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1.
Heliyon ; : e10575, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031296

ABSTRACT

Individuals' COVID-19 vaccination behaviors were examined when the government introduced a new vaccine into the immunization program. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly examine the effects of COVID-19 risk perception (CR), COVID-19 vaccination perception (VC), and Social Media (SO) on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (HE) in Vietnam. Three hundred fifty samples were collected regarding a reluctance to vaccinate against COVID-19 from 6/2021 to 7/2021. This is when immunizations are administered and injected in Vietnam;hence, hesitation regarding injection is rather prevalent. The multivariate regression analysis is conducted on a dataset of 350 Vietnamese respondents using the Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) approach. According to the findings, the Perception Vaccine functions as a link between CV and HE. CR has a beneficial effect on both HE and VC, whereas VC has a negative impact on HE. Simultaneously, the study illustrates the detrimental effect of SO on immunity by comparing it to the influence of social media. The study's findings demonstrate the critical role of protection motivational theory (PMT) and information theory in promoting vaccination efforts in Vietnam. The study's findings indicate that PMT and information theory promote immunization initiatives in Vietnam.

2.
China CDC Weekly ; 4(37):832-834, 2022.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-2030651

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine effectively reduces the possibility of severe illness and mortality in older adults and is essential for controlling the epidemic. Compared with developed countries, the coverage of full vaccination and booster vaccination for older adults aged 60 or above in China is poor, making it urgent to accelerate their vaccination in China. We discussed potential reasons for low vaccination coverage for older adults aged 60 or above and presented strategies to promote their COVID-19 vaccination in China.

3.
Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics ; 70(3):202-210, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030643

ABSTRACT

In the most vulnerable people, especially among the elderly, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light complex ethical issues such as consent to receive health care, the relationship between risks and benefits of therapies, the choices to be made during the most serious phases of the disease and family relationships have been made ex-treme and heavily emphasized by the pandemic. The article analyzes the ethical and legal aspects of the problem of reconciling respect for the individual’s right to make their own decisions and the need to protect the most vulnerable and fragile sections of the population (the dilemma between the principle of charity and respect for autonomy), with all the related communication, procedural and legal problems relating to Informed Consent. The exceptional circumstances of the pandemic have prompted law-makers to tackle the complex and long-neglected issue of the consent of vulnerable, generally elderly, individuals. In many contexts, from home to hospital to nursing home, patient in-volvement in decision making, the role of the family, and procedures for defining competencies above and beyond diagnostic categories, continue to be largely left behind. part in the hands of the health care workers or team. The methods chosen to obtain consent to vaccina-tion, together with the provisions of the Law of 22 December 2017 on the role of the trustee, pave the way for more appropriate operating methods for daily clinical practice in the field. © by Società Italiana di Gerontologia e Geriatria (SIGG).

4.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343328

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The surveillance of adverse events following vaccination plays a key role in the success of a vaccination programme.Aim To identify the types and burden of programmatic adverse events (PAE) associated with the COVID-19 vaccination programme in Scotland, as well as their potential public health impact. Method: Data relating to PAE were collected from the fourteen geographical health boards and special boards in Scotland for a one-year period from the start of the COVID-19 vaccination programme in Scotland (08 December 2020 to 07 December 2021). A descriptive analysis of the PAE was carried out to identify themes of adverse events that have occurred. An additional quantitative analysis was used to determine the frequency of PAE reports, quantify the number of PAE within each theme and compare PAEs by vaccine location. Findings: A total of 979 PAE were reported in the context of over 10 million vaccine doses corresponding to a PAE reporting rate of 1/10,000 vaccine doses administered. Seven themes of PAE were identified. The most common theme identified was;“Issues With Pre-Vaccination Checks and Protocols Not Followed, Data Entry Errors and Errors Involving Use of Vaccine Management Tool (VMT)” (41.7%, n = 408). The second most frequently reported theme of PAE, accounting for 20.9% of all PAE (n=205) was;'Vaccine Transport, Storage, Vials and Equipment, and Vaccine Wastage'. 53.6% (525) of errors occurred within the mass vaccination centres, reflecting the large proportion of vaccinations delivered in such settings. Conclusion: This analysis provides a snapshot of adverse events during the COVID-19 vaccination programme in Scotland. This surveillance system has been extremely valuable in terms of learning and taking prompt mitigating actions during the COVID-19 vaccination programme in Scotland.

5.
Electronic Journal of General Medicine ; 19(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2026434

ABSTRACT

Aims: This project assessed intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccine and its potential influencing factors among adults living in the Gaza Strip. Method: Data were collected from February through July 2021 when the vaccine distribution just started. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted using social media outlets. The respondents include a convenience sample of 325 individuals who are 18 years and older in the Gaza Strip. Bivariate statistics and logistic regressions were used to investigate the factors related to intention to receive vaccine. Results: Bivariate statistics found that the intention to get the vaccine is significantly higher for males (as compared to females), less educated, and married. Those with chronic disease are more likely to receive COVID-19-vaccine. However, when the other variables were controlled, only gender, profession, and perceived barriers significantly predicted the intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: This project highlighted variables that are associated with intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccine. These finding may be used to develop interventions to foster the acceptance of the vaccine among the people of Gaza Strip.

6.
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems ; 15(5):515-526, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026233

ABSTRACT

Public opinion analyses on Twitter conducted based on sentiment analysis cannot identify the author’s stance regarding agreement or disagreement with a given target. Stance detection determines whether the author of a text is in favor, against, or neutral towards a target. However, stance detection based on text-only is less representative opinion, especially on a tweet, which is a short text with slightly contextual information. Therefore, more information is needed to represent the author's stance better. In previous research, most research on stance detection was carried out using simple sentiment information to measure the support to target. This study addresses multi-task aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) and social features for stance detection based on deep learning models of BiGRU-BERT on tweets. Our contribution combines aspect-based sentiment information with features based on textual and contextual information that does not emerge directly from Twitter texts. ABSA approach can provide more accurate sentiment information at aspect level on tweets, which is possible contains multiple issues discussed. Aspect information on tweets can reflect the issue that influences the author’s stance toward a target. Multi-task learning was applied to help improve the generalization performance of ABSA with simultaneous processes. We extracted social attributes and online behavioral features for contextual information. Since same community tends to have the same opinion towards a target, we applied a community detection task and combine with the Twitter social attributes. The proposed method has significantly improved evaluation metrics (>10%) than textual features only for stance detection on tweets © 2022. International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems.All Rights Reserved

7.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 89(1):4260-4264, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026196

ABSTRACT

Background: There is growing concerns that COVID-19 vaccination causes disruption to menstrual cycle. The study has showed that several women required gynecological visits claiming menstrual irregularities or abnormal uterine bleeding after the first and second doses of vaccination (regardless of the type of vaccine used). Objective: This study was conducted in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia to assess the effect of Covid-19 vaccination on the menstrual cycle of the women. Material and methods: It was a cross-sectional prospective study that was conducted by survey the post Covid-19 vaccinated women in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The sample size was calculated using a Fisher’s formula which was 344 women who have been vaccinated by Covid-19 vaccination. Results: A total of 343 women participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 30.16 ± 18.20 years. More than forty two percent of the participants had one time Covid-19 infection while 5% was twice infected with Covid-19 virus. The vast majority of the participants (91.3%) were immuned by 2 vaccines. More than sixty percent (60.3%) of the participants were suffering from one and other menstruation irregularities after Covid-19 vaccination. 14% of them were suffering from the menstruation frequency longer than 35 days while 10.2% of them were suffering from the menstruation frequency shorter than 25 days. Conclusion: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is associated with change in menstrual cycle length, heavy menstruation and painful menstruation. Female with the age group of 15-24 years were 2 times more likely to develop menstruation cycle change. © 2022, Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine. All rights reserved.

8.
World Journal of Oncology ; 13(4):172-184, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025722

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant cancer in China. Considering the specific national conditions, no evidence is available for factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination in patients with breast cancer. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey, fielded from June 21 through June 27, 2021. A total of 944 nationally representative samples of Chinese breast cancer patients participating in the survey were included. Participant surveys included questions addressing who finished COVID-19 vaccination with the question "Have you taken the COVID-19 vaccine?", and response options were "Yes" and "No". Results: Overall, 730 (77.33%) women with breast cancer were unvaccinated, and only 214 (22.67%) were vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. After adjusting for potential confounders, including both sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, we found that external support, including positive doctor suggestions (odds ratio (OR): 5.52;95% confidence interval (CI): 3.50 - 8.71;P < 0.0001), positive support from surrounding people (OR: 11.65;95% CI: 7.57 - 17.91;P < 0.0001), and negative initiative from the community (OR: 0.15;95% CI: 0.06 - 0.35;P < 0.0001), was associated with COVID-19 vaccination rates among breast cancer patients. These results remain stable in subgroup analyses. We found that most participants (82.52%) understood the necessity of COVID-19 vaccinations in China was strong;however, the recognition regarding the COVID-19 vaccine showed different patterns between vaccinated and unvaccinated participants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest external support, including vaccination suggestions from surgeons or oncologists, vaccination suggestions from associated people, and residents' committee mandated vaccinations, was associated with the COVID-19 vaccination rates. Interventions regarding these factors and improving publicity as well as education regarding COVID-19 vaccines among breast cancer patients are warranted.

9.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022987

ABSTRACT

BackgroundImported COVID-19 patients posed great challenges to border areas' COVID-19 control. However, research was scarce to reveal epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in border areas. This study aimed to explore the detailed transmission chains, and reveal epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the largest COVID-19 outbreak caused by Delta variant of concern (VOC) occurred in the China-Myanmar border area. MethodsDuring the outbreak from July to September, 2021 in Ruili City, Yunnan Province, China, epidemiological investigation data and clinical-related data pertaining to confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected. Patients' contact history data and viral gene sequencing were used for inference of transmission chains. Sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics, cycle threshold (Ct) value, and antibodies level were compared between patients who were vaccinated against COVID-19 or not. ResultsA total of 117 COVID-19 patients were confirmed during the outbreak, among which 86 (73.5%) were breakthrough infections. These patients evenly split between Chinese and Myanmar people (50.4% vs. 49.6%). Most of these patients were mild (45.3%) or moderate (48.7%) infections with no death reported. Multi-source of infection led to 16 transmission chains with a maximum of 45 patients in one chain. Patients vaccinated against COVID-19 before infection had relatively higher antibodies (IgM and IgG) levels and more rapid response to infection than non-vaccinated patients (p < 0.05). ConclusionLand border areas have greater risks of imported COVID-19 and more complicated epidemics. It should be cautious in formulating entry and exit requirements for border areas. The immune effect of COVID-19 vaccines and related mechanism should be further explored.

10.
Front Oncol ; 12:879876, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination reduces risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 severity and death. However, the rate of seroconversion after COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients requiring systemic anticancer treatment is poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of seroconversion after COVID-19 vaccination in advanced skin cancer patients under active systemic anticancer treatment. METHODS: This prospective single-center study of a consecutive sample of advanced skin cancer patients was performed from May 2020 until October 2021. Inclusion criteria were systemic treatment for advanced skin cancer, known COVID-19 vaccination status, repetitive anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG serum quantification and first and second COVID-19 vaccination. Primary outcome was the rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG seroconversion after complete COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Of 60 patients with advanced skin cancers, 52 patients (86.7%) received immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI), seven (11.7%) targeted agents (TT), one (1.7%) chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 12.7 months. During study progress ten patients had died from skin cancer prior to vaccination completion, six patients were lost to follow-up and three patients had refused vaccination. 41 patients completed COVID-19 vaccination with two doses and known serological status. Of those, serum testing revealed n=3 patients (7.3%) as anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG positive prior to vaccination, n=32 patients (78.0%) showed a seroconversion, n=6 patients (14.6%) did not achieve a seroconversion. Patients failing serological response were immunocompromised due to concomitant hematological malignancy, previous chemotherapy or autoimmune disease requiring immunosuppressive comedications. Immunosuppressive comedication due to severe adverse events of ICI therapy did not impair seroconversion following COVID-19 vaccination. Of 41 completely vaccinated patients, 35 (85.4%) were under treatment with ICI, five (12.2%) with TT, and one (2.4%) with chemotherapy. 27 patients (65.9%) were treated non adjuvantly. Of these patients, 13 patients had achieved objective response (complete/partial response) as best tumor response (48.2%). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG seroconversion in advanced skin cancer patients under systemic anticancer treatment after complete COVID-19 vaccination is comparable to other cancer entities. An impaired serological response was observed in patients who were immunocompromised due to concomitant diseases or previous chemotherapies. Immunosuppressive comedication due to severe adverse events of ICI did not impair the serological response to COVID-19 vaccination.

11.
Front Immunol ; 13:994173, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022760

ABSTRACT

Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) belong to the group of people most vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infections and the associated disease COVID-19. Here we describe SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and cellular immune responses in a small cohort of immunological non-responder HIV-1 patients (HIV-INRs) after receiving the COVID-19 mRNA-based BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine. Compared to the control group of vaccinated healthy individuals that all developed a virus-specific immune response, 5 of 10 vaccinated HIV-1 patients showed insufficient immune responses. The lack of response was not directly correlated with patients CD4 cell counts. Three of the five non-responders that agreed to receive a booster vaccination subsequently generated a virus-specific response. Thus, even HIV-INRs can be efficiently vaccinated against COVID-19 but may require a follow-up by virus-specific immune monitoring to guarantee clinical vaccine benefits.

12.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022726

ABSTRACT

Monitoring immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and its clinical efficacy over time in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) help to establish the optimal strategies to ensure adequate COVID-19 protection without compromising disease control offered by DMTs. Following our previous observations on the humoral response one month after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine (T1) in MS patients differently treated, here we present a cross-sectional and longitudinal follow-up analysis six months following vaccination (T2, n=662) and one month following the first booster (T3, n=185). Consistent with results at T1, humoral responses were decreased in MS patients treated with fingolimod and anti-CD20 therapies compared with untreated patients also at the time points considered here (T2 and T3). Interestingly, a strong upregulation one month after the booster was observed in patients under every DMTs analyzed, including those treated with fingolimod and anti-CD20 therapies. Although patients taking these latter therapies had a higher rate of COVID-19 infection five months after the first booster, only mild symptoms that did not require hospitalization were reported for all the DMTs analyzed here. Based on these findings we anticipate that additional vaccine booster shots will likely further improve immune responses and COVID-19 protection in MS patients treated with any DMT.

13.
2nd International Conference on Computing Advancements: Age of Computing and Augmented Life, ICCA 2022 ; : 435-441, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020426

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, social media is crucial for informing people about global issues such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. People have expressed different perspectives on the COVID-19 vaccine, and Twitter has proven to be an excellent medium for sharing these. The purpose of this research is to propose a text vectorized neural network (NN) model and compare it with long short-term memory (LSTM), and bidirectional long short-term Memory (BiLSTM) to analyse sentiment on COVID-19 vaccine twitter data. The raw Twitter data is collected and three different raters annotate the data as positive or negative. The label is finalized using the kappa value. Then, Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods are used to process the twitter data. The study concludes that the proposed text vectorized NN model outperforms other models in terms of accuracy, as it achieves 81% in the test dataset, while LSTM and BiLSTM obtain 75% and 74%, respectively. The text vectorized NN model receives a 51% score in Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC), while LSTM and BiLSTM acquire 37% and 39% scores. Other performance metrics, such as precision, recall, f1-score, and confusion matrix were also used to validate the models more effectively. © 2022 ACM.

14.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(9), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2018040

ABSTRACT

Background Five severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are approved in North America and/or Europe: Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, Janssen, Oxford-AstraZeneca, and Novavax. Other vaccines have been developed, including Sinopharm, SinoVac, QazVac, Covaxin, Soberana, Zifivax, Medicago, Clover, and Cansino, but they are not approved in high-income countries. This meta-analysis compared the efficacy of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/European Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved and -unapproved vaccines in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Methods A systematic review of trial registries identified RCTs of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool (RoB 2). In the meta-analysis, relative risks of symptomatic infection and severe disease were compared for each vaccine versus placebo, using Cochrane-Mantel Haenszel Tests (random effects method). Results Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 1 was excluded for high-risk of bias. Ten RCTs evaluated 5 approved vaccines and 11 RCTs evaluated 9 unapproved vaccines. In the meta-analysis, prevention of symptomatic infection was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68%-92%) for approved vaccines versus 72% (95% CI, 66%-77%) for unapproved vaccines, with no significant difference between vaccine types (P = .12). Prevention of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was 94% (95% CI, 75%-98%) for approved vaccines versus 86% (95% CI, 76%-92%) for unapproved vaccines (P = .33). The risk of serious adverse events was similar between vaccine types (P = .12). Conclusions This meta-analysis of 21 RCTs in 390 459 participants showed no significant difference in efficacy between the FDA/EMA-approved and -unapproved vaccines for symptomatic or severe infection. Differences in study design, endpoint definitions, variants, and infection prevalence may have influenced results. New patent-free vaccines could lower costs of worldwide SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaigns significantly.

15.
Andrology ; 10(6): 1014-1015, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019120
16.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017956

ABSTRACT

The risk of a severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults with Down syndrome is increased, resulting in an up to 10-fold increase in mortality, in particular in those over 40 years of age. After primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination the higher risks remain. In this prospective observational cohort study, SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-specific antibody responses after routine SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273 or ChAdOx1) in adults with Down syndrome and healthy controls were compared. Adults with Down syndrome showed lower antibody concentrations after two mRNA vaccinations or after two ChAdOx1 vaccinations. After two mRNA vaccinations lower antibody concentrations were seen with increasing age.

17.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2008148

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has put vaccine efficacy in the spotlight. The reluctancy of people towards vaccination though, have prevented the end of the pandemic. Currently opioid vaccines are being developed, which could help prevent opioid addiction, overdoses, or relapse in combination with medication assisted therapy.

19.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005874

ABSTRACT

Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a rare, immune-mediated disease characterized by the acute onset of external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and consciousness disturbance. It has a complex multifactorial etiology, and a preceding infectious illness is seen in the majority of cases. Immune-mediated neurological syndromes following COVID-19 vaccination have been increasingly described. Here we report the case of a child developing BBE 2 weeks after COVID-19 vaccination. Despite nerve conduction studies and CSF analysis showing normal results, BBE was diagnosed on clinical ground and immunotherapy was started early with a complete recovery. Later, diagnosis was confirmed by positive anti-GQ1b IgG in serum. Even if there was a close temporal relationship between disease onset and COVID-19 vaccination, our patient also had evidence of a recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection that is associated with BBE. Indeed, the similarity between bacterial glycolipids and human myelin glycolipids, including gangliosides, could lead to an aberrantly immune activation against self-antigens (i.e., molecular mimicry). We considered the recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection a more plausible explanation of the disease onset. Our case report suggests that suspect cases of side effects related to COVID-19 vaccines need a careful evaluation in order to rule out well-known associated factors before claiming for a causal relationship.

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