish results on scientific discoveries about it as soon as possible. However, novice and improperly trained authors are at high risk for getting duped by deceptive journals , which might keep their research unnoticed by the scientific and general community. This paper discusses these potential risks posed by deceptive (predatory) journals, for prospective authors and scientific community, during the COVID-19 outbreak. It also presents ways to address those risks and the role of journal editors and academic organisations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Publishing/standards , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Humans , Periodicals as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Scientific Misconduct
6.
Acta Biotheor ; 68(4): 441-452, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-132928

ABSTRACT

In this rapid commentary, a mini-review is given of the present state-of-knowledge regarding the etiology and epidemiology of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV and the risks for developing Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The available knowledge on the viral genomics, molecular biology and pathogenicity of viruses of the Coronaviridae family and other Nidovirales, forms a helpful template for understanding the present pandemic outbreak. However, important questions remain unanswered about the underlying mechanism causing the very high case fatality ratios (CFR) and mechanisms regarding severe reactions like ARDS, fatal cardiac and renal failures, associated with a number of important comorbidity factors. Immunological reactions to lung alveoles in particular (involving lung macrophages and alveolar epithelial cell damage) in late phase ARDS in SARS-like CoV diseases, so far may not have received enough attention. Finally a shortlist of questions for high priority further research is suggested.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Outbreaks , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Heart Failure/complications , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Macrophages/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Life Sci ; 251: 117627, 2020 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-39610

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In December 2019, the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) virus has emerged in Wuhan, China. In this research, the first resolved COVID-19 crystal structure (main protease) was targeted in a virtual screening study by of FDA approved drugs dataset. In addition, a knowledge gap in relations of COVID-19 with the previously known fatal Coronaviruses (CoVs) epidemics, SARS and MERS CoVs, was covered by investigation of sequence statistics and phylogenetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular modeling, virtual screening, docking, sequence comparison statistics and phylogenetics of the COVID-19 main protease were investigated. KEY FINDINGS: COVID-19 Mpro formed a phylogenetic group with SARS CoV that was distant from MERS CoV. The identity% was 96.061 and 51.61 for COVID-19/SARS and COVID-19/MERS CoV sequence comparisons, respectively. The top 20 drugs in the virtual screening studies comprised a broad-spectrum antiviral (ribavirin), anti-hepatitis B virus (telbivudine), two vitamins (vitamin B12 and nicotinamide) and other miscellaneous systemically acting drugs. Of special interest, ribavirin had been used in treating cases of SARS CoV. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provided a comprehensive targeting of the first resolved COVID+19 structure of Mpro and found a suitable save drugs for repurposing against the viral Mpro. Ribavirin, telbivudine, vitamin B12 and nicotinamide can be combined and used for COVID treatment. This initiative relocates already marketed and approved safe drugs for potential use in COVID-treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Curcumin/chemistry , Curcumin/pharmacology , Drug Approval , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/enzymology , Models, Molecular , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
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